Best 11 electrical hazards in petroleum refinery

Below is the best information and knowledge about electrical hazards in petroleum refinery compiled and compiled by the aldenlibrary.org team, along with other related topics such as:: Confined space, Drilling for oil has led to a of natural resources, Safety at work, OSHA standards, Personal hazard, Loto standard, Oil exploitation, Negative impacts of oil spills.

electrical hazards in petroleum refinery

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Ensuring the safety of electrical systems in the oil and gas …

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  • Summary: Articles about Ensuring the safety of electrical systems in the oil and gas … Oil and gas industry operators demand safe, reliable systems with guaranteed productivity. Understanding the electrical integrity of umbilical’s, cables, …

  • Match the search results: Oil and gas industry operators demand safe, reliable systems with guaranteed productivity. Understanding the electrical integrity of umbilical’s, cables, connectors and distribution equipment is vital when considering the operability of platform and subsea control equipment.

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Refining Safety – HSME Magazine

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  • Summary: Articles about Refining Safety – HSME Magazine Electrocution is one of the leading causes of workplace fatalities around the world. A 2010 report from the International Oil & Gas Producers …

  • Match the search results: 4. Foot protection. There are two types of shoes that provide some protection from electrical shock, both of which have insulated soles: dielectric and electrical hazard rated. Dielectric overshoes are used where there is a risk of electric shock from high voltages in both dry and damp conditions. E…

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Download Article PDF – IOPscience – Institute of Physics

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  • Summary: Articles about Download Article PDF – IOPscience – Institute of Physics Abstract. It is quite hazardous to produce the final product of oil or gas in a petrochemical refinery plant due to its flammable or combustible and …

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Electrical Safety Growing Focus for Oil, Gas Industry | Rigzone

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  • Summary: Articles about Electrical Safety Growing Focus for Oil, Gas Industry | Rigzone Electrical Safety Growing Focus for Oil, Gas Industry … Arc flash, a release of heat energy that includes molten metals, hot metallic oxides and …

  • Match the search results: A 2010 report from the International Oil & Gas Producers Association found that 16.1 percent of all fatalities at oil fields were caused by an electrical accident, explosion or burn.  

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Safety Moments in Oil & Extraction: Hazards, Controls …

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  • Summary: Articles about Safety Moments in Oil & Extraction: Hazards, Controls … Additional Common Hazards in Oil & Gas Extraction · Ergonomic hazards · High-pressure lines and equipment · Electrical and other hazardous energy …

  • Match the search results: In many cases, these ergonomic hazards can be reduced easily enough by making use of the right tools, placing materials appropriately to reduce strain, training workers about the hazards, encouraging workers to quickly report symptoms, and performing pre-task planning.

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Common Hazards in Petroleum Oil and Gas Refineries

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  • Summary: Articles about Common Hazards in Petroleum Oil and Gas Refineries One common hazard is that of fire or explosion, resulting from the presence of flammable liquids and gases. Toxic chemicals or gases encountered …

  • Match the search results: Potential hazards in hot work operations include H2S and flammable gases.

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Risk Assessment: Re-appraisals for Potential Hazards in the …

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  • Summary: Articles about Risk Assessment: Re-appraisals for Potential Hazards in the … Petroleum refining and distribution industry in Nigeria, as elsewhere, constitute a giant industry with … Radiation hazards from electrical switch gear

  • Match the search results: This workplace and facility appraisals revealed that these hazards and the associated health complaints are also replete in PHRC and PPMC, as reported previously by Ezejiofor et al. [1,20]. The established hazards are suspected to be responsible for the several accidents including slips, falls from …

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Fire Electrical Safety in Petroleum Oil Electrical Safety … – Cupdf

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  • Summary: Articles about Fire Electrical Safety in Petroleum Oil Electrical Safety … – Cupdf Fire & Electrical Safety in Petroleum Oil Refinery G C Kundu CII- Kolkata DGM(F&S) 8th Sept,2016 Haldia Refinery ([email protected]) TOPICS COVERED: …

  • Match the search results: Verify circuits are de-energized before starting work. Lock out and tag out circuits and machines. Prevent overloaded wiring by using the right size and type of wire. Prevent exposure to live electrical parts by isolating them. Prevent exposure to live wires and parts by using insulation. Prevent s…

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Electrical safety | EI – Publishing

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  • Summary: Articles about Electrical safety | EI – Publishing Electrical issues affect all aspects of upstream and downstream petroleum industry operations, including: the classification of hazardous areas; …

  • Match the search results: Electrical issues affect all aspects of upstream and downstream petroleum industry operations, including: the classification of hazardous areas; selection and inspection of electrical and electro-mechanical equipment; the control of potential hazards due to static electric discharge; the assessment…

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Refinery power failures: causes, costs and solutions: part 2

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  • Summary: Articles about Refinery power failures: causes, costs and solutions: part 2 Electricity is the lifeblood of the refinery operation. … and predictive and preventative maintenance programmes such as oil analysis, vibration analysis, …

  • Match the search results: Part 1 of this series (PTQ, Q3 2013) discussed how electrical disruptions and power failures at refineries regularly cause enormous damage in terms of lost production, excessive repair costs, and can lead to environmental and safety concerns, raising the questions of how these outages can be prevent…

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Undefeated Plant & Refinery Explosion Lawyers – Zehl …

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  • Summary: Articles about Undefeated Plant & Refinery Explosion Lawyers – Zehl … There are over 500,000 workers in the petrochemical and oil and gas industry, many of whom are unknowingly exposed to dangerous—and sometimes fatal—hazards …

  • Match the search results: There are over 500,000 workers in the petrochemical and oil and gas industry, many of whom are unknowingly exposed to dangerous—and sometimes fatal—hazards on a daily basis.

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Multi-read content electrical hazards in petroleum refinery

Arc Lighting Concerns in the Oil & Gas Industry

In any oil and gas refining process, whether in an upstream, downstream or midstream facility, electricity is a critical component required for production.

Yet, despite all the advances in electrical distribution and control, anyone who works on or near live electrical equipment knows that there is one clear hazard to guard against – Shockwave.

Electrical contamination is one of the leading causes of death in the workplace worldwide. A 2010 International Oil report

Be careful with the bow

An arc is a sudden release of electrical energy through air when insulation or air separates, causing a high voltage gap between conductors, resulting in a failure during safe conduction. In simpler terms, arcing occurs when a large electrical current flows through the air and the gases become ionized. Arc flicker can have many causes:

• Workers near high voltage sources with conductive objects can short circuit

• Human error, including dropped tools, accidental contact with electrical systems, and improper work practices

• Equipment failure due to the use of inferior parts, improper installation, or even normal wear and tear

• Cracks or gaps in the insulation

• Dust, corrosion or other contaminants on the surface of the conductor

The arc flash produces thermal radiation (heat) and intense, bright light that can cause burns. The arc’s flash temperature has been measured as high as 19,000 degrees Celsius (C) or 35,000 degrees Fahrenheit (F), four times hotter than the sun’s surface.

The high-voltage arcs can also create significant pressure waves, reaching up to 1,120 km/h (700 mph), rapidly heating the air and creating an explosion. This pressure explosion is powerful enough to hurl a worker across a room and carry molten metal droplets of molten copper and aluminum electrical components great distances at tremendous speeds. This can result in various types of injuries, such as burns, respiratory damage, hearing damage, skin damage from debris, and eye and facial injuries. To check arc flash performance, check out the following comparisons:

• Hot summer day: 37.7 °C / 100 °F

• Sun’s surface: 4,730°C / 8,540°F

• Arc at arc terminals: 19,720°C / 35,540°F

According to a 10-year study by Electricite de France of more than 120,000 employees, it is estimated that up to 77% of all workplace electrocution injuries are caused by arc flash.

With the coexistence of flammable vapors, volatile liquids, and explosive gases in the oil and gas industry, arcing can cause a catastrophic event. The cost of an arc flash can be in the millions of dollars when you factor in the damaged equipment or infrastructure and the lost production time. According to a study by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the cost can be as high as $15 million in workers’ compensation, as well as rising healthcare costs and insurance premiums.

The potential for such costly accidents means safety is a top priority in the oil and gas industry – especially with the growing energy demand in regions like the Middle East, China and the United States Brazil.

Growing industry, growing company

The Middle East continues to be home to a large number of oil and gas production and exploration facilities in the world. According to a 2012 US Energy Information Administration report, the Middle East leads the world in global crude oil and condensate production, producing 24.1 million barrels per day (barrels per day) of crude oil, nearly double the next highest region. In addition, according to the International Energy Agency’s latest oil market report, global oil demand is forecast to average 92 million barrels per day in 2014, up from 90.9 million barrels per day in 2013, indicating a further increase in the daily rate of production in the U.S. nearer East.

Last November, McDermott International won an engineering, procurement, construction and installation (EPCI) contract valued at approximately $200 million for an offshore oil project in the Middle East, the scope of which was to fabricate, ship and install two production deck modules and ten observation platforms. two subsea pipeline installations, three submarine cables and two optical cables. This is just one of many examples where Middle Eastern countries have seen tremendous developments in the oil and gas industry.

Safety Procedures and Regulations

In 2014 and beyond, oil and gas assets in the Middle East need to ensure that there is adequate safety training alongside increased production. As mentioned above, arc flash is a serious problem in this industry and although the dangers of arc flash are always present, the promotion of higher power and speed can be combined. This means that workers are less careful in following safety rules, thereby raising arc flash awareness for first time visitors.

To ensure that safety and compliance measures are implemented throughout the workplace, it is important that both senior management and employees know how to recognize arc flash hazards on their premises, use safe working practices and understand labels and other cognitive aids. It is important for everyone to keep standards up to date and to reinforce safe behaviour.

This requires training and education of workers to identify risks, as well as having arcing mitigation plans in place for both existing equipment and new projects, with initiatives such as:

• Create and execute a complete arc strategy

• Conduct ongoing employee training

• Provide personal arc flash protection equipment appropriate to the level of risk

• Identify and assess arc flash potential at a site

• Calculation of incident energy load and arcing limit

• Use warning labels to indicate an arc flash hazard

Health and safety standards in the workplace vary widely across countries, economic sectors and social groups. For the purposes of this article, US and UK standards and best practices are the primary references.

Currently, there are no clear standards for personal protective equipment or practices related to arc flash protection in the Middle East region. The International Labor Organization is working with countries in this region to develop a stronger presence of ISO standards.

In addition, the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) has a Middle East section that works to bring higher safety standards to the region. ASSE is one of the oldest and largest professional security organizations in the world with 33,000 members, 12 divisions and 148 chapters in the United States and abroad. The Middle East Chapter was the first to be organized outside of the United States.

Specific standards

In the United States, there are a number of regulations that apply to workers who work with powered electrical equipment under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).

OSHA cites and penalizes employers for failing to protect employees from arc flash hazards. In some cases, companies face fines of up to $600,000 per violation, and individuals face fines of up to $27,500 or 12 months in prison.

OSHA refers employers to the 2012 version of the NFPA 70E standard for guidance on best practice for worker protection. Here are four key arcing regulations in the United States

• OSHA 29 CFR-1910 Subpart S provides a legal obligation for employers to guard against arc flash hazards. It establishes general requirements for safe work practices, PPE and hazard analysis

• NFPA 70, known as the National Electrical Code (NEC), has a requirement for the Arc Flash Mark

• NFPA 70E, “Standards for Electrical Safety in the Workplace,” outlines specific procedures and practices to be followed for OSHA compliance and safety when working with live equipment

• IEEE 1584, Guide to Performing Arc Flash Calculations, provides the necessary formulas for analyzing arc flash hazards. It covers electric shock hazards similar to European regulations and standards, but with an additional requirement – ​​it requires a risk assessment for arc flash hazards. That is, before work can be carried out near live conductors, the following must be done:

• There must be a known hazard. A thorough arc flash hazard analysis should be performed to determine the amount of heat that could be generated during an arc flash event. This sets the limit of shock resistance and protection around the potential source

• Measures must be taken to reduce the risk. Warning labels on equipment must identify the hazard and summarize that information

• Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) must be worn. Other appropriate arc flash protective clothing and PPE must be worn for two main reasons. First when it is not possible to reduce the risk in other ways and second when employees exceed a protection limit while working on or near exposed parts.

It is important to remember that NFPA 70E does not protect personnel from the effects of an arc flash.

The most effective way to eliminate the risk of electric shock or arc flash is to simply turn the equipment off, and NFPA 70E provides some important safety recommendations on how to establish “electrically safe working conditions” before working on electrical circuits:

• Identify all power sources

• Disconnect the load and disconnect the power supply

• Visual check for open circuit

• Circuit Lockout and Tagging

• Carry out a voltage test

• Ground all electrical conductors

In fact, there is no way to completely eliminate arc flash accidents, but the risk can be further reduced by providing people working on electrical installations with appropriate personal protective equipment, as mentioned above and below.

Personal protective equipment

Following relevant safety instructions and using personal protective equipment (PPE) can mean the difference between life and death for a worker involved in a lightning or explosion incident. In the United States, OSHA requires that workers who work near electrical hazards be protected from head to toe.

All of the above steps related to NFPA 70E require the use of appropriate PPE for protection against electrical shock and arc flash. These include safety goggles, voltage proof gloves, FR neck brace, arc proof face shields, hooded flash suits and hearing protection.

In addition, the workers are provided with arc-resistant work clothing, insulating rubber gloves (preferably with leather protective equipment) and insulated leather shoes. All materials must be metal-free to avoid the possibility of arcing, causing the fault to create electrical contact with workers.

It is also important to choose the right PPE for the task; For example, the limited or excessive use of PPE by a worker who does not need this type of protection can be dangerous, as an overheated worker struggling with poor vision and limited mobility is more likely to be at risk of an accident. Remember that the use of PPE is a health and safety measure – it doesn’t tackle the problem at the source.

Personal protective equipment for arc flash includes:

1. Gloves. It is an important part of PPE for electrical workers, combining high dielectric strength and physical strength with flexibility and durability. Depending on how dangerous the work is, there are several types of gloves to choose from, such as: B. durable leather gloves, rubber insulated gloves or a combination of both.

2. Clothing. Personnel must wear protective clothing deemed appropriate for the energy and risks involved in the task being performed. Other PPE may be required for specific tasks using different weight fabrics and can be supplied as shirts and trousers, coveralls or a combination of both for added protection.

Generally, a higher level of protection is provided by heavier fabrics and/or by combining multiple layers of one or more layers or sheet clothing. These are formulated with the right calorie content to reduce harmful energy on the body so burns are not life threatening.

Wherever the risk of arc flash exposure is greater than the second degree burn threshold, arc resistant clothing must be worn and it must cover all combustible clothing and allow movement, movement and visibility.

In some cases, one or more layers of arc-flash protective clothing are worn over combustible, non-fusible clothing. Combustible clothing worn alone, not melted, can provide protection at low incident energies. In addition, when working in hazardous environments, clothing made of acetate, nylon, polyester, acrylic, polyethylene and rayon, pure or mixed, should not be worn.

3. Headgear. Personnel should wear non-conductive head protection when there is a risk of head injury from electric shock or burns from contact with live parts or from flying objects from an electrical explosion. Headgear also includes non-conductive protective gear for the face, neck and chin. Where appropriate, face shields should have an arc rating suitable for arc light and eye protection, such as goggles or goggles, should be worn under the visor or hood.

4. Foot protection. There are two types of shoes that provide some protection against electric shock, both with insulating soles: dielectric and electrically hazardous shoes. Dielectric enclosures are used where there is a risk of electric shock due to high voltage in both dry and wet conditions. Electrically hazardous footwear is generally used in low voltage and dry conditions. However, the insulating base should not be used as the primary electrical protection layer.

5. Insulating tools and equipment. Personnel must use isolating tools and handling equipment when working near live electrical equipment or exposed live parts where contact is likely. Insulating tools must be protected against damage to the insulating material, e.g. B. from impact-resistant and fireproof materials.

Insulation tools must be adequately rated for the voltage to which they can be subjected and should also be designed and constructed with consideration for the environment and the manner in which they will be used.

safety first

With the potential for serious injury or accidental death from arc flash, preventing arc flash injury is a major concern in the oil and gas industry. The toxic environment in oil and gas facilities means workers need special attention as arc flash can cause significant damage to equipment and serious injury to nearby workers.

The right thing for an organization to do is to provide protection for workers who work with or near electrical equipment to prevent worker injury or equipment damage from arc flashes.

The combined safety efforts of organizations that provide standards, worker safety initiatives, and advanced equipment design, along with employers and workers, will help reduce, minimize, and control the risk of arc flash.

moderator

“The Arc Phenomenon – Collaborative Research Project”. State Fire Brigade Association. IEEE, nd. net. January 24, 2014.

Bomann, Karen. “Increasing focus on electrical safety for the oil and gas industry”. RIG ZONE. Np, June 11, 2013. Web. January 14, 2014. “Concerned about arc flash and electrocution”? Fluke. Fluke Corporation, nd. net. January 24, 2014.

Frankline, Jay. Arc “de-excited” in oil

“Middle East leads global crude oil and condensate production; growth in North America”. US Energy Information Administration. United States Department of Energy, June 17, 2013. Web. January 15, 2014.

Workplace Safety Awareness Council “Understanding Arc Flash”. Np, stuff. Network. January 14, 2014.

Xu, Conglin. “IEA: Global oil demand to average 92 million bpd in 2014”. oil

Published: April 10th, 2014 in Health and Safety in the Middle East

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