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Rio Grande | Definition, Location, Length, Map, & Facts
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Summary: Articles about Rio Grande | Definition, Location, Length, Map, & Facts Rio Grande, Spanish Río Grande del Norte, or (in Mexico) Río Bravo, or Río Bravo del Norte, fifth longest river of North America, and the 20th longest in …
Match the search results: Irrigation has been practiced in the Rio Grande basin since prehistoric times, notably among the ancestors of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Increases in population and in the use of water made necessary the water treaties (1905–07 and 1944–45) between the United States and Mexico, as well as the…
Map of the Rio Grande River valley in New Mexico and …
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Summary: Articles about Map of the Rio Grande River valley in New Mexico and … Title: Map of the Rio Grande River valley in New Mexico and Colorado; Contributor Names: Rael, Juan Bautista (Author); Created / Published: 1951; Genre: Map …
Match the search results: Rael, Juan Bautista. Map of the Rio Grande River valley in New Mexico and Colorado. 1951. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/raelbib000159/.
Summary: Articles about Rio Grande – New World Encyclopedia Map of the Rio Grande Watershed. Origin, southern Colorado, in Hinsdale County. Mouth, Gulf of Mexico; Cameron County, Texas, and Matamoros municipality, …
Match the search results: Río Grande is Spanish for “Big River” and Río Grande del Norte means “Great River of the North.” Because “río” means “river” in Spanish, the phrase “Rio Grande River” is redundant.
Summary: Articles about Rio Grande – American Rivers Map of the Rio Grande River. Will Rogers once described the Rio Grande as “the only river I know of that is in need of irrigating,” a prescient observation …
Match the search results: Will Rogers once described the Rio Grande as “the only river I know of that is in need of irrigating,” a prescient observation considering how fragmented this fabled river has become. At nearly 1,900 miles, the Rio Grande is runner-up only to the combined Missouri-Mississippi system in length within…
Maps – Rio Grande Wild & Scenic River (U.S. National …
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Summary: Articles about Maps – Rio Grande Wild & Scenic River (U.S. National … NPS.gov; Park Home; Plan Your Visit · Directions & Transportation; Maps. Maps. Rio Grande Wild & Scenic River Boundaries. Last updated: June 22, 2013 …
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Rio Grande Wild & Scenic River
c/o Big Bend National Park
PO Box 129
Summary: Articles about Rio Grande River Guide Map PDF – Public Lands … Mile-by-mile river map of the Rio Grande between Lobatos Bridge, just north of the Colorado state line, and Velarde New Mexico. This guide is the first …
Match the search results: For the latest Rio Grande River Guide we recommend Paul W. Bauer’s The Rio Grande: A River Guide to the geology and landscapes of Northern New Mexico
Rio Grande River – near Alamosa, CO – Uncover Colorado
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Summary: Articles about Rio Grande River – near Alamosa, CO – Uncover Colorado The river’s depth varies significantly by location, ranging as deep as 60 feet to barely a trickle. The Rio Grande River Route. Image of a map of the Rio Grande …
Match the search results: After that, it continues south across the Texan border to El Paso, Presidio, Del Rio, Eagle Pass, Laredo, Rio Grande City, McAllen, and Brownsville. The Rio Grande River concludes at its mouth, right on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico.
Summary: Articles about Rio Grande – Google Earth Explore Rio Grande in Google Earth. … Explore Rio Grande in Google Earth. Rio Grande.
Match the search results: Ôi, hỏng! Trình duyệt của bạn chưa hỗ trợ Google Earth. Có thể bạn cần cập nhật trình duyệt hoặc chuyển sang dùng Chrome. Vui lòng xem các yêu cầu về hệ thống để biết thêm thông tin. Nếu bạn chưa cài đặt Chrome, hãy tải Chrome tại đây.
Summary: Articles about Rio Grande River Fishing Map – New Mexico What’s new: Added advertising boxes. Description: Fishing map of the Rio Grande in New Mexico covers over 70 river miles from the Colorado Border south …
Match the search results: Fishing map of the Rio Grande in New Mexico covers over 70 river miles from the Colorado Border south through the Rio Grande Del Norte National Monument. This map contains all public fishing access areas, rapids, campgrounds, boat put in locations, parking areas, and insect hatch chart. Map also fea…
Summary: Articles about Major Rivers | TX Almanac It was shown also on early Spanish maps as Río San Buenaventura and Río Ganapetuan. … Some people erroneously call this watercourse the Rio Grande River.
Match the search results: The Rio Grande, where it joins the Gulf of Mexico, has created a fertile delta called the Lower Rio Grande Valley, a major vegetable- and fruit-growing area. The river drains 49,387 square miles of Texas and has an average annual flow of 645,500 acre-feet.
Summary: Articles about The Rio Grande A River Guide to the Geology and … The river maps are developed on an aerial photographic base (digital orthophoto quads), allowing the user to more easily identify locations. The geology of the …
Match the search results: The Rio Grande is the fourth longest river in North America. Flowing nearly 2,000 miles from Colorado to the Gulf of Mexico, in New Mexico it occupies the Rio Grande Valley, where it provides water for habitat, agriculture, and a growing population. In northern New Mexico, where the river has carve…
Red River, Rio Hondo, Rio Pueblo de Taos, Embudo Creek, Santa Fe River, Galisteo Creek, Alamito Creek, Terlingua Creek, Pecos River, Devils River
• that’s right
Conejos River, Rio Chama, Jemez River, Rio Puerco, Rio Conchos, Rio Salado, Rio Alamo, San Juan River
ThatRio Grande(/riːoʊ ˈɡrænd/and/riːoʊ rɑːndeɪ/), known in Mexico asRio Bravo del Norteand howRio Bravo, is one of the principalsFlow(WithColorado River) InsideSouthwest United Statesand innorthern mexico.
The length of the Rio Grande is 1,896 miles (3,051 km) and rises from center to southColorado, in the United States, and flows toGulf of Mexico.[8th]Rio Grandecatchment area(watershed) covers an area of 182,200 square miles (472,000 km.).2);However,visceral pelvisadjacent to and within the greater Rio Grande drainage basin, bringing the total drainage basin area to 870,000 km (336,000 sq mi).2).
After passing the length ofNew Mexico, Rio Grande willBorder between Mexico and USA, middleOur stateofTexasand the northern Mexican stateschihuahuaandCoahuila,Nuevo LeonandTamaulipas; Also, a short stretch of the Rio Grande forms part of the United States interstate borderNew Mexicoand Texas. Since the mid-20th century, only 20% of the Rio Grande’s water has reached the Gulf of Mexico due to the overwhelming amounts of water needed to irrigate farmland (e.g.:Lower Rio Grande Valley) and for the continuous water supply of the cities, the use of this water is attributed to the retained water reservoirsdiversion dam.[First]
3.1 Ancestors of the Rio Grande
3.2 Before contact with Europe
3.3 Exploring Spain
3.4 Since 1830
3.5 The Rio Grande right to water (since 1900)
4 flow modification
5 climate change
7 names and pronunciation
9 See more
11 Further reading
11.1 Main Source
12 external links
Rio Grande rises to the westRio Grande National Forest, in the US stateColorado, and was formed by the confluence of several streams at the foot of the Canby MountainsSan Juan Mountains, east ofContinental division of America. The Rio Grande flows out of the continental divideSan Luis Valley, then further southNew Mexicoand go throughRio Grande Gorge, near Taos, then towardsSpanish, then collect more water from itSan Juan-Chama Transformation Projectand fromRio Chama. The Rio Grande then continued further south, irrigating farmland in CentralRio Grande Valleythrough theDesertcity ofAlbuquerqueandLas Crucesin New Mexico, tooEl Paso, Texas, and then toCiudad Juarez, Chihuahua, in Mexico. Insidemetropolitan area of Albuquerque, Rio Grande flows through historyPueblovillage, such asSandiaPuebloandIsleta Pueblo. South of the city of El Paso, the Rio Grande forms the border between the United States and Mexico.
The official length of the Rio Grande river boundary ranges from 1,431 km (889 miles) to 2,008 km (1,248 miles).[First]main tributaryRio ConchosState the Rio Grande mainstreamOjinaga town, in Chihuahua, just south of El Paso, and thus the main water supply of the Mexico-US border. Furthermore, the main stream of the Rio Grande is also enriched with tributariesPecos Riveranddevil river, inAmistad Reservoir.
The Rio Grande grows alpine and flows at high altitudes for most of its length; The valley floor at Albuquerque is 1,619 m (5,312 ft) high and El Paso is 1,147 m (3,762 ft) high.Sea level. In New Mexico, the river flows throughRio Grande crackedof asediment- full sink to another sink, cutcanyonbetween pelvis and support aboskeecosystem on itflood plains. From El Paso to the east, the river flows through the desert. Although irrigated agriculture exists in most regions, it is particularly prevalent insubtropical Lower Rio Grande Valley. The river ends smallfull of sand deltain the Gulf of Mexico. During parts of 2001 and 2002, the mouth of the Rio Grande was blocked by a sandbar. In the fall of 2003, river currents moving at speeds of up to 200 m (7,063 cubic feet per second) cleared the sandbank.3/S).
Although the river’s greatest depth is 18 m (60 ft), the Rio Grande is generally not navigable by passengers.river boator frombarge. Only navigable near the mouth of the river, on rare occasions up toLaredo, Texas[ten]
Navigation was active for much of the 19th century,with over 200 different onessteamshipoperate between the estuaries nearbyBrownsvilleandCity of Rio Grande, Texas. Lots of steamships outOhioandMississippiwas requisitioned by the US government and moved to Rio GrandeMexican-American Warin 1846. They provided transportation for the US Army under GeneralZachary Taylor, aggressionMonterrey,Nuevo Leon, aboutCamargo City, Tamaulipas.military engineerrecommends that with minor improvements, the river could easily be navigated as far as El Paso.[citation required]These recommendations were never implemented.
ThatBrownsville, bigswing bridge, dating from 1910 and still used today by cars connecting Brownsville toMatamoros, Tamaulipas. However, the swivel mechanism has not been used since the early 1900s, when the last great steamboat disappeared. The bridge was once also open to rail vehicles. Trains no longer use this bridge. About 15 miles west of Brownsville, a new railroad bridge (West Rail International Crossing) was built connecting the United States and Mexico[Twelfth]The West Railroad International Junction is the first new international railroad crossing between the United States and Mexico in over a century.BrownsvilleUnion Pacific Railroad.
At the mouth of the Rio Grande, on the Mexican side, is the main commercial port ofBaghdad, Tamaulipas. InAmerican Civil War, it was the Confederacy’s only legal port. European warships anchored off the coast to maintain port neutrality and did so successfully throughout the conflict, although they were sometimes intercepted by shipsUnited States Navy. It is a draft river port with a number of smaller vessels transporting cargo to and from the deeper draft cargo vessels moored offshore. These deeper draft vessels cannot traverse the shoalssandat the river mouth. The port’s trade was in European military supplies in exchange for bales of cotton.
Rio Grande ancestors[Editor]
Thatsedimentary basinThe modern Rio Grande Valley formation was not integrated into a single river system that empties into the Gulf of Mexico until relatively recent geologic time. Instead, the basins created by the opening of the original Rio Grande Trench emergedbolson, no external and central drainagePlaya.An axial flow existed in the Espanola Basin 13 million years ago, reaching the Santo Domingo Basin 6.9 million years ago. By this time, however, the river had turned into a drama in the southAlbuquerque Basinwhere it sendsThe Popotosa Formation.The headwaters of this river correspond to modernityRio Chama, but 5 million years ago the ancestors of the Rio Grande drained the eastern watersSan Juan Mountainsjoined the ancestral Rio Chama.
The ancestors of the Rio Grande gradually integrated the basins southwards, into the Palomas Basin 4.5 million years ago, the Mesilla Basin 3.1 million years ago, Texas 2.06 million years ago, and finally 800,000 years later the Pecos River to flow into the Gulf of Mexico. Volcanoes on the Taos Plateau reduced the amount of water draining from the San Luis Basin until an overflow event drained it 440,000 years ago.Alamosa Lakeand the full reintegration of the San Luis Basin into the Rio Grande Basin.
Before contacting Europe[Editor]
Archaeological sites from the earliest human presence in the Rio Grande Valley are scarce due toPleistoceneandholocene river channelor buried under the Holocene floodplain. However, some of the original sites have been preservedwest mesaon the west side of the Rio Grande near Albuquerque. IncludingFollowSites possibly dated between 10,800 and 9,700 BC. Dating to 1000 BC, may be ephemeral sites such as buffalo slaughterhouses. Better conservation in the flanking basins of the Rio Grande Valley, where Folsom sites are plentiful and much fewer than beforeClovislocations have been identified.Right laterPaleo-Indiagroup includesBelenandcodyCultures that appear to have used the Rio Grande Valley for seasonal migration and may have settled more permanently in the valley.
Paleo-Indian cultures gave wayOld The Oshara traditionstarted around 5450 B.C.Oshara started farmingCornfrom 1750 to 750 BC BC, and their settlements grew larger and more permanent.
Drought caused the collapse ofPuebloan ancestryculture, atChaco Gorgeand elsewhere in the Four Corners region, about 1130 CE This led to a mass migration of Ancestral Puebloans to the Rio Grande and other fertile valleys of the Southwest.This led to decades of conflict (the Confederacy Age), the eventual merging of cultures and the founding of mostTewa pueblosof the Rio Grande Valley. This was followed by the Classic period from about 1325 AD to 1600 AD and the arrival of the Spanish. The upper Rio Grande valley experiences extreme droughts, and human residents make extensive use of trellis gardens and test dams to prolong precarious water supplies.
1519, aSpanishNaval Expeditions along the Northeast Coast ofMexicoDraw the mouths of several rivers includingRio Bravo (Rio Grande). In 1536, Río Bravo first appeared on the map ofNew Spainmade by a royal Spanish cartographer. In the fall of 1540 a military expedition fromViceroyalty of New Spainto doFrancisco Vasquez de Coronado,Governor of Nueva Galicia, reachTiwa Pueblosalong the future Rio BravoNew Mexico.On July 12, 1598,Don Juan de Onate y SalazarestablishNew Spaincolony ofSanta Fe de Nuevo Mexicoin the new villageSan Juan de los CaballerosappliedOhkay Owingeh Puebloat the confluence of Río Bravo andRio Chama.
In the late 1830s and early 1840s, the river marked the disputed border between Mexico and the United StatesRepublic of Texas; Mexico marks the border atRiver Nueces. Disagreements provided part of the reason for thisThe United States invades Mexico1846 after Texas was incorporated as a new state. Since 1848, the Rio Grande has marked the border between Mexico and the United States from its sister citiesEl Passo, Texas andCiudad Juarez, Chihuahua, to the Gulf of Mexico. As such, crossing the river is an escape route used by some Texansslaveto seek freedom. Mexico had liberal colonial policies and abolished slavery in 1828.
In 1899, after the river’s location was gradually changed, a canal was dug to control floods that moved the river, creating the island known as Cordova Island, which became the center of the river.The Chamizal Controversy. Dispute resolution takes many years and almost leads to oneSynthesis of the 1909 assassinationabout the Presidents of the United States and Mexico.
The Rio Grande’s Right to Water (since 1900)[Editor]
After the approval ofRio Grande ProjectIn 1905, the waters of the Rio Grande were divided between the states of New Mexico and Texas by federal legislatures based on their respective amounts of irrigated land. The project also raised VND 60,000English model(74 million won)cubic meter) water to Mexico every year to meet the country’s needs. This means ending a year-long disagreement over river rights and building a dam and reservoir at various points along the river between the river’s agricultural interests.Valley of Mesillaand fromEl PassoandJuarez. In the terms of the agreement was builtButte Elephant Damon public land. The act was the first to occur with a Congressional-led appropriation of an interstate river (although New Mexico would not achieve statehood until 1912).
After New Mexico was admitted into the Union, increased settlement of the Rio Grande further north in Colorado and near Albuquerque,1938 Rio Grande Compactwas developed, among other things, for the necessary lifting of the Rio Grande embargo.Although initially eager to enter negotiations, both Colorado and New Mexico were at odds over whether Texas should participate.negotiate1928, although she had representatives. To avoid litigation in the matterSupreme CourtIn 1929, an interim agreement was signed, stating that negotiations would continue after a reservoir was built on the New Mexico-Colorado state line. This delayed constructionThe stock market crash of 1929. With negotiations still stalled, Texas sued New Mexico over the matter in 1935, prompting the intervention ofchairmanwho initiated the joint Rio Grande Inquiry, the results of which contributed to the final agreement.The 1938 Rio Grande Compact was provided to create a compact committeedistribution stationalong the river to ensure flow from Colorado to New Mexico into the state line and from New MexicoButte Elephant Reservoir, the water when it will fall under the regulationsRio Grande Projectwill ensure the supply of Texas and Mexico. A system ofdebit and credit cardswas created to account for the variances in the provided country.The regulation is still in effect today, although it has been amended twice.
In 1944, the United States and Mexico signed a treaty across the river.As drought conditions were common throughout much of the 21st century, locals in New Mexico, Mexico and Texas have called for a review of the treaty. Texas, which has the least control over the waterway, has had regular water supplies since 1992.
In 1997, the United States named the Rio Grande one of theAmerican Heritage River. Two parts of the Rio Grande are designatedWild river system and national landscape, one in northern New Mexico and one in TexasBig Bend National Park.
In mid-2001, a 100 m (330 ft) high sandbar formed at the mouth, marking the first time in recorded history that the Rio Grande did not empty into the Gulf of Mexico. sandy beach isdredging, but reformed almost immediately. The spring rains of the following year swept the Cai Luong to the sea but did not return until mid-2002. Towards the end of 2003, the river once again emptied into the Gulf.
The United States and Mexico share the river’s waters under a series of agreements made byCommittee on International and Water Boundaries(IBWC), USA-Mexico. The most notable of these treaties were signed in 1906 and 1944.The IBWC has institutional roots dating back to 1889 when the International Boundary Commission to Maintain Boundaries was formed. Today’s IBWC also distributes river water between the two countries, providing flood control and water sanitation measures.
The use of such water by the United States is regulated byCompact Rio Grande, an interstate treaty between Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. The water of the Rio Grande is overexploited, meaning more people use the water than the water in the river. Due to drought and overexploitation, the stretch of lower El Paso through Ojinaga has recently been dubbed “The Forgotten River” by those seeking to draw attention to the river’s degradation.
Dams on the Rio Grande includeRio Grande Dam,Cochiti Đập Dam,Dam Butte Elephant,Caballo Dam,Amistad Dam,Falkendamm,Anzaldua’s Dam, andRetamal Đập Dam. In southern New Mexico and the upper part of the Texas border the riverdischargegradually smaller. Diversification, mainly for agricultural irrigation, has accelerated the decline in natural runoff due to the river’s arrival.bureau, little or no water. Below the Presidio, the Rio Conchos restores the flow of water.[First]Near the Presidio, the river’s discharge is often nil. Its average discharge is 178 cubic feet per second (5 m.).3/s), less than 945 cubic feet per second (27 m3/s) at Elephant Butte Dam. Supplemented by other tributaries, the Rio Grande’s discharge increases to a maximum annual average of 3,504 cubic feet per second (99 m3/s) near Rio Grande City. Major irrigation diversions downstream of the city of Rio Grande reduce the river’s average discharge by 25 m (889 cubic feet per second).3/s) in Brownsville and Matamoros.
Since the introduction of water rights in the 1890s, the Rio Grande has flown through Las Cruces every February through October, but this is subject to climate change.[thirty-one]In 2020, the river only flows from March to September.[thirty-one]As of January 2021, Elephant Butte Irrigation (Ebid) forecasts that the river will only flow through Las Cruces from June to July due to water shortages.[thirty-one]Water scarcity affects local ecosystems and endangers species, among other thingscotton plantandCatch flies southwest of willows.[thirty-one]
The main international border crossings are along the riverCiudad JuarezandEl Passo; Presidio and Ojinaga;LaredoandNuevo Laredo;mcallenandReynosa; and Brownsville and Matamoros. Other notable border towns include the Texas/Coahuila pairDelRio-Ciudad AcunaandEagle Pass-Piedras Negras.
Rio GrandeTo beSpanishfor “Big River” andRio Grande del Nortemeans “Great River of the North”. InEnglish, Rio Grande is pronounced/riːoʊ ˈɡrænd/or/riːoʊ rɑːndeɪ/.
It’s called in MexicoRio BravoorRio Bravo del Norte,Bravomeans (among other things) “angry” or “excited”.
In the history,Puebloand Navajo peoples also have names for Rio Grande/Rio Bravo:
, “Big River”
, “Big River”
, “Big River”
, “Great Bodies of Water”
Four Pueblo Names That Are ResistantSpain entradaby several centuries.
, “Female River” (male direction is female direction in Navajo cosmology)
Rio del Nortemost commonly used for the upper Rio Grande (roughly within present-day New Mexico boundaries).Spanish colonyuntil the late Mexican period in the mid-19th century. This use was first mentioned in 1582 by the Spaniards.south texasbegan using the modern “English” name Rio Grande. In the late 19th century, the Rio Grande name became standard for the entire river in the United StatesColoradoto the sea.
until 1602,Rio Bravohas become the standard Spanish name for the lower reaches of the river below its confluence with the Rio Conchos.
“Our Projects: Western Railroad”. Cameron County Regional Mobility Authority. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
Repasch, Marisa; Karlstrom, Karl; Heizler, Matt; Pecha, Mark (May 2017). “The Birth and Evolution of the Rio Grande Alluvial System over the Past 8 Ma: Gradual Integration and Effects of Tectonics, Volcanology, and Climate”. Geoscientific review. 168:113-164. Bib code: 2017ESRv..168..113R. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.03.003.
Koning, Daniel J.; Jochems, Andy P.; Heizler, Matthew T. (2018). “Early Pliocene neck cutting during early Rio Grande evolution in southern New Mesico” (PDF). Geological Society of New Mexico Field Conference Series. 69:93-108. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
Ballenger, Jesse; Holiday, Vance; Sanchez, Guadeloupe (September 6, 2017). Mühlen, Barbara; Fowles, Severin (Editor). The people who make the most money in the Southwest. Volume 1. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199978427.013.11.
^ a b
Vierra, B.J.; Jodry, MA; Shackley, MS; Dilley, M.J.; Cousin, C.B.; Vierra, B.J. (2012). “Late and Old Ancient Loggers of the North-Southwest”. From the Pleistocene to the Holocene: Human Organization and Cultural Changes in Prehistoric North America. Volume 17 (first edition). p. 171. ISBN 9781603447782.
Gibbon, Guy E. and Kenneth M. Ames. (1998). Archeology of the Prehistoric Native Americans: An Encyclopedia. New York: Taylor and Francis. p. 798. ISBN 0-8153-0725-X.
Stuart, DE (2008). “Puebloans of the Chaco Ancestors”. Canyon Gardens: Ancient Pueblo Landscapes in the Southwest United States. p. 189. ISBN 9780826338600. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
Peckham, S. (1984). “[The Anasazi Culture of the Northern Rio Grande Rift” (PDF). Geological Society of New Mexico Field Conference Series. 35:275-281. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
Brand, Donald Dilworth; Schmidt, Robert H. “Rio Grande”. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
“”UGRR on the Rio Grande”” (PDF). Archived original (PDF) July 25, 2004. Accessed February 24, 2004.
^ a b
Littlefield, Douglass (1999). “History of the Rio Grande Compact in 1938” (PDF). Proceedings of the 1999 WRRI Conference.
Littlefield, Douglas R. (November 27, 2012). Conflict in the Rio Grande: Water and Law, 1879–1939. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-8591-0.
“Record of Water Resources and International Law: Rio Grande”. Peace Palace Library. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
Yardley, Jim (April 19, 2002). “Fury in the War for Water Rights in the Rio Grande”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
IBWC: Treaty Between the United States and Mexico Archived June 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
Thompson, Olivia N. Ranking Water Management: Perspectives of Texas Local Officials on the US-Mexico Border (2009). Applied research project. Texas State University. Paper 313. [specify]
“Rio Grande Sucked Dry for Irrigation, Industry,” CNN Saturday Morning News, (aired June 9, 2001)
^ a b c d
Minardi, Tue (January 12, 2021). “A river once flowed through it: how New Mexico dealt with a dwindling Rio Grande”. Guardian. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
Sources for historical names: Carroll L. Riley, 1995, Rio del Norte, University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-496-5
Regarding the spelling of Navajo terms: Young, Robert W
“Devil’s River Defense Campaign, Devil’s River Conservancy Ease”. The conservation. Original archived January 9, 2009. Accessed July 22, 2010.
The Greatest Rivers of the United States, USGS
“The Rio Conchos: An Essential Bond of Life”. Environmental Protection Fund. Original archived July 24, 2010. Accessed July 20, 2010.
^ a b
“US Water Resource Data, 2009 Water Year; Gauge 08353000 Rio Puerco near Barnardo, NM” (PDF). USGS. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
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“US Water Resource Data, 2009 Water Year; Gauge 08329000, Jemez River under Jemez Canyon Dam, NM” (PDF). USGS. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
^ a b
“US Water Resources Data, 2009 Water Year; Gauge 08317200 Santa Fe River over Lake Cochiti, NM” (PDF). USGS. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
^ a b
“US Water Resource Data, 2009 Water Year; Gauge 08290000, Rio Chama near Chamita, NM” (PDF). USGS. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
^ a b
“US Water Resource Data, 2009 Water Year; Gauge 08249000, Conejos River near Lasauses, CO” (PDF). USGS. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
Daz, George T.
Border Smuggling: A History of Smuggling Across the Rio Grande
(University of Texas Press, 2015) xiv, 241 pages.
Horgan, Paul (1991). Great Rivers: Rio Grande in North American History (4th ed.). Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6251-3.
; Pulitzer Prize
Kearney, Milo; Anthony K Knopp (1995). Boom and Bust: The Historical Cycle of Matamoros and Brownsville. Austin, Texas: Eatin Press. ISBN 978-0-89015-815-9.
Kelley, Pat (1986). River of Lost Dreams: Navigating the Rio Grande. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-2712-5.
Leah, Tom (1957). royal court. Boston: small, brown. ISBN 978-0-316-51745-4.
Coker, Caleb (1992). News from Brownsville: Letters from Helen Chapman of the Texas Military Frontier, 1848-1852. Austin, Tex.: Texas State Historical Association. ISBN 0-87611-115-0.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rio Grande (river).
Frontier History: the Only Hand-Drawn Ferry on the Rio Grande (Video)
March 31, 2016 at
Map of the entrance to the Rio Grande in 1854
Portal to Texas History
Rio Grande Cam – in Mission Texas. Mexico on the left, USA on the right.
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Houston train canal
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Prairie Dog Town Confluence of the Red River
San Antonio River
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Rio Grande Valley
United States of America
This slideshow provides an historic overview of the Rio Grande River as border in Texas, and was produced for our heritage travel app, Texas Time Travel Tours. The mobile app features statewide thematic tours focusing on a variety of time periods and cultures in Texas history. View the mobile tours or download the app at