Best 11 what language do they speak in romania

Below is the best information and knowledge about what language do they speak in romania compiled and compiled by the aldenlibrary.org team, along with other related topics such as:: Where is Romania, Romani language, Serbia language, Romania wiki, Romanian language, Poland language, Moldova language, Spain language.

what language do they speak in romania

Image for keyword: what language do they speak in romania

The most popular articles about what language do they speak in romania

What Language Do They Speak In Romania? – WorldAtlas

  • Author: www.worldatlas.com

  • Evaluate 4 ⭐ (31644 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 4 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 2 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about What Language Do They Speak In Romania? – WorldAtlas The only official language of the country is Romanian. This language belongs to the Balkan-Romance group, which descends from Vulgar Latin and dates back to the …

  • Match the search results: The only official language of the country is Romanian. This language belongs to the Balkan-Romance group, which descends from Vulgar Latin and dates back to the 5th century AD. Over the centuries, the language borrowed vocabulary from Slavic languages, Hungarian, Turkic, French, and Italian. Of all …

  • Quote from the source:

Romanian language | Language Basics & Dialects | Britannica

  • Author: www.britannica.com

  • Evaluate 3 ⭐ (12635 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 3 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 1 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about Romanian language | Language Basics & Dialects | Britannica Romanian language, also spelled (formerly) Rumanian, Romanian limba română, Romance language spoken primarily in Romania and Moldova.

  • Match the search results: Romanian language, also spelled (formerly) Rumanian, Romanian limba română, Romance language spoken primarily in Romania and Moldova. Four principal dialects may be distinguished: Dacoromanian, the basis of the standard language, spoken in Romania and Moldova in several regional variants; Aromanian…

  • Quote from the source:

BBC Languages- Romania

  • Author: www.bbc.co.uk

  • Evaluate 3 ⭐ (14293 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 3 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 1 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about BBC Languages- Romania The official language is Romanian, and it is spoken by approximately 89% of the 23m population. Hungarian is spoken by around 7% of the population, mainly in …

  • Match the search results:

    The official language is Romanian, and it is spoken

    by approximately 89% of the 23m population.

    Hungarian is spoken by around 7% of the population, mainly in Transylvania.
    There is also a population of German speakers who make up around 1.5% of the national population.BBC News Online count…

  • Quote from the source:

What Language is Spoken in Romania? | Mars Translation

  • Author: www.marstranslation.com

  • Evaluate 3 ⭐ (6854 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 3 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 1 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about What Language is Spoken in Romania? | Mars Translation The official language of Romania is Romanian. The history of this language is from 5th century AD when the Romanian language was derived from …

  • Match the search results: The official language of Romania is Romanian. The history of this language is from 5th century AD when the Romanian language was derived from Latin that is the part of Balkan-Romance group. The Romanian language is the blend of different languages and it has taken vocabulary from Slavic languages li…

  • Quote from the source:

What Languages Do They Speak In Romania? (Other Than …

  • Author: autolingual.com

  • Evaluate 4 ⭐ (21827 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 4 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 2 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about What Languages Do They Speak In Romania? (Other Than … 91% Of Romanians Speak Romanian As Their First Language … As mentioned above, the Romanian language (or Moldovan, as it is sometimes called in …

  • Match the search results: The Romani language is the language spoken by the Romas or the people who has historically been referred to as Gypsies. It is an Indo-Aryan language, meaning that it is quite unrelated to almost all European languages. Despite its name, Romani hasn’t got anything to do with the Romanian language.

  • Quote from the source:

What Language Do You Speak In Romania? – ILoveLanguages

  • Author: www.ilovelanguages.com

  • Evaluate 4 ⭐ (30547 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 4 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 2 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about What Language Do You Speak In Romania? – ILoveLanguages Although Russian and Romanian are very different languages, they belong to two different language groups, the former being a Slavic language, …

  • Match the search results: There is only one official language in the country, Romanian. Throughout history, the language borrowed vocabulary from Slavic languages, Hungarians, Turks, French, and Italians. Romance languages have the most similarities with Italian, which is the most common language in the Romance family. It wa…

  • Quote from the source:

Which Language Is Spoken In Romania? – ILoveLanguages

  • Author: www.ilovelanguages.com

  • Evaluate 3 ⭐ (2736 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 3 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 1 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about Which Language Is Spoken In Romania? – ILoveLanguages why does romanian sound like russian? Do They Speak English In Romania? An international map produced by Education First points to Romania as one of the …

  • Match the search results: Russian, for contrast, is a Slavic language while Romanian is a Romance language. Historically, Romanian derived itself from Vulgar Latin. The sentence structure and grammar of it have been compared to those of Italian by the Romanians I’ve spoken to.

  • Quote from the source:

Explore which languages are spoken in Romania

  • Author: languageknowledge.eu

  • Evaluate 3 ⭐ (11202 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 3 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 1 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about Explore which languages are spoken in Romania Percentage of people in Romania who speak the languages below as a mother tongue or foreign language. Romanian 94.49% · English 17.01% · French 9.73%.

  • Match the search results: An interactive visualisation of language knowledge in Europe, based on the European Commission’s latest and authoritative Eurobarometer survey data on languages in Europe, resulting from 27,000 interviews across 27 European countries in early 2012. By clicking any language or country, you can easily…

  • Quote from the source:

What languages do Romania speak? – SidmartinBio

  • Author: www.sidmartinbio.org

  • Evaluate 4 ⭐ (34465 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 4 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 2 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about What languages do Romania speak? – SidmartinBio ? The foreign languages spoken in Romania are the languages of ethnic minorities, Like Hungarian and Romani, …

  • Match the search results: But Romanian is a Romance language, whereas Russian is a Slavic language. Romanian evolved from Vulgar Latin. It may sound a lot like Russian, but the Romanians I’ve spoken to have told me that the sentence structure and grammar is much closer to Italian.

  • Quote from the source:

Languages of Romania – Academic Dictionaries and …

  • Author: en-academic.com

  • Evaluate 3 ⭐ (4186 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 3 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 1 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about Languages of Romania – Academic Dictionaries and … In Romania there are several spoken languages. Beside Romanian, the only official language nationwide, other spoken languages include Hungarian, Romani, …

  • Match the search results: According to the 2002 Romanian Census, Romanian is spoken by 91% of the population as a primary language. According to the Romanian Constitution [ [http://www.cdep.ro/pls/dic/site.page?den=act2_1&par1=1 Romanian Constitution, art 13] ] and the law 1206 of 2006 [ [http://www.dri.gov.ro/documents/…

  • Quote from the source:

The Romanian language | Beyond Signs in the city

  • Author: www.signsinthecity.net

  • Evaluate 3 ⭐ (17796 Ratings)

  • Top rated: 3 ⭐

  • Lowest rating: 1 ⭐

  • Summary: Articles about The Romanian language | Beyond Signs in the city Romanian is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people, primarily in Romania. It has official status in Romania, Republic of Moldova, …

  • Match the search results: However, the languages closest to Romanian are the other Eastern Romance languages, spoken South of Danube: Aromanian/Macedo-Romanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian, which are sometimes classified as dialects of Romanian. An alternative name for Romanian used by linguists to disambiguate w…

  • Quote from the source:

Multi-read content what language do they speak in romania

Romance languageRoman languageRomance languageRomansh .LanguageAromanian languageLimba Romana (journal)

Romanian
Daco-Romanian
limba romana
articulation [roˈmɨnə]
native to Romania, Moldova
nation Romanians
natives 23.6–24 million (2016)[1] Second language: 4 million speakers L1 L2: 28 million[2]
language family Indo-European

ItalicRomanceEng Romance Oriental Romance Romanian

original form Proto-Romania
dialect Transylvania
Crisana
Moldovan
banat
Wallachian
maramures
Bukovinian
writing system Latin (Romanian alphabet) Cyrillic (Transnistria only) Romanian Braille
Official status
official language in Romania Moldova Serbia (in Vojvodina) European Union
Minority Languages ​​Recognized in Hungary Ukraine
Regulated by Romanian Academy
language code
ISO 639-1 red
ISO 639-2 Rum (B) Ron (T)
ISO 639-3 Ron
Gottolog roma1327
linguasphere 51-AAD-c (same: 51-AAD-ca to -ck)
Blue: Region where Romanian is the dominant language. Cyan: Area with a notable Romanian-speaking minority.
Spread of the Romanian language in Romania, Moldova and the surrounding area
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introduction to IPA icons, see Help: IPA.

play media

Romania

Romanian(obsolete spelling:RomanianorRomanian; Nickname:limba romana [ˈlimba roˈmɨnə] (listen), orromâneşte,lighting ’in Romanian’) is aRomance language of the BalkansSpoken by about 22-26 million people[3][4]as a mother tongue, mainly inRomaniaandMoldovaand by another 4 million people who use a second language.[5][6]According to another estimate, around 34 million people worldwide speak Romanian, 30 million of them as a mother tongue.[7][citation needed for verification]It is the official and national language of both Romania and Moldova and is one of theofficial language of the European Union.

Romanian is one of themSub-branch of Eastern RomanceofRomance language, a group of languages ​​that developed from several dialectsVulgar Latinthat separates fromwestern romanceLanguage in the 5th to 8th centuries.[8th]To distinguish in Eastern Roman languages ​​it is called in comparative linguisticsDaco-Romanianunlike his next,Odor,Megleno-RomaniaandIstro Romania. Romanian is also known asMoldovain Moldova, thoughConstitutional Court of MoldovaDecided in 2013 that “the official language of the Republic is Romanian”.[nb 1]

Muchimmigrant Romanian speakerslive scattered in many other regions and countries worldwide, with large populationsItaly,Spain,Germany, thatUnited Kingdom,Canada, andUnited States of America.

  • 1 story
  • 1.1 History
    1.2 Early History
    1.3 Modern history of the Romanians in Bessarabia
    1.4 Historical Grammar
  • 2 Geographical distribution
  • 2.1 Legal Status

    2.1.1 In Romania
    2.1.2 In Moldova
    2.1.3 In Serbia

    2.1.3.1 Vojvodina
    2.1.3.2 Timok Valley

    2.1.4 Regional language status in Ukraine
    2.1.5 In other countries and organizations

    2.2 As a second and foreign language
    2.3 Popular Culture

  • 3 dialects
  • 4 classification
  • 4.1 Romance Language
    4.2 Balkan language area
    4.3 Slavic Influence
    4.4 Other influences
    4.5 French, Italian and English loanwords
  • 5 Lexis
  • 6 grammar
  • 7 phonology
  • 7.1 Phonetic changes
  • 8 writing system
  • 8.1 Romanian Alphabet
    8.2 Pronunciation
    8.3 Punctuation and Capitalization
    8.4 Academy Spelling Recommendations
    8.5 Romanian text examples
  • 9 See more
  • 10 notes
  • 11 references
  • 12 folders
  • 13 external links

story[Editor]

history of Romania

Prehistoric[Editor]

Oriental Romance languageProto-Romanian languageOriental romantic backgroundSlavic superstar in RomanianList of Romanian words possibly of Dacian originRoman origins

Romanians come fromVulgar Latinsay inRoman provincesofSoutheast Europe.[9]Roman inscriptions show that Latin was mainly used north of the so-calledJireček line(assumed boundary between the predominantly Latin and Greek speaking areas ofBalkan PeninsulaInsideRoman Empire), but the exact area whereProto-Romania(or common Romanian) certainly cannot be identified.[9][ten]Most of the areas where Romanian is widely spoken today—Bessarabia,Bukovina,Crisana,maramures,Moldovaand important parts ofMuntenia—Not incorporated into the Roman Empire.[11]Other areas-banat, west of Muntenia,OlteniaandTransylvania— Founding of the Roman provinceDacia Traianafor about 170 years.[11]According to the “continuum theory”, the site of Proto-Romania’s development included the lands forming present-day Romania (north ofDanube), the opposite “immigrant” theory holds that Proto-Romanian was spoken in the lands south of the Danube, and that Romanian speakers did not settle in most parts of modern Romania until a few centuries later, when the Roman Empire fell.[9][11][quarrel – discussion]

Most scholars agree that the two main dialects developed from common Romanian in the 10th century.[9]Daco-Romanian (official language of Romania and Moldova) andIstro Romania(a language spoken by no more than 2,000 peopleIstria) is derived from the northern dialect.[9]two more languages,OdorandMegleno-Romania, developed from the southern version of Common Romanian.[9]These two languages ​​are spoken today in the countries south of the Jireček Line.[11]

early history[Editor]

The Use of Face ValueRomanian(Romana) for the language and use of nicknamesRomans(Romania) for speakers of this language predated the establishment of the modern state of Romania. The Romans always used the generic term “rumân/român” or regional terms like “ardeleni” (or “ungureni”), “moldoveni” or “munteni” to describe themselves. Both the name “rumână” or “rumâniască” for Romanian and the self-designation “rumân / român” were already used by many foreign visitors to the Romance-Carpathian language area in the 16th century.[Twelfth]as well as in other historical documents written in Romanian at the time, such asNice ării Moldovei(Chronicles of the country of Moldova) aboutGrigor Ureche.

A certified reference to Romanian comes from the Latin title of the oath taken by the Prince of Moldavia in 1485.Stephen the Greatto the king of PolandCasimir, where it is reported”Haec Inscriptio ex Valachico in Latinam Reverse est sed Rex Ruthenica Lingua scriptam accepta” – This inscription was translated from Wallachian (Romanian) into Latin, but the king received it in the Ruthenian (Slavic) language.[13][14]

The oldest surviving document in Romanian remainsLetter from Neacșu(1521) and written in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet used until the end of the 19th century.

1534,Tranquillo AndronicoNote:”Valachi nunc se Romanos vocant”(The Vlachs now call themselves Romans).[15] Francesco Della Vallewrote in 1532 that the Romanscall themselves Romans in their own languageand then he quotes the expression:”Sti Rominest?”because that”Știi Romanește?”(do you speak romanian).[16]

ThatTransylvanian Saxony John Lebelwrote that in 1542″Vlachi” calls itself “Romuini”.[17]

ThatpolishingannalsStanislaus Orzechowski(Orichovius) recorded this in 1554In their language they call themselves Romini from the Romans while we call them Wallachians from the Italians).[18]

ThatCroatiansdirector and diplomatAntun VrancicRecorded that in 1570″The Vlachs of Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia call themselves “Romans”.[19]

Pierre Lescalopierwrote in 1574 that people living in Moldavia, Wallachia and large parts of Transylvania”considering themselves true descendants of the Romans and calling their language Romance, which is Roman”.[20]

After passing throughWallachia,MoldovaandTransylvania Ferrante CapecciIn 1575 it is reported that the Wallachian county population in these regions called themselves”romanesci”(“româneşti”).[21]

InPalia de la Orăştie(1582) Abbreviation”. […] că văzum cum toate limbile au i înfluresc întru cuvintele slăvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii before limbă nu avem fraților români, … le-au scris voo fraților români “[22]

In Letopisețul Țării Moldovei (17th century), written by the Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche, we can read: “n ţara Ardealului nu lacuiescu numai unguri, ce şi wrong peste samă de mulţi români peste tot locul, de mai multu-i ţara la ită de români decât de unguri. ”(“In Transylvania there are not only Hungarians or Saxons, but there are many Romans everywhere.”).[23]

Miron Costin, in hisDe neamul moldovenilor(1687), stating that the Moldovans,Vlachs, and the Romans who lived in itKingdom of Hungarysame origin and say that the people of Moldova call themselvesThe Moldovans, they called their languageRomanian(româneşte) instead ofMoldovan(Moldoveneşte).[24]

ThatTransylvanian Hungarian Martin SzentivanyiQuoted in 1699 as follows:”I say sentem Rumeni”(“We are also Romanians”) and«Speak Sentem to Sange Rumena»(“We are of Romanian blood”).[25]In particular, Szentiványi used an Italian-based spelling to try to write Romanian words.

Dimitrie Cantemir, in hisDescription Moldaviae(Berlin, 1714), indicates that the inhabitants of Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania speak the same language. However, he notes some differences in accent and vocabulary.[26]Cantemir’s work represents one of the earliest histories of language in which he notes howstomach painbefore him development from Latin and attention to Greek and Polish loanwords. Also, he introduces the idea that some words must haveDacianRoot. Cantemir also notes that while the idea of ​​a Latin origin of the language was very popular in his day, other scholars have suggested that it is of Italian origin.

The slow process of making Romanian an official language used by the public, in literature, and in the church began in the late 15th century and ended in the early decades of the 18th century, when the Romanian language was widely used became. from the church. The oldest Romanian texts of a literary nature are religious manuscripts (Codicele Voroneţean,Psaltirea Scheiana), translations of essential Christian texts. This is seen as a propagandistic result of sectarian struggles such asLutheranismandCalvinism, or as an initiative of the monks stationed in RomaniaPeri Monasteryinmaramuresstay away from the influenceMukacheveEparchy in Ukraine.[27]

Recent history of the Romanians in Bessarabia[Editor]

Romania’s National Awakening

The firstRomanian grammarPublished in Vienna in 1780.[28]FollowAnnexation of Bessarabia by Russia(after 1812) Moldavian was established as the official language in government organizationsBessarabia, used in conjunction with Russian,[29]Publishing work founded by TGMGavril Banulescu-Bodoniwas able to produce books and liturgical works in the Moldavian language from 1815 to 1820.[30]

The linguistic situation in Bessarabia from 1812 to 1918 was the gradual developmentbilingual. Russian continued to evolve as the official language of privilege, while Romanian remained the primary mother tongue.[citation required]

The period from 1905 to 1917 was a period of growing linguistic conflicts with the reawakening of Romanian national consciousness.[citation required]1905 and 1906 Bessarabiazemstvacalled for the re-use of Romanian in schools as a “compulsory language” and “the freedom to teach in the mother tongue (Romanian)”. At the same time, newspapers and magazines appeared in Romanian, such asBasarabia(1906),Viata Basarabiei(1907),Moldova(1907),Luminatorul(1908),Cuvint moldovenesc(1913),Glasul Basarabia(1913). Since 1913 the Synod allowed “Churches inBessarabiause the Romanian language”.
Romanian finally becomes the official languageConstitution of 1923.

historical grammar[Editor]

Romanian has received a partLatin Reject, but while Latin has sixcases, from a morphological point of view, Romanian has only three:nominations/accusation,genius/date, and the margin isvocative. Romanian nouns also remain the samesex, although instead of functioning as a distinct gender with its own forms in adjectives, Romanian neuter has become a hybrid of masculine and feminine. ThatverbThe Romanian morphology showed the same behavior for a compoundPerfectandfuturelike other Romance languages. Compared to anotherRomance language, during its development, Romanian simplified the original Latinso dirtysystem in an extreme way,[thirty-one][unreliable source?]especially the lack ofstring tight.[32]

Geographic Distribution[Editor]

List of countries where Romanian is an official languageRomanian Americans

nation Speaker (%) Speaker (Native) national population
World
World 0.33% 23,623,890 7,035,000,000 VND
officially:
Countries where Romanian is an official language
Romania 90.65% 17,263,561 [33] 19,043,767
Moldova 2 82.1% 2,184,065 2,681,735
Transnistria 3 33.0% 156,600 475,665
Vojvodina (Serbia) 1.32% 29,512 1,931,809
Co-official language of the minority areas:
Ukraine 5 0.8% 327,703 48,457,000 won
Unofficially:
Other neighboring European countries (except CIS where Romanian is not official)
Hungary 0.14% 13,886 [34] 9,937,628
Central Serbia 0.4% 35,330 7,186,862
Bulgarian 0.06% 4,575 [35] [full citation required] 7,364,570
114,050,000VND
CIS
Unofficially:
Russia 1 0.06% 92,675 [36] 142.856.536
Kazakhstan 1 0.1% 14,666 14.953.126
Asia
Israeli 2.86% 208,400 [citation needed] 7,412,200
UAE 0.1% 5,000 [citation needed] 4,106,427
Singapore 0.02% 1,400 [citation needed] 5,535,000 won
Japan 0.002% 2.185 [citation required] 126,659,683
Korea 0.0006% 300 [citation needed] 50.004.441
China 0.0008% 12,000 [citation needed] VND1,376,049,000
America
Unofficially:
United States of America 0.10% 340,000 [citation needed] 315.091.138
Canada 0.7% 238,050 [citation needed] 35.151.728
Argentina 0.03% 13,000 [citation needed] 40.117.096
Venezuela 0.036% 10,000 [citation needed] 27.150.095
Brazil 0.002% 4,000 [citation needed] 190.732.694
Oceania
Unofficially:
Australia 0.09% 12,251 [37] 21.507.717
New Zealand 0.08% 3,100 [citation needed] 4,027,947
Africa
Unofficially:
South Africa 0.007% 3,000 [citation needed] 44,819,778
1 Many Moldovans were deported
2 Only data for districts on the right bank of the Dniester (excluding Transnistria and the city of Tighina). In Moldova it is sometimes referred to as “Moldovan language”.
3 In Transnistria, it is officially known as the “Moldovan language” and is written in the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet.
4 Formally divided into Vlach and Romans
5 Mainly in northern Bukovina and southern Bessarabia; according to a Moldavian Noastră study (based on the last Ukrainian census). [38]

Romanian is mainly spoken incenterandBalkan regionfrom southern Europe, although speakers of this language can be found all over the world, mainly due to the emigration of Romanian citizens and immigrants returning to Romania to return to their home country. Romanian speakers make up 0.5% of the world population,[39]and 4% of the world’s Romansh-speaking population.[40]

Romanian is the only official and national language in Romania and Moldova, although it shares official status at the regional level with other languages ​​in the Moldovan Autonomous Region of the Republic of Romania.GagauziaandTransnistria. Romanian is also an official language ofAutonomous Province of Vojvodinain Serbia along with five other languages. The Romanian ethnic minorities encountered in Serbia (Timok Valley), Ukraine (ChernivtsiandOdessa Oblast) and Hungarian (Gyula). Large immigrant communities exist in Italy, Spain, France and Portugal.

In 1995, the largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East was established in Israel, where 5% of the population spoke Romanian.[41][42]Romanian is also used as a second language by people from Arabic speaking countries who have studied in Romania. It is estimated that nearly half a million Middle Eastern Arabs studied in Romania in the 1980s.[43]Small Romanian-speaking communities exist in Kazakhstan and Russia. Romanian is also spoken in Romanian and Moldovan immigrant communities in the United States, Canada and Australia, although they do not form a large homogeneous community across the state.

legal status[Editor]

In Romania[Editor]

CorrespondingRomania’s Constitutionfrom 1991, revised in 2003, Romanian is the official language of the republic.[44]

Romania regulates the use of the Romanian language in official government publications, public education and legal contracts. Advertisements and other public communications must have translations from foreign languages,[45]while commercial signs and logos are mainly written in Romanian.[forty six]

Romanian Language Institute (Institutul Limbii Romane).[47]

Since 2013,Romanian Language Dayheld everyoneAugust 31st.[48][49]

In Moldova[Editor]

Moldovan

Romanian is the official language of the Republic of Moldova. At 1991Declaration of Independencecalled the official language Romanian.[50][51]ThatConstitution of MoldovaState language of the countryMoldova. December 2013 a decision ofConstitutional Court of Moldovadecided that the declaration of independence should take precedence over the constitution and that the official language should be Romanian.[52]

Scholars agree that Moldovan and Romanian are the same languageFame”Moldova” is used in certain political contexts.[53]Since the provincial language law was passed, it has been the only official languageMoldavian SSR1989[54]This law prescribes the use of Moldovan in all political, economic, cultural and social spheres and affirms the existence of a “Moldo-Romanian language identity”.[55]It is also used in schools, mass media, education, and in colloquialism and writing. Outside of politics, the language is often referred to as “Romanian”. In the breakaway region of Transnistria, it’s officialUkrainiansand Russian.

Inside2014 census, of the 2,804,801 people living in Moldova, 24% (652,394) speak Romanian as their most common language, while 56% speak Moldovan. In the city center, the speaker is split equally between the two names (with the capitalKishinevshows a strong preference for the name “Romania”, i.e. 3:2), in rural areas, barely a quarter of Romanian/Moldovan-speakers report Romanian as their first language.[56]The unofficial results of this census initially showed a preference for the Romanian name, however, the initial reports were later dismissed by the Institute of Statistics, leading to media speculation that the census was falsified.[57]

In Serbia[Editor]

Romanian in Serbia

Vojvodina[Editor]

Vojvodina

(See moreThe Romanian of Serbia)

1-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-25% 25-35% over 35%

ThatConstitution of the Republic of Serbiadetermines that in the areas of the Republic of Serbia inhabited by ethnic minorities, their own language and script are also officially used in the manner prescribed by law.[58]

Regulations of the Autonomous ProvinceVojvodinadetermine that along withSerbianand Cyrillic and Latin script as required by law,Croatia,Hungary,Slovak, Romanian andRussian languageand their writings, as well as the languages ​​and writings of other countries, are also officially used in the work of the bodies of the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina in the manner prescribed by law.[59][60]The bodies of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina are: Council, Executive Council and Provincial Administrative Bodies.

The Romanian language and script is officially spoken in eight municipalities:Alibunar,Bela Crkwa(Romanian:Biserika Alba),itiste(Zitişte),Zrenjanin(Zrenianin),Kovačica(Kovacica),Kovin(Cuvin),plandist(Plandişte) andSecanj. In the communityVrsac(Vârșeț), Romanian is official only in the villages ofVojvodinci(voivodeship),Markovac(Marcovăţ),Straža(Straja),mali am(Jamu Mic)Malo Srediste(Srediştea Mica),messi(Mesici),Jablanka,Sočica(Sălciţa),Ritisevo(Counselor),Oregon(Oreșaț) andKüštilj(Coştei).[sixty one]

In the 2002 census, the last census conducted in Serbia, 1.5% of Vojvodin residents spoke Romanian as their first language.

Timok Valley[Editor]

ThatSerbian Vlachsare also considered to speak Romanian.[62]

Regional language status in Ukraine[Editor]

In regions of Ukraine whereRomansmake up a significant part of the local population (districts inChernivtsi,OdesaandZakarpattia oblasts) Romanian is taught in schools as a basic language, and there are newspapers, TV and radio stations in Romanian.[63][sixty-four]ThatUniversity of Chernivtsiin western Ukraine trains teachers for Romanian schools in the subjects of Romanian philology, mathematics and physics.[65]

InHertsa districtof Ukraine as well as in other villages ofChernivtsi OblastandZakarpattia Oblast, Romanian was declared a “regional language” along with Ukrainian until 2012Language law in Ukraine.

In other countries and organizations[Editor]

Romanian community

Romanian is an official or administrative language in various municipalities and organizations, such asLatin UnionandEuropean Union. Romanian is also one of the five languages ​​in which services are held in the autonomous monastic stateMount Athos, spoken in the monastic communities ofprodromeandLakkoskiti. In unrecognized conditionTransnistria, Moldovan is one of the official languages. Unlike all other Romanian dialectsThis Moldovan variety is written in Cyrillic script.

VoivodinaSerbiaolde

As a second and foreign language[Editor]

Romanian is taught in some areas with minority Romanian communities, such asVojvodinain Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Hungary. ThatRomanian Cultural Institute(ICR) has been organizing summer courses in Romanian for language teachers since 1992.[66]There are also non-Romanians learning Romanian as a foreign language, for example the Nicolae Bălcescu High School inGyula, Hungary.

Romanian is written as aforeign languagein higher education, mainly in European countries such as Germany, France and Italy and the Netherlands, as well as in the United States. Altogether it is taught as a foreign language in 43 countries worldwide.[sixty-seven]

Nature over 3% 1-3% less than 1% n / A

The dominant culture[Editor]

Romanian has become popular in other countries through films and songs performed in Romanian. Examples of Romanian activities that have been very successful in non-Romanian countries are the bandozone(with her #1 singleDragostea Din Tei / Numa Numaworldwide 2003–2004),accent(popular in the Netherlands, Poland and other European countries),activated(successful in some Eastern European countries),DJ project(popular as club music)Project SunStroke(known from the viral video “Epic sax guy”) andAlexandra Stan(theMR Saxobeat)” andinnaas well as highly rated movies like4 months, 3 weeks and 2 days,Lazarescu’s death,12:08 East BucharestorCalifornia dreams(all with prices atCannes Film Festival).

In addition, several artists have written songs dedicated to the Romanian language. Multi-platinum pop trioozone(of Moldovan origin) released a song called “Nu ma las de limba noastra”(“I will not give up our language”). The last line of this song,Eu nu mă las de limba noastra, de limba noastra cea românătranslated into English as “I will not give up our language, our Romanian language”. Also Moldovan musiciansDoina and Ion Aldea Teodoroviciplayed a song called “Romanian”.

dialect[Editor]

Romanian dialect

Romanian[68]includes four varieties: (Dako-)Romanian,Odor,Megleno-Romania, andIstro RomaniaWithDaco-Romanianis the default race. The origin of the term “Daco-Romania” can be traced back to the first printed Romanian grammar book from 1780,[28]aboutSamuel MicúandGeorge incai. The Romanian dialect is spoken there in the northDanubecalledDaco-Romanian languageto highlight its origin and area of ​​use, includingRomanprovince ofdacia, although it is also spoken south of the Danube, inDobrogea,Central Serbiaand Northern Bulgaria.

This article is about the Romanian language (i.e. Daco-Romanian) and therefore only its dialect variations will be discussed here. Differences between regional varieties are small, limited to frequent phonetic changes, some grammatical aspects, and lexical features. There is a single standard written Romanian (literary) language used by all speakers regardless of region. Like most natural languages, the Romanian dialect is one of themcontinuous dialect. The dialects of Romania are also mentionedsubdialectsand differ mainly by phonetic differences. The Romans themselves spoke of the difference asTo markorspeech(in Romanian:volumeorGray).[69]

Depending on the criteria used to classify these dialects, fewer or more are found, ranging from 2 to 20, although the most common approaches give a count of five dialects. They are divided into two main categories, South and North, which are further divided as follows:

  • The southern type has only one member:
  • The Wallachian dialect spoken in the southern part of Romania, in the historical regions of Muntenia, Oltenia and the southern part of North Dobruja, but also spreading to the southern parts of Transylvania.
  • The northern type includes several dialects:
  • the Moldavian dialect spoken in the historic region of Moldova, currently divided between Romania, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine (Bukovina and Bessarabia) and the northern part of North Dobruja;
    the Banat dialect spoken in the historical Banat region, including parts of Serbia;
    a group of subdivided and transitional genera in Transylvania, of which two are often most clearly distinguished, Crișana and Maramureș.

However, over the past century, regional accents have been weakened by mass communication and greater mobility.

Somethingargumentativeand language forms have also emerged from the Romanian language. example isGumuteasca, say insideMargau,[70][71]andTotoiana, a reverse “version” of spoken RomanianTotoi.[72][seventy-three][74]

Classify[Editor]

Romance language[Editor]

Romance language

Romanian is a Romance language, belonging toinclined branchlaterIndo-European language family, has a lot in common with languages ​​like Italian, Spanish, French and Portuguese.[75]

However, the languages ​​closest to Romanian are differentRomance language of the Balkans, speaking south of the Danube:Odor,Megleno-RomaniaandIstro Romania. An alternative name for Romanian, used by linguists to distinguish it from other Romance languages ​​of the Balkans, is “Daco-Romanian”, which refers to the area where it was spoken (roughly corresponding to the same period).Romanprovince ofdacia).

Compared to other Romance languages, Italian is the closest relative of Romanian.[75]Romanian has a greater proportion of foreign influence than some other Romance languages ​​such as Italian in terms of vocabulary and other aspects. A study conducted byMario Pei1949 Analysis of the degree to which languages ​​differ from the languages ​​of their parents (in the case ofRomance languagearriveLatinto comparephonetics,bent,discourse,syntax,vocabulary, andvolume) results in the following percentages (the higher the percentage, the greater the distance to the Latin word):[76]

  • Sardinia
  • : 8th%
  • Italy: 12%
  • Spanish: 20%
  • Romanian: 23.5%
  • Occitan
  • : 25%
  • Portuguese: 31%
  • French: 44%

Thatlexical similarityRomanian with Italian estimated at 77%, followed by French at 75%, Sardinian 74%, Catalan 73%, and PortugueseRomansh72%, Spaniards 71%.[77]

Romanian vocabulary was mainly influenced by French and to a lesser extent Italian in the 19th and early 20th centuries.[78]

Language area Balkans[Editor]

ThatDacian languageIs aIndo-European languagesspoken by the ancient Dacians, mainly north of the Danube, but also inMoesiaand other regions south of the Danube. It may have been the first to influence the Latin spoken in Dacia, but few people know about it. The Dacian is generally considered to be the northern branch of the DacianThracian languageand like Thracian, Dacian is oneSatem language.

About 300 words occur only in Romanian or with a compound wordAlbaniancan be inherited from Dacian (e.g.:barza”stork”,Balaur”dragon”,times”Beach”,branza”Cheese”).[citation required]Some Dacian words may refer to pastoral life (e.g.branza”Cheese”). Some linguists and historians have claimed that the Albanians were Dacians who had not been Romanized and who migrated south.[79]

Another view belonging to the “immigrant theory” is that non-Latin words become Albanianrelatednot necessarily Dacians, but were introduced to the area of ​​modern Romania by Romance speakersOdorShepherds who migrated north from Albania, Serbia and northern Greece became Romanians.[80]

Although much of Romanian grammar and morphology is based on Latin, there are some features shared only with other Balkan languages ​​and not found in other Romance languages. Common Features of Romanian and Other Languages ​​ofLanguage area Balkans(Bulgarian,Macedonians,Albanians, Greek andSerbo-Croatian) contains a suffixdefinite article, thatsynchronismof genitive and dative as well as the formation of the future tense and the replacement of the infinitive by subjunctive constructions.[81][82]According to a sound academic theory, most Balkan schools can be traced back to the development of the Balkan Romance languages; These functions have been adopted due to other languageschange language.[83]

Slavic influence[Editor]

Slavic influence on Romanian

The Slavic influence on Romanian is particularly noticeable in its vocabulary, with words of Slavic origin accounting for around 10-15% of modern Romanian vocabulary.[84][85]and with further influences in its phonetics, morphology and syntax. Much of his Slavic vocabulary comes fromOld Slavic Church,[eighty-six][eighty seven]it is the official written language ofWallachiaandMoldovafrom the 14th to the 18th century (although most people don’t understand it) as wellliturgical languagelaterRomanian Orthodox Church.[88][89]As a result, much Romanian vocabulary related to religion, ritual and hierarchy is Slavic.[90][88]The number of high frequency words of Slavic origin is also said to indicate contact or coexistenceSouth Slavictribes from the 6th century, although where it took place is disputed (seeRoman origins).[88]Words borrowed in this way tend to be more native (cfsfarsi, “to end”, withsăvârşi, “commit”).[90]Such is this level of borrowing that some scholars have mistakenly considered Romanian to be a Slavic language.[91][92][ninety three]It has also been argued that Slavic borrowing was an important factor in the development of[ɨ](Ianda ) as a separate thingmonosyllabic.[ninety four]

Other influences[Editor]

Even before the 19th century, Romanian came into contact with several other languages. Notable examples of lexical borrowing include:

  • German
  • :
  • Car
  • <
  • Potato
  • “Potato”,
  • bere
  • <
  • stretcher
  • “Beer”,
  • urban
  • <
  • screw
  • “Screw”,
  • turn
  • <
  • Tower
  • “Tower”,
  • ram
  • <
  • frame
  • “Frame”,
  • mustiuc
  • <
  • mouthpiece
  • “Mouth”,
  • bormaşină
  • <
  • drilling machine
  • “drill”,
  • cremation
  • <
  • cream cuts
  • “Ice”,
  • father
  • <
  • Swiss
  • “Swiss cheese”,
  • lep
  • <
  • barge
  • “lighter”,
  • priţ
  • <
  • spritzer
  • “Wine with soda water”,
  • abți picture
  • <
  • decal
  • “Sticker”,
  • drizzle
  • <
  • (Schnitzel
  • “a shredded cutlet”,
  • me
  • <
  • taster
  • “taste (not interested in buying)”,
  • approx
  • scoundrel
  • (
  • ham
  • ) “Ham”,
  • Point
  • <
  • Point
  • “Just”,
  • maize tru
  • <
  • master
  • “Master”,
  • rounda
  • <
  • round
  • “Ring”.

Also on timeHabsburgand then,shirtRulebanat,Transylvania, andBukovina, a large number of words were borrowedAustrian High German, especially in areas such as military, administration, social affairs, economy, etc.[95]Later, German terms from science and technology were dropped, such as:in one

  • Greek
  • :
  • leaves
  • <
  • ofelos
  • “to use”,
  • buzunar
  • <
  • buzunara
  • “the pocket”,
  • proaspăt
  • <
  • prosfatos
  • “fresh”,
  • cute
  • <
  • Careful
  • “Crate”,
  • portocale
  • <
  • postage
  • “oranges”. While Latin borrows words of Greek origin, Romanian has its own Greek loanwords. Greek input into Romanian through
  • apoikiai
  • (colonial) and
  • galleries
  • (commercial stations) established in and around
  • Dobrogea
  • , by the presence of
  • Byzantine Empire
  • North of
  • Danube
  • , because
  • Bulgarian
  • during the Bulgarian Empires the Romans converted to Orthodox Christianity and after the Greek Civil War when thousands of Greeks fled Greece.
  • Hungary
  • :
  • a Cheltui
  • <
  • kolteni
  • “Spend”,
  • a făgădui
  • <
  • fog
  • “promise”,
  • a mantua
  • <
  • Menteni
  • “to save”,
  • oras
  • <
  • Varos
  • “City”;
  • Turkey
  • :
  • Papuc
  • <
  • pabuç
  • “Sandal”,
  • ciorba
  • <
  • Corba
  • “sour soup, sour soup”,
  • bacșiș
  • <
  • bahşiş
  • “Tip” (finally from Persian
  • baksheesh
  • );
  • Next,
  • Romance language
  • offered a wide range of Romanian slang words such as:
  • misto
  • “good, nice, great” <
  • misto
  • ,
  • [96]
  • gagica
  • “Girl, girlfriend” <
  • Gadji
  • ,
  • a Hale
  • “eaten and devoured” <
  • gloriole
  • ,
  • mandea
  • “your real” <
  • Mande
  • ,
  • a lack
  • “steal” <
  • manglo
  • .

French, Italian and English loanwords[Editor]

Reromanized Romanian

Since the 19th century, many literary or scholarly words have been borrowed from other Romance languages, particularly French and Italian (e.g.:Birou”Writing desk”,avion”planes”,discover”Exploit”). It is estimated that around 38% of Romanian words are of French and/or Italian origin (both languages ​​in many cases); and add this to the Romanian inventory, about 75%-85% of Romanian words can be traced back to Latin. Use of these romanized French and Italian loanwords tends to increase at the expense of Slavic loanwords, many of which have become rare or disused. As a second or third language, French and Italian are better known in Romania than in Romania’s neighboring countries. Along with the conversion to the Latin alphabet in Moldova, lexical redistribution has tended to strengthen the Latin character of the language.

In the process of lexical modernization, much of the native Latin stock acquired compound words from theRomance language, thereby forming a class of increasingly modern literary vocabulary. Usually the native word is a noun and the learned borrowed word is an adjective. Some examples of duplicates:

Latin original stock learned loans
agilis ‘hurry up’ ager ‘clever’ agil ‘agile’ (
seawater apa ‘water’ acvatic ‘aquatique’ (
tight dinte ‘teeth’ dentist ‘dentist’ (
director drawt’ straight; that’s right’ direct ‘direct’ (
frigidus ‘cold’ (adj.) Frig ‘cold’ (noun) Frigid ‘Frigid’ (
fastus give up ‘quickly’ fast ‘fast’ (

During the 20th century, English loanwords (such as:gem

lexis[Editor]

VRLR

A statistical analysis sorting Romanian words by etymological source was performed by Macrea (1961).[eighty-six]based on DLRM[97](49,649 words) features the following makeups:[eighty seven]

  • 43% new love loans (mainly French: 38.42%, Latin: 2.39%, Italian: 1.72%)
  • 20% have inherited Latin
  • 11.5% Slavic (
  • Old Slavic Church
  • : 7.98%, Bulgarian: 1.78%, Bulgarian-Serbian: 1.51%)
  • 8.31% Unknown/unknown origin
  • 3.62% Turkish
  • 2.40% Modern Greek
  • 2.17% Hungary
  • 1.77% Germans (incl
  • Austrian High German
  • )
  • [95]
  • 2.24% onomatopoeia

Restricting the analysis to a core lexicon of 2,500 common, semantically rich, and productive words, Latin succession ranks first, followed by Romance and Classical Latin theology, with Slavic loanwords in third place.

Romanians have onelexical similarity77% with Italian, 75% with French, 74% withSardinia, 73% withCatalan, 72% with Portuguese andRheto-romanticism, 71% with Spanish.[98]

Romanian by word origin [84] [99]

Romance and Latin

78%

Slavic

14%

Germanic (German influence, English loanword)

2.54%

Greek

1.7%

Miscellaneous

5.49%

Although they are rarely used today,Romanian calendarused to have traditional Romanian month names unique to the language.[100]

Thatlongest word in romanianTo bePneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcaniconioză, with 44 letters,[101]but the longest admitted byDicționarul explicativ al limbii române(“Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language”, DEX) iselectroglotospectrography, with 25 letters.[102][103]

grammar[Editor]

Romanian grammar

Romanian nouns are marked by gender (female, masculine and exotic) andRejectafter numbers (singular and plural) and capital letters (nominations/accusation,date/geniusandvocative). Articles, like most adjectives and pronouns,agreein gender, number and case with the noun they modify.

Romanian is the only Romance language theredefinite articleto bewrap: that is, attached to the end of a noun (as inScandinavian,BulgarianandAlbanians), instead of before (subclinical).[104]As in other Romance languages, they were formed from Latin indicative pronouns.

As in all Romance languagesRomanian verbsvalued in terms of people, numbers, stress levels, moods and voices. The usual word order in a sentence issubject verb object(SVO). Romanian has four wordsAssociationwhich is further divided into ten conjugate patterns. Verbs can be placed in the yearmoodmade for this person (Instruction,conditional/insight,assignments,ideological, andadoption) and four impersonal moods (prototype,jerboa,hang up, andparticiple).

phonetics[Editor]

Romanian phonology

Romanian has sevenvocal:/I/,//,/u/,/e/,//,/O/and/a/. Next,//and/y/may appear in someborrowed. Probably the squid/e̯a/and/o̯a/is also part of the phoneme. There are twenty-two consonants. Bothapproximate person /j/and/w/can appear before or after any vowel, creating a large number of vowel chains, strictly speaking notoctopus.

In the last positions after the consonant a short one/I/can be removed and only appears aseat lightlyof the preceding consonant (for example:[m]). Likewise a/u/can rememberlabializationof a preceding consonant, although this no longer has any morphological meaning.

phonetic change[Editor]

Change the audio from Latin to Romanian

Due to its isolation from other Romance languages, Romanian’s phonetic evolution is quite different, but the language has some changes with Italian, such as[kl]→[kj](lat.classarus → Robinson.spendar, italics.spendaro, Lat. Shouting → Robinson.Home pageMare, Italy.spendAmare) and[ɡl]→[ɡj](lat.*glAcia (glacies) → Rom.boatata, Italy.Write theaccia,Write theAccio, Lat. * ungla (Ungula) → Robinson. U.NWrite thee, italics. U.NWrite thea), which, however, does not go as far as in Italian with other similar accumulations (Rom.You’re welcomeace, oblique.piaces); Another similarity with Italian is the word change[ke]or[ki]arrive[tʃe]or[t](lat. pax, pacem → Robinson. and Italy. fatherc.e, Latin ducem → Robinson. duc.e, italics. Puppetce, Latincircus → Rom.c.erc, tilted.ciRC) and[ɡe]or[ɡi]arrive[dʒe]or[the](lat.gelu → Rom.ger, italics.geSee, Lat. to damageHourSpring rolls → straw. and Italy. to damageHourno, Latingeonly → Rom.geI (geonly), italics.gejust). There are also some changes to be shared withDalmatian, such as/ɡn/(Probably phonetically[ŋn]) →[minutes](lat. Cognatus → Robinson. cuMnat, Dalm. coMnu) and/ks/→[ps]in some situations (Latin coxa → Roman coap.suh, Dalmatian. cop.sa).

Notable phonetic changes include:

  • bilingual e and o → ea and oa, before ă (or both e, in the case of o) in the next syllable:

Latin cera → Rom. ceara (wax)
Latin sole → Roman to rise (sun)

  • iotation
  • [e]
  • [IE]
  • at the beginning of the word

Latin herba → Rom. iarbă (grass, herb)

  • velar
  • [k]
  • → labial
  • [pbm]
  • before the alveolar consonant and
  • [w]
  • (for example.
  • sleep
  • mb
  • ):

Latin Octo → Rom. choose (eight)
Latin language → Rom. limbă (tongue, speech)
Latin sign → Rom. semn (character)
Latin coxa → Rom. coapsă (thigh)

  • rotatism
  • [l]
  • [r]
  • between vowels

Latin caelum → Roman Cer (heaven)

  • alveoli
  • [DT]
  • harmony with
  • [(d)z] [ts]
  • if before shortly
  • [e]
  • or long
  • [I]

Latin deus → Roman Zeu (god)
Latin Principle → Rom. ine (hold)

Romanian has completely lost Latin/kw/(q), close it/p/(lat.qattuor → rom.patru, “four”; cf. It.Quattro) or/k/(lat.qando → Rom.balance, “When”; LatinqAle → Rom.Care, “that”). In fact, in modern redistribution there are separate instances of /kw/, as incueternar”quaternary”, it usually has the same form as German /kv/, as inactive, “Water”. Remarkably, it also failed to develop a bland sound//and//, which exists at least historically in all other major Romance languages ​​and even in neighboring non-Romance languages, such asSerbianandHungary. However, other Byzantine languages ​​retained these sounds, so it is possible that Old Romanian had them too.

writing system[Editor]

Letter from Neacșu

The first record was written about aRomance languageSaid to date back to 587 in the Balkans in the Middle Ages. A follower of Vlach, traveling with the Byzantine army, noticed a load falling from one of the animals and called out to an attendant.Torna, Torna, brother!(means “Return, return, brothers!”).Theophanes confessorrecorded it as part of a 6th-century military expeditioncommentandPriscusagainst the Avars and Slovenes.[105]

The oldest surviving text in Romanian is a letter from late June 1521,[106]where Neacșu fromcompulationwrote to the mayor ofBrasovabout an imminent Turkish attack. It is also writtenCyrillic alphabet, like most early Romanian works. The earliest surviving Latin script dates from the late 16th centuryTransylvaniatext written insideHungarian alphabetconventions.

Romanian Kirin Alphabet

In the 18th century,TransylvaniaScholars note the Latin origin of the Romanian language and make adjustmentsLatin alphabetinto the Romanian language, with some orthodox rulesItalian, is considered the closest relative of Romania. The Cyrillic alphabet remained in use (descending) until 1860, when the Romanian script was first officially administered.

InsideSoviet Republic of Moldova, is of Russian descentMoldovan Cyrillic alphabetused until 1989 when the Romanian Latin alphabet was introduced; The Cyrillic alphabet is still used in the breakaway areas of Transnistria.[107]

Romanian alphabet[Editor]

Romanian alphabetRomanian famous letters

The Romanian alphabet is as follows:

capital city

A

A

A

CLEAR

OLD

EASY

E

f

WOOD

H

I

I

J

KY

SERVICES

United States of America

WOMEN

O

P

Q

CHEAP

S

S

BILLION

u

TO DRAW

W

X

Y

Z

lowercase letters

a

a

a

b

c

i.e

e

f

G

H

I

I

j

k

l

m

WOMEN

O

P

q

right

S

S

t

and

v

w

x

j

e.g

phonemic

/a/

//

//

/b/

/k/, /t͡ʃ/

/d/

/e/, /e̯/, /je/

/f/

/ɡ/, /d͡ʒ/

/h/, mute

/i/, /j/, /ʲ/

//

//

/k/

/l/

/m/

/N/

/o/, /o̯/

/p/

/k/

/r/

/S/

//

/t/

/t͡s/

/u/, /w/

/v/

/v/, /w/, /u/

/ks/, /ɡz/

/j/, /i/

/z/

K, Q, W and Y, which are not part of the native alphabet, were officially introduced into the Romanian alphabet in 1982 and are mainly used to write loanwords such askg,quasar,Impressive, andyoga.

Romanian alphabet based onLatin scriptwith five additional lettersA,A,I,S, . Up to 12 letters were previously added, but some of these were eliminated in later reforms. Also, until the early 20th century, a beer marker was used that only existed in ă.

Today the Romanian alphabet is mainly usedphonetically. However, the lettersa andIboth represent the same thingclose vowels do not surround the center //.Aonly used within words;Iused at the beginning or end of compound words and between compound words. Another exception to the purely phonetic spelling is the fact thatvocaland their respectivesemi-vowelsnot differentiated in writing. In the dictionary, distinctions are marked by hyphenating the entry wordrhythmincluded for wordsdiscontinuity.

Stressed vowels are also not emphasized in the text, except in very rare cases where a misplaced stress can change their meaning and when the meaning is unclear from the context. E.g.copymeans “three children” duringtiltmeans “three copies”.

articulation[Editor]

Romanian Alphabet vs. Â

  • H
  • not as silent as in other Romance languages ​​such as Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan and French, but represents phonemes
  • / H /
  • , except in the graph
  • CH
  • /k/ and
  • GH
  • /g/ (see below)
  • j
  • Representative
  • //
  • , as in French, Catalan or Portuguese (written out loud with )
  • S
  • in the English words “Vision, Joy, Treasure”).
  • There are two letters with commas underneath,
  • S
  • and
  • , stands for sound
  • //
  • and
  • /t͡s/
  • . Signed letters instead of commas,
  • S
  • and
  • , used to be popular
  • Unicode
  • and the original Unicode
  • character set
  • Standard shape is not included.
  • The final official version
  • I
  • after a consonant usually indicates a fading of the consonant
  • [citation required]
  • (for example.,
  • magnifying glass
  • /magnifying glass/
  • “wolf” vs.
  • lupi
  • /lupʲ/
  • “Wolf”) – it is
  • not
  • pronounced like Italian
  • lupi
  • (also means “wolf”) and is an example of
  • Slavic
  • Influence on Romanian
  • [citation required]
  • .
  • a
  • Represent
  • black
  • ,
  • //
  • .
  • I
  • and
  • a
  • both stand for sound
  • //
  • . In fast language (e.g. country name),
  • a
  • sounds similar to a normal listener for short tones
  • black
  • sound
  • a
  • (As a matter of fact,
  • Odor
  • put two together, they write
  • a
  • ), but careful speakers will distinguish sounds. The closest equivalent is the vowel on the last syllable of the word
  • rose
  • for some English speakers. It also roughly corresponds to Portuguese in Europe
  • //
  • , polishing
  • j
  • or Russians
  • I
  • .
  • letter
  • e
  • usually represent
  • The center of the front is not surrounded
  • vocal
  • [e]
  • , as in the English word
  • place
  • . However, the letter
  • e
  • is pronounced
  • [ever]
  • ([j] pronounced like the ‘y’ in ‘you’) when it is the first letter of any form of the verb
  • a fi
  • “to be” or personal pronouns, for example
  • ester
  • /jester/
  • “is and
  • El
  • /jel/
  • “he”.
  • [108]
  • [109]
  • This addition of semi-raw
  • /j/
  • does not appear in newer loans and their derivatives, such as
  • epoch
  • “Epoch”,
  • electricity
  • “Electricity” etc. Some words (e.g
  • i.e. pure
  • “Hare”, spelled earlier
  • epur
  • ) is now written with the initials
  • I
  • represent half number.
  • x
  • represents one of two phonemic sequences
  • /ks/
  • as in
  • Expression
  • = expression, or
  • /z/
  • as in
  • exemplary
  • = for example as in English.
  • Like the letters in Italian
  • c
  • and
  • G
  • represent those who suffer
  • /tʃ/
  • and
  • /dʒ/
  • in front
  • I
  • and
  • e
  • , and
  • /k/
  • and
  • //
  • elsewhere. When
  • /k/
  • and
  • //
  • followed by vowels
  • /e/
  • and
  • /I/
  • (or their respective
  • semi-vowels
  • or the final
  • //
  • ) graphics
  • CH
  • and
  • GH
  • used instead
  • c
  • and
  • G
  • , as shown in the table below. However, unlike Italian, Romanian uses
  • ce-
  • and
  • ge
  • to write
  • /t͡ʃ/
  • and
  • /d͡ʒ/
  • before a central vowel
  • ci-
  • and
  • What-
  • .
society, group monosyllabic articulation examples
ce, ci /tʃ/ ch in chest, cheeks cerc (circle), ceașcă (cup), cercel (earring), cină (dinner), ciocan (hammer)
cover, chi /k/ k in the kettle, kiss cheie (keys), chelner (waiter), chio (kiosk), chitară (guitar), ureche (ear)
held /dʒ/ j in jelly, puzzle ger (frost), gimnast (gymnast), gem (jam), girafă (giraffe), geantă (bag)
boat, record // get, give Ghețar (glacier), Ghid (leader), Ghindă (acorn), Ghidon (handle stick), Stingher (lonely)

punctuation and capitalization[Editor]

The special usage of punctuation marks for Romanian is:

  • use quotes
  • Polished format
  • in the format “quote” within “quote”, i.e. “. . . ” for a normal quotation mark and the double chevron symbols for a quotation mark within a quotation mark.
  • Proper citation that spans multiple paragraphs does not begin each paragraph with a quotation mark; A pair of double quotes is always used, no matter how many paragraphs are quoted.
  • Conversations are marked by
  • Hyphens in quotation marks
  • .
  • That
  • Oxford comma
  • before “and” is considered incorrect (“red, yellow, and blue” is the correct format).
  • Punctuation marks that follow text in parentheses always follow the last parenthesis.
  • In the title, only the first letter of the first word is capitalized, the rest of the title uses sentence capitalization (with all its rules: proper names are capitalized as usual, etc.).
  • Month and day names are not capitalized (
  • januarie
  • “January”,
  • yeah
  • “Thursday”).
  • Adjectives derived from proper nouns are not capitalized (
  • Germania
  • “Germany”, but
  • German
  • “German”).

Academy spelling suggestions[Editor]

In 1993, new spelling rules were proposedRomanian Academy. In 2000, the Moldovan Academy recommended using the same spelling rules,[110]and in 2010 the Academy instituted a transition plan to the new rules, due to be completed by publication in 2011.[111]

On October 17, 2016, Minister of Education Corina Fusu signed Decree No. 872 on the adoption of revised spelling rules according to the recommendations of the Moldovan Academy of Sciences, which came into force on the day of signing (to be filled in). Years). From this date, the spelling of the institutions of the Ministry of Education follows the 1993 recommendation of the Romanian Academy. However, the order does not apply to other government bodies, and Law 3462 of 1989 (which provides the means of translating from Cyrillic to Latin) is not amended to to reflect those changes; Therefore, these organizations, along with most Moldovans, prefer the spelling adopted in 1989 (when the written Latin language became official).

Romanian text example[Editor]

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should work together in a spirit of brotherhood.
(World Declaration of Human Rights)

Sentences in contemporary Romanian. Words directly derived from Latin are marked:

Toate fiinţele umane se nasc libere i egale în demnitate n drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu rațiune i conștiință i trebuie will comporte unele față de altele n Spiritul fraternității.

Similar sentences, with French and Italianloanmarked instead:

Toate fiinţele umane se nasc libere i egale în demnitate n drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu rațiune i conștiință i trebuie will comporte unele față de altele n Spiritul fraternității.

Sentences were rewritten to exclude French and Italian loanwords. Emphasized Slavic loanwords:

Toate ființele omenești se nasc slobode i deopotrivă în destinicie n drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu înțelegere i cuget i trebuie să se poarte unele față de altele în duh de frățietate.

The sentence is rewritten to exclude any borrowed words. The meaning is somewhat compromised due to the lack of native vocabulary:

Toate ființele omenești se nasc nesupuse i asemenea în prețuire i în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu înțelegere și cuget și se cuvine să se poarte unele față de altele După firea frăției.

See more[Editor]

  • Romanian portal
  • Portal Moldova
  • voice portal
  • Albanian-Romanian language relationship
  • legacy of the Roman Empire
  • Romanian encyclopedias
  • Roman coding
  • Moldovan
  • BABEL Speech Corpus
  • Controversy over national and linguistic identity in Moldova
  • Moldovan-Romanian Relations

note[Editor]

  1. ^
  2. The Constitution of Moldova designates the national language as Moldova, while the 1991 Declaration of Independence names Romania as the official language. In December 2013, the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence took precedence over the Constitution and therefore the state language was Romanian and not “Moldovan”. “The Moldovan court rules that the official language is ‘Romanian’ and replaces ‘Moldova’ with a Soviet flavor”

moderator[Editor]

  1. ^
  2. Romanian in Ethnologue (19th edition, 2016)
  3. ^
  4. “Romania” [Romania]. Union Latine (in Romanian).
  5. ^
  6. “Romanian”. learn languages ​​effectively. April 2, 2011.
  7. ^
  8. “Romanian”. MustGo.com.
  9. ^
  10. The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers of Romanian, of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language: Latin Union – The Adventure of Languages: ro, es, fr, it, pt; see also Ethnographic Report for the Romanian language
  11. ^
  12. The language is spoken by more than 10 million people. Microsoft Encarta 2006. Original archived October 29, 2009. Accessed July 22, 2007.
  13. ^
  14. Petit Fute: Romania. Editions / Edition 2004–2005, ISBN 2-7469-1132-9, p. 37.
  15. ^
  16. “Istoria limbii române” (“History of the Romanian Language”), II, Academia Română, Bucharest, 1969
  17. ^ a b c d e f
  18. Petrucci 1999, p. 4.
  19. ^
  20. Andrew
  21. ^ a b c d
  22. Andrew
  23. ^
  24. Ştefan Pascu, Documente străine despre români, ed. Arhivelor statului, Bucureşti 1992, ISBN 973-95711-2-3
  25. ^
  26. Dahmen, Wolfgang (2008). “External Linguistic History of Romanian”. In Ernst, Gerhard; Glessgen, Martin-Dietrich; Schmitt, Christian; Schweickard, Wolfgang (reprint). Romance Language History: An International Guide to the History of the Romance Languages ​​/ Histoire linguistique de la Romania: Manuel international d’histoire linguistique de la Romania. Volume 1. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 738. ISBN 3-11-014694-0.
  27. ^
  28. Tomescu, Mircea (1968). Istoria cărții românești de la începuturi până la 1918 (in Romanian). Bucureşti: Editura ştiinşifică. p. 40.
  29. ^
  30. Tranquillo Andronico în Endre Veress, Fontes rerum transylvanicarum: Erdélyi történelmi források, Történettudományi Intézet, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Budapest, 1914, p. 204
  31. ^
  32. “… si dimandano in lingua loro Romei … se alcuno dimanda se sano parlare in la lingua valacca, dicono a questo in questo modo: Sti Rominest? Che vol dire: Sai tu Romano? …” în: Claudiu Isopescu , Note in torno ai romeni nella letteratura geografica italiana del Cinquecento, în Bulletin de la Section Historique, XVI, 1929, p. 1- 90
  33. ^
  34. “Ex Vlachi Valachi, Romanenses Italiani, / Quorum Relquae Romanensi lingua utuntur … / Solo Romanos nomine, sin re, representativetes./Ideirco vulgariter Romuini sunt appelanti”, Ioannes Lebelius, De opido Thalmus, Carmen Istoricum, 17, Cibini . 11 – 12
  35. ^
  36. “qui eorum lingua Romini ab Romanis, nostra Walachi, ab Italis appellantur” St. Orichovius, Annales polonici ab toou Sigismundi, in I. Dlugossus, Historiae polonicae libri XII, column 1555
  37. ^
  38. “… Valacchi, qui se Romanos nominate …” “Gens quae ear terras (Transylvaniam, Moldaviam et Transalpinam) nostra aetate incolite, Valacchi sunt, eaque a Romania ducit originem, tametsi nomine longe alieno …” De situ Transsylvaniae , Moldaviae et Transaplinae, in Monumenta Hungariae Historica, Scriptores; II, Pesta, 1857, p. 120
  39. ^
  40. “Tout ce pay: la Wallachie, la Moldavie et la plus part de la Transylvanie, a esté peuplé des colonies romaines du temps de Trajan l’empereur … Ceux du pay se disent vrais successeurs des Romains et nahmet leur parler romanechte, c ‘est -à-dire romain … “în Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l’an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, în: Paul Cernovodeanu, Studii și materiale de istorie Middleă, IV, 1960, p. 444
  41. ^
  42. “Anzi essi si chiamano romanesci, e vogliono molti che erano mandati qu quei che erano dannati a cavar metalli …” în: Maria Holban, Călători străini despre Țările Române, București, Editura Stiințifică, 1970, book. II, pp. 158–161
  43. ^
  44. Palia de la Orăștie (1581–1582), Bucharest, 1968
  45. ^
  46. Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul ării Moldovei, pp. 133–134
  47. ^
  48. Constantiniu, Florin, O istorie Sinceră a poporului român (Honest History of the Romanians), Encyclopedia, București, 1997, ISBN 97-3924-307-X, p. 175
  49. ^
  50. “Valachos … dicunt enim communi modo loquendi: Sie noi sentem Rumeni: etiam nos sumus Romani p. 39
  51. ^
  52. From Descriptio Moldaviae: “Valachie et Transylvaniae incolis eadem est cum Moldavis lingua, pronunciatio tamen rudior, ut dziur, Vlachus proferet zur, jur, per z polonicum sive junc gallicum; Dumnezeu, Deus, acz: Dumnezeu val. hic, val: ahela. “
  53. ^
  54. Munteanu, Eugene. “Dinamica istorică a tuvării creating chemical limbii române”. Revista română., În Iași, anul IV, nr. 4 (34), December 2003, p. 6 (I), no. 1 (35), martie 2004, p. 7 (II); No. 2, June 2004, p. 6 (III); No. 3, October 2004, p. 6 (IV); No. 4 (38), December 2004, p. 6(V). Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  55. ^ a b
  56. Micu, Samuel; Şincai, Gheorghe (1780). Elementa linguae daco-romanae sive valachicae (in Latin). Vienna.
  57. ^
  58. (in Russian) Charter for Bessarabia Oblast, April 29, 1818, under “Печатается по изданию: Полное собрание законов Российвикой импе18рери. 222–227. Available online at chrono
  59. ^
  60. King, Charles (2000). Moldovans: Romania, Russia and cultural policy. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institute Press. pages 21-22. ISBN 08-1799-792-X.
  61. ^
  62. D’hulst, Yves; Coene, Martine; Avram, Larissa (2004). “Synchronous and analytic tenses in Romanian: Romantic scenes in the Balkans”. In Mišeska Tomić, Olga (ed.). Balkan syntax and semantics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishers. District 366. doi: 10.1075/la.67.18dhu. ISBN 978-90-272-2790-4. During its development, Romanian greatly simplified the original Latin time system.
  63. ^
  64. D’hulst, Yves; Coene, Martine; Avram, Larisa (2004). “Synchronous and analytic tenses in Romanian: Romantic scenes in the Balkans”. In Mišeska Tomić, Olga (ed.). Balkan syntax and semantics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishers. District 355. doi: 10.1075/la.67.18dhu. ISBN 978-90-272-2790-4. the general lack of continuous stimulation.
  65. ^
  66. “Archival Copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 25, 2021. Retrieved August 26, 2012. {{Web cite}} : CS1 maint: archived copy as header (link)
  67. ^
  68. “2011 Hungarian Census” (PDF). Archived original (PDF) July 17, 2019. Accessed April 2, 2013.
  69. ^
  70. ethnologist. com
  71. ^
  72. Russian Census 2010 Perepis 2010
  73. ^
  74. Statistics, c = AU; o = Commonwealth of Australia; ou = Australia’s office. “redirect to census data page”. www.abs.gov.au.
  75. ^
  76. RDSCJ.ro Archived March 22, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^
  78. “Latin Union – Language and Culture Online 2005”. dtil.unilat.org. Original archived January 28, 2011. Accessed May 23, 2010.
  79. ^
  80. “Language spoken by more than 10 million people”. MSN Encarta. Originally archived October 29, 2009.
  81. ^
  82. According to the 1993 Israeli census, there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, with a population of 5,548,523 in 1995 (census).
  83. ^
  84. “Reports of about 300,000 Jews who left the country after World War II”. Eurojewcong.org. Original archived August 31, 2006. Accessed May 23, 2010.
  85. ^
  86. Laslau, Andi (April 27, 2005). “Arabii din Romania, complete radiography”. Evz.ro (in Romanian). Original archived December 24, 2007. Accessed May 23, 2010.
  87. ^
  88. “Constitution of Romania”. cdep.ro. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  89. ^
  90. Legea “Pruteanu”: 500/2004 – Romanian Language Protection Law
  91. ^
  92. Art. 27 (3), Legea no. 26/1990 privind Registrul Comerțului
  93. ^
  94. “Romanian Ministry of Education”. Original archived June 29, 2006. Accessed April 19, 2006.
  95. ^
  96. “August 31 – Ziua Limbii Romane”. Agerpres (in Romanian). August 31, 2020.
  97. ^
  98. “De ce este sărbătorită Ziua Limbii Rome is August 31”. Historia (in Romanian). August 31, 2020.
  99. ^
  100. “Declaration of Independence of a Republicii Moldova, Moldova Suverană” (in Romanian). moldova-suverana.md. Originally archived February 5, 2008. Accessed October 9, 2013.
  101. ^
  102. “A Field Guide to the Major Languages ​​of Europe – Find Them and Distinguish Them” (PDF). European Commission. Archived original (PDF) February 24, 2007. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  103. ^
  104. “Rules of the Moldovan courts The official language is ‘Romanian’, substituting a Soviet flavor for ‘Moldova'”. FoxNews. Associated Press. March 25, 2015.
  105. ^
  106. “Marian Lupu: Romana și moldoveneasca sunt aceeași limbă”. Realize .NET. Originally archived May 11, 2011. Accessed October 7, 2009.
  107. ^
  108. Dalby, Andrew (1998). language dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 518. ISBN 07-4753-117-X.
  109. ^
  110. Legea cu privire la functionarea linticor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenesti Nr.3465-XI din 09/01/89 Vestile nr.9 / 217, 1989 Archived February 19, 2006 at the Wayback Machine (Law on the Use of Used Languages) residing at territory of the Republic of Moldova): “Moldavian RSS supports the desire of the Moldovans living beyond the borders of the Republic and – taking into account the existing linguistic identity of Moldo-Romania – the Romanians living on territories of the USSR, their to continue their studies and fulfill their desire to meet cultural needs in their mother tongue.”
  111. ^
  112. National Statistical Office of the Republic of Moldova: Census 2014
  113. ^
  114. “Biroul Național de Statistică, acuzat of a falsificat rezultatele thumântului”. Independence (in Romanian). March 29, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  115. ^
  116. Official Journal of the Republic of Serbia, No. 1/90
  117. ^
  118. Article 24, Statute of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, published in Official Gazette of AP Vojvodina No. 20/2014
  119. ^
  120. “Official Use of Speech and Script in AP Vojvodina”. Provincial Secretariat for Education, Regulation, Administration and Ethnic Minorities – National Community. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  121. ^
  122. Provincial Secretariat for Regulations, Administration and Ethnic Minorities: “Official Use of Romanian in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (APV)”
  123. ^
  124. Sorescu-Marinković, Annemarie; Huananu, Monica (2018). “Romanian non-dominant diversity in Serbia: Between polycentricity and division”. In der Muhr, Rudolf; Meisnitzer, Benjamin (ed.). Multicentric Languages ​​and Non-dominant Varieties Worldwide: New Polycentric Languages ​​- Old Problems. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlag. pages 233-246. hdl: 21.15107/rcub_dais_5795 – via DAIS – The Digital Archives of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences.
  125. ^
  126. Center for Independent Political Studies of Ukraine: “Archives”. Original archived 30 September 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2006. {{Web cite}} : CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Accessed January 23, 2006. {{Web cite}} : CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  127. ^
  128. “Internetový časopis lovek a spoločnosť”. www.clovekapolocnost.sk. Originally archived May 14, 2009.
  129. ^
  130. Kramar Andriy. “University of Chernivtsi”. Chnu.cv.ua. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  131. ^
  132. “Cursuri de perfecționare” Archived February 25, 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Ziua August 19, 2005
  133. ^
  134. “Data on Teaching Romanian Abroad” Archived December 7, 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Institute of the Romanian Language.
  135. ^
  136. “Romanian”, in Encyclopdia Britannica
  137. ^
  138. Delusto, Maryna (2016). “Mul’tilingval’nyy Atlas mezhdurech’ya Dnestra i Dunaya: Istochniki i sozdaniya priyemy” Мультилингвальный атлас междуречья а и Дуная: источники и приемы создания [Multi-Lingual Atlas of dialects distributed between the Danube: Source and Dniester: Tools of Creation]. Danubian Research and Research Journal (in Russian). 6 (1): 362-369.
  139. ^
  140. Arjocu, Florin (June 29, 2020). “Satul din Romania unde se vorbește o limbă secretă. Tălăuzeşti gumuțeasca?”. Știri Romania (in Romanian).
  141. ^
  142. Florea, Sorin (June 1, 2020). “Care for ester satul din Romania unde se vorbește o limbă secretă?”. Shtiu (in Romanian).
  143. ^
  144. “În localitatea Totoi, județul Alba, se vorbește o limbă specifică locului”. Realitatea TV (in Romanian). January 19, 2009.
  145. ^
  146. Arsenie, Dan (9 December 2011). “Totoiana – messengerul de pe uliță. Povestea unei limbi inventate de români”. GreatNews.ro (in Romanian).
  147. ^
  148. “” Limba intoarsă “vorbită în Totoi”. Ziare.com (in Romanian). November 2, 2009.
  149. ^ a b
  150. Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Romanian Question: The Romanians and their Country. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Office. p. 50.
  151. ^
  152. Pei, Mario (1949). The history of the language. ISBN 03-9700-400-1.
  153. ^
  154. Ethnography, Romanian
  155. ^
  156. Sandiuc, Corina (November 1, 2014). “Language and culture contact: French and maritime terminology”. Diversifying Si Identitate Culturala in Europe. 11(2). ISSN 2067-0931.
  157. ^
  158. Vladimir Georgiev (Gheorghiev), (in Romanian) Rapporturile dintre limile dacă, tracă și frigiană, Studii Clasice magazine, II, 1960, 39–58
  159. ^
  160. Schramm, Gottfried (1997). Damn a dir. Died Roman Danube frontier and died invasions of the 5–7. century in the light of names and words.
  161. ^
  162. Mišeska Tomić, Olga (2006). Balkan Sprachbund syntactic morphology. jumper. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4020-4487-8.
  163. ^
  164. Schulte, Kim (2009). “Loanwords in Romanian”. In Haspelmath, Martin; Tadmor, Uri (Editor). Loan Words in Languages ​​of the World: Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. pages 230-259. ISBN 978-3-11-021843-5.
  165. ^
  166. Lindstedt, J. (2000). “Linguistic balkanization: contact-induced change through mutual reinforcement”. In D.G. Gilberts; et al. (republish). language in contact. Studied Slavic Studies and General Linguistics, 28 Amsterdam
  167. ^ a b
  168. Marius Sala (coordinator), Mihaela Bîrlădeanu, Maria Iliescu, Liliana Macarie, Ioana Nichita, Mariana Ploae-Hanganu, Maria Theban, Ioana Vintilă-Rădulescu, Vocabularul reprezentativ al lighteningor romanice (VRLR) (Buchai Pacific Encicloped: 1988).
  169. ^
  170. Schulte, Kim. “Loanwords in Romanian”. {{Quote-Journal}}: The quote-journal requires | journal = (help) [dead link], published in Martin Haspelmath; Uri Tadmor (December 22, 2009). Loan Words in Languages ​​of the World: Comparative Handbook. Walter von Gruyter. p. 243. ISBN 978-3-11-021844-2.
  171. ^ a b
  172. Macrea, Dimitrie (1961). “Orignea i structura limbii româneb (7–45)”. Problems de lingvistică română (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Științifică. p. 32.
  173. ^ a b
  174. Pană Dindelegan, Gabriela, editor. (two thousand thirteen). Romanian Grammar (1st edition). Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780199644926.
  175. ^abc
  176. Keith Hitchins (February 20, 2014). Short history of Romania. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-521-87238-6.
  177. ^
  178. Virginia Hills; Gabriela Alboiu (2016). Verb movement and sentence structure in Old Romanian. Oxford University Press. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-19-873650-9.
  179. ^ a b
  180. Bernard Comrie (January 13, 2009). main languages ​​of the world. Routledge. p. 266. ISBN 978-1-134-26156-7.
  181. ^
  182. Millar, Robert McColl; Trask, Larry (2015). Linguistic history of Trask. Routledge. pp. 292. ISBN 9781317541776. Romani Romanian borrowed so much from the Slavs that scholars once believed it to be a Slavic language. “
  183. ^
  184. Boia, Lucian (2001). Romania: The country of the borders of Europe. book of reaction. ISBN 9781861891037.
  185. ^
  186. Emil Fischer (1904). The Origin of the Romanians: A Historical-Linguistic-Etnographic Study. Commercial Printing Office. pp. 132-3.
  187. ^
  188. Margaret EL Renwick (2014). Phonetics and Phonology of Contrasts: The Case of the Romanian Vowel System. De Gruyter. pages 44-5. ISBN 978-3-11-036277-0.
  189. ^ a b
  190. Dama, Hans (2006). “Lexical influences in Romanian from Austrian German” (PDF). Philologica Jassyensia (in German). 2(1): 105-110.
  191. ^
  192. Zafiu, Rodica (2009). “Damn Mișto și Legenda”. Romanian Literară (in Romanian). No. 6. Archived from the original on September 21, 2018. Accessed September 21, 2018. Linguists have no doubt about the Romanian etymology of the Romanian word mișto, but a tradition. Popular folklore and urban legends still suggest that the German phrase mit Stock “with stick” would be its true origin.
  193. ^
  194. Macrea, Dimitrie, eds. (1958). Dictionarul limbii române modern (in Romanian). Bucharest: Academia Romania. {{Cit Encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty | title = (help)
  195. ^
  196. “Romanian”. Ethnographic.
  197. ^
  198. Vocabulary representatively different from vocabulary basal (VF) and from fondul major lexical (FP). See SCL (Linguistik Studii și cercetări), XXVII (1976), nr. 1, p. 61-66 SCL (1974) no. 3, p. 247.x. Theodor Hristea, “Structura generală a lexicului românesc”, Sinteze de limba română, eds., Theodor Hristea (coord.), Mioara Avram, Grigore Brâncuș, Gheorghe Bulgăr, Georgeta Ciompec, Ion Diaconescu, Rodie Bogza-Irim
  199. ^
  200. * Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, Academia Română, Institutul de Lingvistică “Iorgu Iordan”, Editura Univers Enciclopedic, 1998
  201. ^
  202. Balhuc, Paul (January 15, 2017). “Câte litere is cel mai lung cuvânt din limba română și care ester singurul termen ce conține toate vocalele”. Adevărul (in Romanian).
  203. ^
  204. “Electroglotospectrography”. Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române (in Romanian). Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  205. ^
  206. “Curiozități lingvistice: cele mai lungi cuvinte din limba română”. Dicție.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  207. ^
  208. Săvescu, Oana (2012). “When synchronism meets word order. On customer order in Romanian”. Sample. 24 (2): 233-256. doi: 10.1515/probus-2012-0010. S2CID 194568315.
  209. ^
  210. Baynes, Thomas Spencer, Editors. (1898). “wax”. Encyclopædia Britannica: A dictionary of the arts, sciences, and general literature. Volume 24 (9th edition). Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black. p. 269.
  211. ^
  212. Sarlin, Mika (2014). Romanian Grammar (2nd Edition). Helsinki: Books on request. p. 15. ISBN 9789522868985.
  213. ^
  214. Dyer, Donald L. (1999). “Some influences of Russian on Romanian in Moldova during the Soviet period”. Slavic and Eastern European Journal. 43(1):85-98. doi: 10.2307/309907. JSTOR 309907.
  215. ^
  216. (in Romanian) Some Romanian dictionaries give the pronunciation [je] for the first letter e in some personal pronouns: el, ei, etc. and in some forms of the verb a fi (to be): ester, eram, etc.
  217. ^
  218. (in Romanian) Mioara Avram, Ortografie pentru toți, Editura Litera, Kishinev, 1997, p. 29
  219. ^
  220. New edition of “Dicționarul ortografic al limbii române (ortoepic, morfologic, cu norme de dotuație)” – presented by the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova and recommended for publication after a conference held on 17 February 1993 at the Romanian Academy on 17 February 1993 on the reintroduction of ” â” and “sunt” into the spelling of the Romanian language. (Introduction, Institute of Linguistics, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Moldova)
  221. ^
  222. “Gheorghe Duca: Trebuie schimbată atitudinea de sorginte proletară față de savanți și în genere față de intellectuali” (in Romanian). All Moldova. 4 June 2010. Original archived 22 July 2011. Accessed 3 January 2011.

Binder[Editor]

  • Andreose, Alvise; Renzi, Lorenzo (2013). “Geography and distribution of the Romance languages ​​in Europe”. In the girl, Martin; Smith, John Charles; Ledgeway, Adam (Editor). The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages. Episode 2: Background. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pages 283-334. ISBN 978-0-521-80073-0.
  • Giurescu, Constantin C. (1972). The formation of the people and the Romanian language. Bucharest: Meridians.
  • Kahl, Thede, eds. (2009). Romanian and its neighbors. Berlin: Frank
  • Paliga, Sorin (2010). “When can it be identified as ‘Romanian-Slavic borrowings’?” (PDF). Romanoslavica. 46(4):101-119.
  • Petrucci, Peter R. (1999). Slavic features in the history of Romania. Munich: LINCOM Europe. ISBN 38-9586-599-0.
  • Rosetti, Alexandru (1965-1969). Istoria limbii române (in Romanian). Episodes 1-2. Bucureşti: Editura ştiinţifică.
  • Hinrichs, Uwe, ed. (1999). Handbook of Southeast European Linguistics. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

external link[Editor]

Romanian

sister project

  • Definition from Wiktionary
  • Media from Commons
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
  • Travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Source from Wikiversity
  • Data from Wikidata
  • Romanian
  • in
  • curl
  • SAMPA for Romanian
  • Romanian Reference Grammar, by Dana Cojocaru, University of Bucharest (183 pages) – 4.6 MB – pdf
  • Basic course in Romanian from the US Diplomatic Service Institute (FSI).
  • Basic Romanian vocabulary in the Global Vocabulary Statistical Database

Video tutorials about what language do they speak in romania

keywords: #translations, #romania, #romanian, #bucharest, #europe

keywords: #Ilovelanguages, #Spokenlanguages, #Languages, #Dialects, #TheSoundoftheRomanianlanguage(Numbers, #Greetings, #Words&TheParable), #Romania, #Romanianlanguages, #Romancelanguages, #Limbaromână, #română, #Dacian, #Indo-European, #Moldova, #Moldovan, #Balkan

Welcome to my channel! This is Andy from I love languages. Let’s learn different languages/dialects together.

This video was made for educational purposes only. Non profit, educational, or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. All credits belong to the rightful owners.

Romanian / Daco-Romanian (Limba română)

Native to: Romania, Moldova

Ethnicity: Romanians (incl. Moldovans)

Native speakers: 24–26 million (2016)

Second language: 4 million

L1+L2 speakers: 28–30 million

Language family: Indo-European (Romance)

is a Balkan Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. According to another estimate, there are about 34 million people worldwide who can speak Romanian, of whom 30 million speak it as a native language It is an official and national language of both Romania and Moldova and is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Romanian is a part of the Eastern Romance sub-branch of Romance languages, a linguistic group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin which separated from the Western Romance languages in the course of the period from the 5th to the 8th centuries. To distinguish it within the Eastern Romance languages, in comparative linguistics it is called Daco-Romanian as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian. Romanian is also known as Moldovan in Moldova, although the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled in 2013 that “the official language of the republic is Romanian”.

Numerous immigrant Romanian speakers live scattered across many other regions and countries worldwide, with large populations in Italy, Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America.

If you are interested to see your native language/dialect to be featured here. Submit your recordings to [email protected] Looking forward to hearing from you!

keywords: #languagestudy, #polyglot, #foreignlanguage, #fluent, #travel, #phrases, #linguist, #linguistics, #pronunciation, #vocabulary, #grammar, #verbtense, #Romanian, #Romancelanguage, #Rome, #Roman, #Vlach, #Latin, #VulgarLatin, #Balkans, #SlavicLanguages, #languageprofile, #langfocus, #langfocuspaul, #WhatlanguageisspokeninRomania?, #LangfocusRomanian

This video is all about Romanian – the forgotten Romance language!

🚩 If you’re learning Romanian, click the link to get a free account at RomanianPod101:

-http://bit.ly/Romanianpod101.

(Note: if you upgrade to a premium account, Langfocus gets a small referral fee that helps support this channel.)

Special Thanks to Alexandru Zaharia for providing excellent audio samples for this video!

🚩 Check out Langfocus on Patreon:

-http://patreon.com/langfocus

Brandon Gonzalez, Guillermo Jimenez, Sidney Frattini Junior, Bennett Seacrist, Ruben Sanchez, Michael Cuomo, Eric Garland, Brian Michalowski, Sebastian Langshaw, Yixin Alfred Wang, Vadim Sobolev, Maurice Chow, Matthew Cockburn, Raymond Thomas, Simon Blanchet, Ryan Marquardt, Sky Vied, Romain Paulus, Panot, Erik Edelmann, Bennet, James Zavaleta, Ulrike Baumann, Ian Martyn, Justin Faist, Jeff Miller, Stephen Lawson, Howard Stratton, George Greene, Panthea Madjidi, Nicholas Gentry, Sergios Tsakatikas, Bruno Filippi, Sergio Tsakatikas, Qarion, Pedro Flores, Raymond Thomas, Marco Antonio Barcellos Junior, David Beitler, Rick Gerritzen, Sailcat, Mark Kemp, Éric Martin, Leo Barudi, Piotr Chmielowski, Suzanne Jacobs, Johann Goergen, Darren Rennels, and Caio Fernandes.

-http://facebook.com/langfocus

-http://instagram.com/langfocus

-http://twitter.com/langfocus

-http://langfocus.com

Music:

Drums of the Deep by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (

-https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Source:

-http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1400021

Artist:

-http://incompetech.com/

Intro music: “Sax Attack” by Dougie Wood.

Outro music: “Foundation” by Vibe Tracks.

keywords: #newbie, #basic, #beginner, #podcast, #RomanianPod101, #com, #educational, #lesson, #lessons, #school, #teacher, #student, #students, #teachers, #free, #language, #Education, #RomanianLanguage(HumanLanguage)

Get Free Romanian Lessons on your Android, iPhone, iPad or Kindle Fire! Click here to get the App:

-http://www.romanianpod101.com/ill-app/

In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the phrase Do you speak English? Subscribe for more videos:

-http://j.mp/RomanianPod101

Find out more about this lesson, go to:

-http://www.romanianpod101.com/2016/02/19/learn-romanian-in-three-minutes-4-do-you-speak-english/

Want more Romanian learning videos? Click here:

-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkxrajpuHQU\u0026list=PLwwk5wpxRxR_1L91W-Cza83YGKFt1Gcei

Please LIKE, SHARE and COMMENT on our videos! We really appreciate it. Thanks!

– Facebook:

-https://www.facebook.com/RomanianPod101

– Google Plus:

-https://plus.google.com/+RomanianPod101

– Twitter:

-https://twitter.com/RomanianPod101

– Pinterest:

-https://www.pinterest.com/RomanianPod101/

Learn Romanian with real lessons by real teachers. Get your FREE Lifetime Account at

-http://www.RomanianPod101.com/video

See more articles in category: fqas

Maybe you are interested

Sale off:

Best post:

Categories