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North Pole – Wikipedia

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  • Summary: Articles about North Pole – Wikipedia An azimuthal projection showing the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole. The map also shows the 75th parallel north and 60th parallel north.

  • Match the search results: While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice. The sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 m (13,980 ft) by the Russian Mir s…

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North Pole Map Stock Photos and Images – Alamy

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  • Summary: Articles about North Pole Map Stock Photos and Images – Alamy Find the perfect north pole map stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register, …

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Where Is the North Pole? | Travel + Leisure

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  • Summary: Articles about Where Is the North Pole? | Travel + Leisure If you look at a map of the North Pole, you’ll notice that the point where it falls happens to be in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.

  • Match the search results: If you look at a map of the North Pole, you’ll notice that the point where it falls happens to be in the middle of the Arctic Ocean. So what continent is the North Pole on? Unlike its counterpart, Antarctica's South Pole, the Geographic North Pole is not situated on a land mass, though i…

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Printable World Map with North Pole in PDF

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  • Summary: Articles about Printable World Map with North Pole in PDF The north pole is also called the Terrestrial North pole or the Geographical North pole or the True North Pole. It is located in the northern …

  • Match the search results: The northernmost tip of the earth’s surface where the axis of rotation meets the earth’s surface is called the north pole. This can be understood with the help of a World Map with North Pole. The north pole is also called the Terrestrial North pole or the Geographical North pole or the T…

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The Mysteries of the First-Ever Map of the North Pole …

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  • Summary: Articles about The Mysteries of the First-Ever Map of the North Pole … Gerard Mercator’s 16th-century attempt at mapping the Arctic includes such guesses as a giant whirlpool and polar pygmies.

  • Match the search results: By the 1500s, not very many people had ventured up to the Arctic—no explorer would set foot on the Pole itself until 1909. This didn’t stop Mercator, who dug into some dicey sources to suss out what he should include. The most influential, called Inventio Fortunata (translation: “F…

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Magnetic North vs Geographic (True) North Pole

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  • Summary: Articles about Magnetic North vs Geographic (True) North Pole NOAA’s historical declination map shows lines of constant magnetic declination (isogonic lines). Isogonic lines are an indication for what …

  • Match the search results: Oh,why?? Well, I hope you people know that in case of two magnets,the north pole of one of them,is attracted to the other magnet’s South Pole and vice versa. This is the directive property of magnets. Now, if i’m not wrong, in case of earth, which is a big magnet itself, the same will apply, along w…

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Where Is The North Pole? – WorldAtlas

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  • Summary: Articles about Where Is The North Pole? – WorldAtlas It lies on the Northern Hemisphere and is directly opposite of the South Pole. The North Pole’s latitude is 90° north, and it is where all …

  • Match the search results: The North Pole is the point at which the earth’s surface integrates with its axis; it is also the highest northern place. It lies on the Northern Hemisphere and is directly opposite of the South Pole. The North Pole’s latitude is 90° north, and it is where all longitudinal lines meet. The North Pole…

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North Pole Map – William Kentridge — Google Arts & Culture

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  • Summary: Articles about North Pole Map – William Kentridge — Google Arts & Culture In “North Pole Map”, two large, dark shapes stand out against an old map of the North Pole. They are fantastical and metamorphic figures involved in an exodus: …

  • Match the search results: The tapestry belongs to a series developed by William Kentridge in 2001. The subjects are borrowed from the "Puppet Drawings" (2000), where the shapes of shadows, made from torn sheets of paper, are applied to reproductions of nineteenth century geographical maps. These collages are photog…

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Magnetic north moved 50 miles last year (let’s map it …

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  • Summary: Articles about Magnetic north moved 50 miles last year (let’s map it … Also, if I didn’t already know what area the magnetic north pole was in, I would not know that the land area shown in this map was Canada.

  • Match the search results: My question is about a Gedanken experiment about why we have more heat in the North Pole Area and less heat in the South Pole Area. See: – Dis…

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478 North Pole Map Premium High Res Photos – Getty …

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  • Summary: Articles about 478 North Pole Map Premium High Res Photos – Getty … Find the perfect North Pole Map stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from 478 premium North Pole Map of the highest quality.

  • Match the search results: Access the best of Getty Images and iStock with our simple subscription plan. Millions of high-quality images, video, and music options are waiting for you.

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Santa’s New Home: The North Pole is Moving to Russia –

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  • Summary: Articles about Santa’s New Home: The North Pole is Moving to Russia – Magnetic north pole moving map … A compass always points towards the North Magnetic Pole. Maritime and airplane navigation systems, …

  • Match the search results: It is not the Grinch or Vladimir Putin that is stealing Santa’s workshop, but instead it’s the natural processes of the Earth that are moving the North Pole. In fact, since scientists have been tracking the anomaly in the Arctic, the North Magnetic Pole has been shifting towards Russia.

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Arctic region maps

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  • Summary: Articles about Arctic region maps Maps · Definitions of the Arctic · Population Centres in the North · Arctic Sea Ice Extent 2006/2017/2020 · Permafrost with 10 °C July Isotherm · Arctic Seaways.

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Multi-read content north pole on a map

North Pole (installation)

Coordinates: 90°N 0°E/90°N 0°E/90; 0

azimuth projection75th parallel northnorth 60th parallel

sea ​​ice

This pressure peak

This North Pole, also calledArctic Geographyor North Pole on land, the point hereNorthern hemispherewhereEarth’s axis of rotationmeet the surface. calledTrue North Poleto differenciateMagnetic North Pole.

By definition, the North Pole is Earth’s northernmost point and is opposite in diameter.South pole. define geodesylatitude90° North and directionright north. At the North Pole, all directions point south; all lineslongitudeconverges there so that its longitude can be defined as any degree value. There is no specific time zone for the North Pole, so any time can be used as local time. Along narrow circles of latitude, counterclockwise is east and clockwise is west. The North Pole is located in the center of the Northern Hemisphere. The nearest land is usually said to be.Kaffeklubben Island, on the north coastGreenlandabout 700 km (430 mi) away, but some semi-permanent cobblestone banks can be placed a little closer. Nearest permanent place to livealarminsideQikiqtaaluk DistrictLocated in Nunavut, Canada, 817 km (508 mi).

When Antarctica is a continentland mass, the North Pole in the middleArctic Oceanbetween constant displacement and almost permanently covered waterssea ​​ice. The Russians measured the sea depth in the Arctic at 4,261 m (13,980 ft).Mir sinksin2007[first]and at an altitude of 4,087 m (13,409 ft)USS Nautilusin 1958.[2nd][3]This makes it impractical to build a permanent station in the Arctic.Unlike Antarctica). Again,The Soviet Unionand then Russia built somemanned floating stationOn an annual basis since 1937, some have crossed or very close to the Pole. Since 2002 the Russians also set up an annual base,barneo, close to the Pole. This works for a few weeks in the early spring. Research in the 2000s predicted that the Arctic could become seasonally ice-free.Arctic ice shrinks, with varying duration from 2016[4][5]Until the end of the 21st century or later.

Attempts to the North Pole, in the late 19th century, “in the far north“It passed many times. The first undisputed expedition to the North Pole was the airship expedition.Norwaycaptured the area in 1926 with 16 men on board, including the expedition leader.Roald Amundsen. Three previous expeditions – ledFrederick Cook(1908, world),Robert Peary(1909, land) andRichard E. Byrd(1926, from the air) – It is also accepted that he reached the Pole. In any case, subsequent analysis of the expedition’s data cast doubt on the veracity of its claims.

  • 1 precise definition
  • 2 Explore
  • 2.1 Before 1900
    2.2 1900–1940
    2.3 Ice station
    April 2, 1940–2000
    2.5 century 21

    2.5.1 2007 to the bottom of the Arctic sea
    2.5.2 MLAE 2009 expedition
    2.5.3 MLAE expedition 2013

  • 3 days and nights
  • 4 times
  • 5 Climate, sea ice in the Arctic
  • 6 Fauna and Flora
  • 7 Territorial Claims for the Arctic and Arctic Regions
  • 8 Cultural Associations
  • 9 See more
  • 10 notes
  • 11 Reference
  • 12 Read more
  • 13 external links

full description

pole movement

The axis of rotation of the Earth – and thus the position of the North Pole – was generally thought to be fixed (relative to the Earth’s surface) until the mathematician in the 18th century.Leonhard Euleranticipate that the shaft may “wobble” a bit. In the early 20th century, astronomers noticed a small, distinct “latitude shift” determined for a fixed point on Earth from observations of stars. Some of this variation may be due to the Pole’s movement of several meters across the Earth’s surface. Getting around has some repetitive components and an unusual component. The component, with a period of about 435 days, was identified by Euler’s estimated 8-month travel and is now known asChandler is rockingafter people discovered it. The exact intersection of the Earth’s axis and the Earth’s surface is at any given time called the “instantaneous pole”, but cannot be used as a definition of the North Pole due to “oscillation”. when constant (or South Pole) metric accuracy is required.

World coordinate system (latitude, longitude and altitude ororography) to fixed geomorphology. However, givenstratigraphic tectonicandisostasis, there is no system in which all features are fixed. HoweverInternational Rotation and Reference System ServiceandInternational Astronomical Uniondefined a framework calledInternational Terrestrial Reference System.

examine, find

Explore the North Polein the far northList of Arctic expeditionsList of first people in the geographic Arctic

before 1900

Gerardus Mercatoru

At the beginning of the 16th century, many prominent people believed that the Arctic was located in a sea that was called the sea in the 19th century.polynyaor Arctic Open Sea.[6]Therefore, it is hoped that iceberg crossing can be found at suitable times of the year. He often went on several expeditions to find his way with the already popular whaling ships in the cold northern latitudes.

One of the earliest expeditions to reach the North Pole was by British naval officers.William Edward ParryReaching 82° 45′ North latitude in 1827. in 1871Polaris expedition, a US effort on the poleCharles Francis Hallended in disaster. another britishroyal navyoverdose, partBritish Arctic Expedition, by CommanderAlbert H MarkhamHe reached 83° 20’26” North’s then-record before returning in May 1876.US NavyofficerGeorge W. De Longtheir ships ended tragically,USS Jeanette, crushed by a rock. More than half of the crew, including De Long, were missing.


Norwegian explorers in April 1895Fridtjof NansenandHjalmar JohansenAttacking the Pole on a skateboard after leaving the Nansen ice shipFrame. After the pair reached 86°14′ North latitude, it gave up trying and turned South and finally reached it.Franz Josef Country.

Swedish engineer in 1897Salomon August Andreeand two friends tried to reach the North Pole in a hot air balloonexample(“Eagle”), but landed 300 km (190 mi) northKvitøya, in the northeastern partSvalbardarchipelago. They marched to Kvitøya but died there three months after the accident. ruins in 1930this timeFound by NorwegiansBratvaag Expedition.

Italian explorerLuigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzziand the captainUmberto CagniLater onItalian Royal Navy(Regia Marina) a converted whale rowingstella pole(“The Pole Star”) from Norway in 1899. Cagni led a group across the ice on March 11, 1900, reaching latitude 86°34′ on April 25, setting a new record, beating Nansen’s 1895 result by approximately 35 to 40. km (22 to 25 miles). Cagni barely made it back to the camp and remained there until 23 June. On August 16,stella poleleftRudolf Islandwent south and the expedition returned to Norway.



American ExplorersFrederick CookTwo allegedly reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908.Eskimo peoplemen, Ahwelah and Etukishook, but failed to find convincing evidence and his claim was not widely accepted.[8][9]

Conquest of the Arctic over many years is credited by a US Navy engineerRobert Pearyclaiming to have reached the Pole on April 6, 1909, withMatthew Hensonand the four men are Inuit, Ootah, Seeglo, Egingwah, and Ooqueah. But Peary’s statement is still controversial and controversial. Those who accompanied Peary on the final leg of the voyage had no training in [Western] navigation and were therefore unable to independently verify their navigational work, which some found particularly inadequate.

When the support team finally returns, the distance and speed Peary claims to have reached seems unbelievable to many, almost three times what he had reached up to that point. Peary’s account of traveling in a straight line to the Pole and back – the only strategy fit for the time constraints he faced – contradicts Henson’s account of the winding roads to be avoided.pressure bulgeandopen potential customers.

British explorerWally HerbertOriginally a supporter of Peary, he studied Peary’s records in 1989 and noticed significant differences in the explorer’s marine records. He concluded that Peary had not reached the Pole.[front]However, support for Peary began when the British explorer began in 2005.Tom Averyand the four friends recreated the exterior of Peary’s journey with wooden sleds andCanadian Eskimo DogTo the North Pole 36 days, 22 hours – almost 5 hours faster than Peary. However, Avery’s fastest five-day march was 90 knots (170 km), which is considerably shorter than Peary’s claimed 135 nautical miles (250 km). Avery writes on his website: “My admiration and respect for Robert Peary, Matthew Henson, and the four Inuit men who went to the North in 1909 has grown tremendously since we started.”Cape Columbia. Now that I have witnessed it with my own eyes, I am more convinced than ever that Peary has indeed discovered the North Pole. “[11th]

The first flight, allegedly over the pole, was made by a US naval officer on May 9, 1926.Richard E. Byrdand the pilotFloyd Bennettin oneFokker three enginesaeroplane. Although timely verified by a committeeNational Geographic Society, this claim has been dismissed[twelfth]In 1996, Byrd’s long-kept diary was revealed to be solar power.sextantdata (which the NGS never reviewed) consistently contradicted the parallel data in the June 1926 report by more than 160 km.[13]The solar data believed to be on the way to the classified report was over-processed to the point where it accidentally removed all these alleged raw solar observations from the report’s version. The final report was sent to geographic communities five months later. (while the original version was hidden for 70 years), for the first time in 2000Cambridge Universitycarefully after the referee.[14]

A coherent, scientifically verified and convincing Pole was first reached by the Norwegian explorer on May 12, 1926.Roald Amundsenand its US sponsorLincoln Ellsworthfromspace ship Norway.[15] NorwayAlthough owned by the Norwegians, it was designed and managed by the Italians.Umberto Nobile. the flight beginsSvalbardIn Norway and across the Arctic Ocean to Alaska. Nobile, with several scientists and their teamNorway, crossed the pole for the second time with a balloon on May 24, 1928Italy. This ItalyShe crashed on her return from the Pole, losing half her crew.

First cross-pole flight[ru]It was carried out on the Tupolev ANT-25 aircraft with its crew.Valery Ckalov,Georgy BaydukovandAlexander BelyakovIt flew over the North Pole on June 19, 1937.

ice station

In May 1937, the world’s firstIce Station at the North Pole,North Pole-1was formed by Soviet scientists by air 20 km (13 mi) from the North Pole. Members of the expedition – oceanographerPeter Shirsov, meteorologistYevgeny Fyodorov, radio station personnelErnst Krenkel, and the leaderIvan Papanin[16]- conducted scientific research at the station for the next nine months. By February 19, 1938, the group had been taken by the icebreakers.Tayyrandmurderousstations had drifted 2850 km to the east coast of Greenland.[17][18]


In May 1945 aSHELF LancasterLater onAriesit was the first timeFederalThe plane flies over the Geographic North and Magnetic North Poles. The plane was flown by David Cecil McKinley.Royal Air Force. She carried a crew of eleven with Kenneth C. Maclure.Royal Canadian Air ForceResponsible for all scientific observations. In 2006, Maclure was honored with a place.Canadian Aviation Hall of Fame.[19]

Downplaying Peary’s controversial claim, the first people to set foot in the Arctic were a side of the Soviet Union.[20]including geophysicists Mikhail Ostrekin and Pavel Senko, oceanographers Mikhail Somov and Pavel Gordienko,[21]and other scientists and team (total of 24 people)[22]betweenAlexander Kuznetsov’SServer-2expedition (March – May 1948).[23]is organized byHead of the Northern Sea Route Department.[24]The group flew three aircraft (pilots Ivan Cherevichnyy, Vitaly Maslennikov and Ilya Kotov).Kotelny IslandIt reached the North Pole and landed there at 16:44 (Moscow time,UTC 04:00) on April 23, 1948.[25]They set up a makeshift camp and conducted scientific observations for the next two days. On April 26, the expedition returned to the continent.

The following year, on May 9, 1949[26]two other Soviet scientists (Vitali Volovich and Andrei Medvedev)[27]He became the first person to parachute into the North Pole.[28]they jumped from somewhereDouglas C-47 Skytrain, registered CCCP H-369.[29]

On May 3, 1952,United States Air ForceLieutenant colonelJoseph O Fletcherand lieutenantWilliam PershingBenedictwith the scientistAlbert P. Crarylanding a changeDouglas C-47 Skytrainat the North Pole. Some Western sources consider this to be the first landing at the Pole.[30]Until the Soviet landings became widely known.

USSIce skating

United States Navy SubmarinesUSS Nautilus(SSN-571) crossed the North Pole on August 3, 1958. on March 17, 1959USS Skating(SSN-578) She became the first navy ship to do so by breaking out of the ice above the pole.[thirtyfirst]

Peary’s claims aside, the first confirmed surface conquest was the North Pole.Ralph Plaisted, Walt Pederson, Gerry Pitzl and Jean Luc Bombardier crossing the icesledand arrived on April 19, 1968. The United States Air Force independently confirmed their location.

on April 6, 1969Wally Herbertand his friend Allan Gill,Roy Koernerand Kenneth Hedges of the British Trans-Arctic Expedition became the first people to walk to the North suitandairdrop). They went on to complete the first surface crossing of the Arctic Ocean – and with its longest axis,Mound, Alaska, to arriveSvalbard- a feat never repeated.[32][33]Because of suggestions (later proven wrong) that Plaisted used air transport, some sources have classified Herbert’s expedition as the first confirmed expedition to reach its destination on the Arctic ice surface in any way.[33][34]Plaisted in the 1980s.Welded Phippsand Ken Lee signed affidavits claiming that no such transportation was provided.[35]It is also said that Herbert was the first to achieve success.pole inaccessible.[36]


floating ship

The Soviet Union on August 17, 1977nuclear powered icebreaker arcticCompleted the first surface ship voyage to the North Pole.

1982Ranulph FiennesandCharles R. BurtonHe became the first person to cross the Arctic Ocean in one season. They left Cape Crozier,Ellesmere IslandThey reached the Geographic North Pole on February 17, 1982, and April 10, 1982. They did hiking and sledding. They reached Svalbard from the pole, but ended their crossing at the edge of the ice after drifting south on an iceberg for 99 days due to the unstable nature of the ice. They were finally able to march to their scouts.Benjamin Bowring’s MVand boarded the plane at 80:31N 00:59W on August 4, 1982. The result of this journey that formed part of three yearstransglobe .1979-1982, Fiennes and Burton became the first humans to complete circumnavigation of both the North and South poles by traveling only on the surface. This feat remains unrivaled to this day.

1985Sir Edmund Hillary(first person to climb Everest) andNeil Armstrong(the first man to set foot on the moon) landed in the North Pole in a small twin-engine sled.[37]Thus, Hillary became the first person to stand both at the poles and on Mount Everest.

in 1986Will Steger, along with seven of his teammates, was the first to be confirmed to have reached the Pole by dog ​​sled and without resupply.

USS Gurnard (SSN-662)From September to November 1984 she operated in the Arctic Ocean under the polar ice cap, with one of her sister ships, the attack submarine.USS Pintado (SSN-672). on 12 November 1984GurnardandpintadoIt became the third pair of submarines to float in the Arctic. In March 1990,GurnardIt was deployed to the Arctic during exercise Ice Ex ’90 and completed only the fourth winter shipwreck transport in the Sea and Bering Sea.GurnardIt appeared in the Arctic on April 18.USS Seahorse (SSN-669).[citation needed]

on May 6, 1986USS Archerfish (SSN 678),USS Beam (SSN 653)andUSS Hawkbill (SSN-666)The first three-wheeled submarine to surface in the Arctic surfaced in the Arctic.

on April 21, 1987Shinji KazamaJapan becomes the first person to reach the North Polemotorcycle.[38][39]

On May 18, 1987USS Billfish (SSN 676),USS Sea Devil (SSN 664)andGreat HMS (S 109)It originated in the Arctic, the first international appeared in the Arctic.

A team of 13 (9 Soviet, 4 Canadian) in 1988skiing across the arcticFrom Siberia to northern Canada. One of the CanadiansRichard WeberHe became the first person to reach the Pole from either side of the Arctic Ocean.

University of Giessen

ice pack

On April 16, 1990, a group of German-Swiss expeditions were organized.University of Giessento the Geographic North Pole to study pollutionstone packing, snow and weather. Samples taken were analyzed collaboratively.Canadian Geological SurveyandAlfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Studies. Next stops for specimen collections for many yearssea ​​iceat 86°N,Cape Columbiaandhunting island.[40]

On May 4, 1990Borge OuslandandErling KprisThey became the first explorers to reach the Arctic unaided, after a 58-day ski hike, 800 km from Ellesmere Island in Canada.[41]

On September 7, 1991, the German research shippolesand the Swedesice breaker odento the Arctic as the first conventionally operating ships.[42]Both the science side and the team took oceanographic and geological samples and there was one thing in common.Tugand oneFootballIceberg game.poles10 years later he reached the true pole again,[43]withhealing.

In 1998, 1999 and 2000,Lada NivaThe swamps (special version with very large wheels made by BRONTO, Lada/Vaz’s experimental product division) were taken to the Arctic.[44][45]The 1998 expedition was parachuted and completed the path to the North Pole. The 2000 expedition left a Russian research facility about 114 km from the Pole and claimed to have an average speed of 20-15 km/h at average temperatures of -30°C.

21st century


Commercial airline flightspolar roadsIt can pass within sight of the North Pole. For example, flightChicagoto arriveBeijingIt can be reached at latitude 89°N, but return flights are passing due to prevailing winds.Bering Strait. In recent years, trips to the Arctic by air (landing by helicopter or landing on prepared runways on ice) or by icebreakers have become relatively frequent, and even only for small groups of tourists.adventure vacationcompanies. Skydiving has been done regularly over the Arctic in recent years. Russian seasonal makeshift campsbarneoIt has been established by air a short distance from the Pole every year since 2002 and serves scientific researchers and traveling parties. Trips from the camp to the Pole can be arranged on land or by helicopter.

First tryUnderwaterArctic exploration was made on April 22, 1998 by Russian firefighter and diver Andrei Rozhkov with the support of the Russian Diving Club.Moscow State University, but resulted in death. The next arctic dive was organized by the same diving club the following year and was successfully completed on April 24, 1999. Divers included Michael Wolff (Austria), Brett Cormick (UK) and Bob Wass (USA).[forty-six]

In 2005, a submarine of the United States NavyUSS Charlotte(SSN-766) emerged from 155 cm (61 inches) of ice at the North Pole and spent 18 hours there.[47]

British endurance swimmer in July 2007Lewis Gordon Pugh’s photo.He completed a 1 km (0.62 mi) swim at the North Pole. Its success was made to highlighteffects of global warmingIt takes place in clear waters that open between ice sheets.[48]Next attempt to row a boatrowingIts arrival at the North Pole in late 2008 was thwarted by accidentally predicting clean water to the Pole, when the expedition was trapped in thick ice just three days later. The expedition was then abandoned.

As of September 2007, the Arctic has been visited 66 times by different surface ships: 54 times by Soviet and Russian icebreakers, 4 times by Swedish.oden, 3 times in Germanpolesby 3 timesUSCGC HealyandUSCGC .Polar Sea, and onceCCGS Louis S. St-Laurentand by SwedishVidar Viking.[49]

2007 to the bottom of the Arctic sea

Arctic 2007

MIR diveFirst man to be manned to the bottom of the sea under the North Pole

A Russian scientific expedition on August 2, 2007Arctic 2007As part of a Russian-sponsored research program, it made the first manned flight to the ocean floor in the Arctic at a depth of 4.3 km (2.7 mi).Extended continental shelf claim 2001A vast area at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean. The decline has doubledMIR diverand led by Soviet and Russian polar explorersArtur Chilingarov. In a symbolic act of visiting,russian flagplaced exactly on the ocean floor at the Pole.[50][51][52]

The expedition is the latest in a series of attempts to give Russia dominant influence in Russia.North Polebased onNew York Times.[53]Warm uparctic climateand the summer shrinkage of the glacier zone has drawn the attention of many countries, such as China and the United States, to the world’s leading location, resources and transportation routes, where resources can be utilized in a short time.[54]

MLAE 2009 Expedition

Russians in 2009Sea Live Ice Automotive Expedition (MLAE-2009)withVasili ElaginAs team leader and a team of Afanasy Makovnev, Vladimir Obikhod, Alexey Shkrabkin, Sergey Larin, Alexey Ushakov and Nikolay Nikulshin, they went to the North Pole on two custom-built 6 x 6 low-pressure tire ATVs. The vehicles, Yemelya-1 and Yemelya-2, were designed by Russian mountaineer, explorer and engineer Vasily Elagin. On April 26, 2009, at 17:30 (Moscow time), they reached the North Pole. The expedition was partially supported by Russian State Aviation. The Russian Book of Records recognized it as the first successful journey by land to the Geographic North Pole.

MLAE 2013 Expedition

On March 1, 2013, with a team of Vasily Elagin and Afanasy Makovnev as team leaders, Vladimir Obikhod, Alexey Shkrabkin, Andrey Vankov, Sergey Isayev and Nikolay Kozlov, Russia’s Living Sea Ice Car Expedition (MLAE 2013) was launched in two special productions. 6 x 6 low pressure wheeled ATVs – Yemelya-3 and Yemelya-4 – starting from Golomyanny Island (Severnaya ZemlyaIslands) to the North Pole along the icebergs of the Arctic Ocean. The vehicles reached the Pole on April 6 and then continued towards the Canadian coast. Reached shore on April 30, 2013 (83°08N, 075°59Ehunting island) and on 5 May 2013 the expedition ended.Bay of Stable, NU. The crossing between the Russian border (Machtovyi Island in the Severnaya Zemlya Islands, 80°15N, 097°27E) and the Canadian coast (Ward Hunt Island, 83°08N, 075°59E) took 55 days; about 2300km above the iceberg and about 4000km in total. The expedition is completely self-contained and does not use external consumables. Powered by DiscoveryRussian Geographical Union.[55]

Daytime and night

The sun is always at the North Poleabove the horizonthroughout the summer andbelow the horizonduring the winter.dawnjust beforeMarch gap(around March 20); The sun then takes three months to reach its highest point near 23° altitude in the summermidsummer(around June 21), after this time it began to sink andSunsetafter thatseptember equinox(around September 23). When the sun appears in the pole sky, it appears to move in a horizontal circle above the horizon. This circle gradually rises from near the horizon just after the equinox to its maximum height (in degrees) above the horizon at the summer solstice, and then returns to the horizon before sinking at the autumnal equinox. Therefore, the North and South have the slowest sunrise and sunset rates on Earth.

This SunsetThere are three different definitions of the period before sunrise and after sunset:

  • one
  • civil sunset
  • a period of about two weeks;
  • one
  • sea ​​sunset
  • a period of about five weeks; and
  • one
  • astronomical sunset
  • about seven weeks.

These effects are due to the combination of the Earth.tilt axisand its rotation around the sun. The direction of the Earth’s axial tilt and the Earth’s angle with respect to its orbital plane around the sun are roughly constant over a year (both change very slowly over long periods of time). In northern midsummer, the North Pole points towards the sun at its maximum. As the years pass and the Earth revolves around the sun, the North Pole gradually moves away from the sun until mid-winter, when it turns away from the Sun at its maximum. A similar sequence is observed in Antarctica with a time difference of six months.


In most places around the world, local time is determined as follows:longitude, so that the time of day is more or less synchronized with the sun’s position in the sky (for example, at noon, the sun is almost at its highest peak). This line of inference fails at the North Pole, where the sun rises and sets only once a year and all lines of longitude, and therefore all time zones, converge. There is no permanent human presence in the Arctic and no specific time frame has been set. Polar expeditions may use any suitable time zone such as:Greenwich Mean Timeor the time zone of the country of departure.[citation needed]

Climate, sea ice in the Arctic

Arctic ice shrinksarctic climateClimate change in the Arctic

The Arctic is essentially much warmer than the North Pole.South polebecause it is located at sea level (acts as a cooler) in the middle of the ocean, not on a continental block. Despite being an ice cap, the northernmost weather station in Greenland has a tundra climate (Köppen).MEAT) In July and August, average temperatures peak just above freezing.[one]

winter temperaturesnorthernmost weather stationTemperatures in Greenland can range from about −50 to -13 °C (−58 to 9 °F), with an average of about −31 °C (−24 °F), with the North Pole being slightly cooler. However, a devastating storm took temperatures as high as 0.7°C (33.3°F) at one point.World Meteorological OrganizationThe buoy is located at 87.45°N on December 30, 2015. Temperatures in the Arctic are estimated to be between -1 and 2°C (30 and 35°F) during the storm.[56]Summer temperatures (June, July and August) are around the mean freezing point (0°C (32°F)). The highest temperature ever recorded is 13°C (55°F),[57]It’s much warmer than Antarctica’s record level of -12.3°C (9.9°F).[58]A similar temperature rise occurred on November 15, 2016, when temperatures began to freeze.[59]However, February 2018 once again saw a storm so strong that temperatures at Cape Morris Jesup, the world’s northernmost Greenland weather station, reached 6.1°C (43.0°F) and were above freezing 24 hours in a row. left.[60]Meanwhile, the mast itself is estimated to have reached a temperature as high as 1.6°C (34.9°F). The same temperature of 1.6°C (34.9°F), alsoHollywood Burbank AirportinLos Angelessame time.[sixty one]

Arctic sea ice is usually about 2 to 3 m (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) thick.[62]The thickness, spatial size, and open water within the ice sheet can vary rapidly and profoundly with weather and climate.[63]Studies have shown that the average ice thickness has decreased in recent years.[sixty-four]maybeglobal warmingcontributed to this, but the recent sudden drop in thickness cannot be attributed to the warming observed in the Arctic alone.[65]Reports also predict that in a few decades the Arctic Ocean will be completely ice-free during the summer months.[66]This could have important business implications; See “Territory Claims” below.

The retreat of arctic sea ice will accelerate global warming because less ice cover reflects less solar radiation and could contribute to a polar cyclone, causing severe climate impacts.[sixtyseven]

Climate data for Greenland Weather Station at 83° 38’N 033° 22’W / 83.633°N 33.367°W / 83,633; -33.367 (Greenland weather station) 709 km (441 miles) from the North Pole (average of 11 years of observations).
Moon January February March April May June July August September October November December Five
Record high °C (°F) -13 (9) -14 (7) -11 (12) -6 (21) 3 (37) 10 (50) 13 (55) 12 (54) 7 (45) 9 (48) 0.6 (33.1) 0.7 (33.3) 13 (55)
Average high °C (°F) −29 (−20) −31 (−24) -30 (−22) −22 (−8) -9 (16) 0 (32) 2 (36) 1 (34) 0 (32) -8 (18) -25 (−13) −26 (−15) -15 (6)
Daily Average °C (°F) −31 (−24) −32 (−26) −31 (−24) −23 (−9) -11 (12) -1 (30) 1 (34) 0 (32) -1 (30) -10 (14) −27 (−17) −28 (−18) -16 (3)
Medium Low °C (°F) −33 (−27) −35 (−31) −34 (−29) −26 (−15) -12 (10) -2 (28) 0 (32) -1 (30) -2 (28) -11 (12) -30 (−22) −31 (−24) -18 (-1)
Record low °C (°F) −47 (−53) -50 (−58) -50 (−58) −41 (−42) -24 (−11) -12 (10) -2 (28) -12 (10) −31 (−24) −21 (−6) −41 (−42) −47 (−53) -50 (−58)
Average relative humidity (%) 83.5 83.0 83.0 85.0 87.5 90.0 90.0 89.5 88.0 84.5 83.0 83.0 85.8
Source: Air Base [57]

flora and fauna

Polar bearsIt is believed to have rarely traveled further than about 82° North due to food shortages, although traces have been seen around the North Pole and a 2006 expedition said it had seen them. from the North Pole.[68][69]This seal with ringIt was also seen at the pole andarctic foxObserved less than 60 km (37 mi) at 89°40′ N.[70][71]

Birds seen at or very near the pole include:snow riding,northern fulmarandblack legged kittyHowever, some birdwatching may be disrupted by the bird’s propensity to follow ships and expeditions.[72]

Fish have been seen in Arctic waters, but probably in very small numbers.[72]A member of the Russian crew that landed at the bottom of the Arctic seafloor in August 2007 said no marine life was found there.[51]However, as it was later reported,anemoneIt was taken from the mud of the seabed by the Russian team and an unidentified diving scene was recorded on video.crawfishandamphipods.[seventy three]

Territorial Claims for the Arctic and Arctic Regions

Territorial Claims in the Arctic

international data line

Currently, underInternational law, no country has the North Pole or the Arctic Ocean region surrounding it. The five countries around the Arctic, Russia, Canada, Norway, Denmark (via Greenland), and the United States, are limited to 200.nautical mile(370 km; 230 miles)exclusive economic zoneoff the coast and beyond administered byInternational Seabed Association.

After approvalUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the SeaA country has 10 years to claim an expanded continental shelf beyond its 200-mile exclusive economic zone. If confirmed, such a claim gives the claiming state rights over what may be above or below the seabed in the claimed area.[74]Norway (ratified the convention in 1996.)[75]), Russia (approved in 1997)[75]), Canada (approved in 2003)[75]) and Denmark (approved in 2004)[75]), launched entire projects to support claims that certain areas of the Arctic continental shelf should be mined solely according to their sovereignty.[76][77]

In 1907, Canada resorted to an “industrial principle” to claim an area stretching from its coast to the Arctic. This claim was not waived, but was not promoted consistently until 2013.[78][79]

Cultural Association

in some childrenChristmas legendaryandWest folklore, defined as the geographic North Pole locationThe legendary workshop and residence of Santa Claus,[80][81]Although definitions are inconsistent between the geographic and magnetic North Pole.[citation needed] Canada Postspecified postal codeH0H 0H0to the North Pole (referring to the traditional exclamation of Santa Claus “hohoho! “).[82]

This association reflects a centuries-old esoteric legend about him.hyperboreaThe North Pole is the axis of the hereafter, the abode of God and the exalted.[83]

AsHenry CorbinIt has been noted that the Arctic plays an important role in the cultural worldview.mysticismand Iranian mysticism. “The East, where the mystics seek the East, which is not on our charts, is farther north.”[84]

InMandaean cosmologythe North Pole andbig bucketThey are considered lucky because they are of light.Mandaeansface north while praying andTempleIt also faces north. In contrast, Nam is associated withDark world.[85]

Because of its remoteness, the Pole is sometimes identified with a mysterious ancient mountain.Iranianstraditionally calledMount Kaf(Jabal Qaf), “the farthest point in the world”.[eighty six][eighty seven]According to some authors, Jabal Qaf ofIslamic cosmologyis a versionNigra Rupeelike a mountain risesby Danteto climbMount Purgatoryrepresents the pilgrim’s progress through spiritual states.[88]In Iranian theosophy, the Celestial Pole, the focal point of spiritual ascension, acts as a magnet to attract beings to “palaces ignited by immaterial matter.”[89]

see more

  • Cooperation and Arctic politics
  • Arctic Council
  • Antarctica
  • biomes
  • celestial pole
  • Extreme Ecliptic
  • Inuit Vascular Council
  • North Pole, Alaska
  • North Pole, New York
  • big bucket
  • Poles of celestial bodies
  • South pole
  • Willem Barentsz


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  2. Data from a weather station in Greenlandic at 83° 38’N 033° 22’W / 83.633° N 33.367° W / 83,633; -33,367 (Greenland Weather Station) 709 km (441 miles) from the North Pole


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read more

  • Frederic, Albert; Cook, Robert E. Peary, George W. Melville (2003). Find the North Pole. Lyon press. ISBN 978-1-59228-072-8.
  • {{cite book}}: CS1 Maintenance: multiple names: author list (link)
  • Dost, Christopher (2002). The Weirdest Place on Earth: Rediscovering the Arctic. Author’s Gallery. ISBN 978-0-595-21454-9.
  • Fairfield, William (1885). Paradise Found Humanity’s Cradle in the Arctic, Study of the Prehistoric World. Houghton, Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-665-37759-4.

external link

  • Arctic Council
  • Northern Forum
  • Arctic Webcam
  • Frequently asked questions about the North Pole and the North Pole
  • Daylight, darkness and the change of seasons at the North Pole
  • Video of the Yamal nuclear icebreaker visiting the Arctic in 2001
  • Polar Exploration: Exploring the Arctic Observatory

Video tutorials about north pole on a map


keywords: #FunwithMaps, #DanHanson, #NorthPole, #SantaClaus, #Mercator, #SirEdmundHillary, #NeilArmstrong, #polarbearriddle

From the famous polar bear riddle to Santa Claus to famous explorations and expeditions the North Pole is completely unique. The North Pole is by definition the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite to the South Pole. At the North Pole all directions point south; all lines of longitude converge there. Thanks to Gerardus Mercator we have had maps of the Arctic region and North Pole for centuries. This video talks about the “wobble” at the North Pole, an amazing meeting between Sir Edmund Hillary and Neil Armstrong at the North Pole, the mystic aura of the Pole and, yes, some thoughts about Santa Claus. Please subscribe so you never miss an episode of Fun with Maps. See more at


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