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Thomas Gage (ca. 1719-1787) – The American Revolution
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Summary: Articles about Thomas Gage (ca. 1719-1787) – The American Revolution Major General Thomas Gage was commander-in-chief of British forces in North America and governor of Massachusetts Bay during some of the most chaotic years …
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General Thomas Gage | Facts, Early Years, Life, Death …
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Summary: Articles about General Thomas Gage | Facts, Early Years, Life, Death … After the French’s eventual surrender, Thomas Gage was named the military governor of Montreal. His wife Margaret came to live with him in …
Match the search results: It was during this battle that Thomas Gage first met George Washington, and the two were friendly for several years, however time and distance and the growing enmity towards Britain led to Washington publicly denouncing Thomas Gage’s taking authority in the field.
Summary: Articles about Thomas Gage – George Washington’s Mount Vernon Although Washington and Gage commanded opposing armies in the Revolutionary War, they had in fact gained great respect for each other earlier in life.
Match the search results: When Washington arrived outside Boston in July, Gage’s command of the British Army was essentially over. Although technically in command, Gage was compelled to consult with his subordinates about military strategy. For months, Washington and Gage set about training troops and collecting militar…
Thomas Gage, British General, Biography, Facts, American …
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Summary: Articles about Thomas Gage, British General, Biography, Facts, American … Facts About His Life After the American Revolution · He was recalled to England and left North American on October 11, 1775, but thought he was …
Match the search results: Gage was quick to caution and hesitant to use force, which was a poor combination for the time, and invited criticism from citizens and British troops in the colonies and politicians in England. Gage tried to appease the rebellious colonists, especially in Massachusetts. He tried to maintain order w…
Summary: Articles about Thomas Gage Facts *** – Colonial America Thomas Gage (1721-1787) was famous as a British leader and military commander in the early days of the American Revolution. Gage was the military governor of …
Match the search results: Short Biography about Thomas GageThomas Gage (1721-1787) was famous as a British leader and military commander in the early days of the American Revolution. Gage was the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay during the period when the Intolerable Acts were implemented, punishing Mas…
Summary: Articles about GENERAL THOMAS GAGE ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION GENERAL THOMAS GAGE ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION … Thomas Gage found army life pleasing. … After Culloden, Gage returned to Flanders.
Match the search results: Thomas Gage came from an established Sussex family, who had lived at Firle in East Sussex since the fifteenth century. The family remained staunchly Catholic (to their cost) until in the mid-1720s, Sir William Gage, the seventh baronet, decided to convert to the Protestant Church of England. Accordi…
Summary: Articles about Thomas Gage | American Battlefield Trust Following the French and Indian War, General Thomas Gage was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all forces in North America in 1763. Gage was later appointed …
Match the search results: Following the French and Indian War, General Thomas Gage was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all forces in North America in 1763. Gage was later appointed as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts in 1774, in an attempt by Parliament to quell rising unrest there. As Governor, Gage is credited for exace…
General Thomas Gage Facts, Biography, and Boston – The …
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Summary: Articles about General Thomas Gage Facts, Biography, and Boston – The … General Thomas Gage Facts: American Revolutionary War … After General Amherst left the Americas for good, Thomas Gage was promoted as commander in chief of …
Match the search results: After General Amherst left the Americas for good, Thomas Gage was promoted as commander in chief of British America. He was the highest ranking officer in all of North America. Gage spent most of his time in New York where he and his wife Margaret Gage presided over the colonies. Like most officers …
Summary: Articles about Thomas Gage – New World Encyclopedia Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the British North American forces from 1763 to 1775.
Match the search results: Gage spent 1756 as second-in-command of a failed expedition of the Mohawk River. The following year, he was assigned to Captain-General John Campbell Loudoun in Halifax, Nova Scotia where Gage commanded the 80th Regiment and finally received promotion to full colonel. Gage was wounded again during a…
Summary: Articles about Thomas Gage | Encyclopedia.com On the eve of the American Revolution, Gage was told by his superiors in … After school, at about the age of sixteen, Thomas Gage entered the army, …
Match the search results: In 1758 Gage served as a colonel under Lord Abercrombie, head of the British army, in the attempt to capture the French-held fort at Ticonderoga, New York. He was slightly wounded in this action. In early 1759 Gage and his wife, Lady Gage, moved to Albany to be near the new commander-in-chief, Lord …
Summary: Articles about Biography – GAGE, THOMAS – Volume IV (1771-1800) Thomas Gage was a representative product of the 18th-century British army. His family and political connections, the system of purchase, and his own solid …
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Sources for particular episodes in Gage’s career are as follows: for the Braddock expedition, Military affairs in North America, 1748–65 (Pargellis) and Correspondence of William Shirley (Lincoln), II. Captain Robert Orme of Braddock’s staff attributed the disaster to the collapse of Gage’s advanc…
Men of the Revolution: 2. Thomas Gage – AMERICAN …
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Summary: Articles about Men of the Revolution: 2. Thomas Gage – AMERICAN … The British commander-in-chief at the beginning of the Revolution was popular and conscientious, but events were beyond his control.
Match the search results: After attending Westminster, the famous public school, where his fellow scholars included a collection of names that would figure in the Revolution Francis Bernard, John Burgoyne, George Germain, and two of the Howe brothers, George Augustus and Richard Gage (as was then the custom) purchased a lieu…
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General Thomas Gage, painting by John Singleton Copley | Public domain images from Wikimedia Commons.
Thomas Gage was an English general known for his service in the United StatesFrench and Indian Warand the War of Independence. The second son of a viscount, he was born in England in 1719 or 1720.
After school he joined the British Army. He earned his Lieutenant’s degree and served in the British Army, moving around the regiment and being promoted through the ranks and seeing plenty of action until finally being promoted to Lieutenant Colonel.
A favorite in the military, Thomas Gage was charming and handsome at the club he was a member of. His time in college, in the club, and as the son of a nobleman gave him the opportunity to forge powerful political and military allies. He was once engaged but it broke down. He and his father both ran for seats in Parliament in 1753. He failed to win the seat and contested the result, but withdrew his objection when his regiment was sent to America to fight in the French and Indian Wars.
French and Indian War
During the French and Indian War, Gage’s regiment was part of theGeneral BraddockThe Expeditionary Force drew on French forces from many regions fighting in the Ohio Country. Gage temporarily assumed command at the Battle of Monongahela when the regimental commander was killed, but complaints that his poor tactics were the cause of the company’s defeat and retreat permanently denied him leadership.
In this fight, Thomas Gage scored for the first timegeorge washingtonand the two were friends for several years, but time, distance and growing hostility towards Britain led Washington to publicly denounce Thomas Gage as the ruler in the field.
Margaret Kemble Gage | Painting by John Singleton Copley | Public domain images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
He continued to fight in the French and Indian Wars, even forming a light infantry regiment. In 1758, between recruitment for an upcoming campaign and the fighting, he met and married Margaret Kemble of Brunswick. His recruitment was successful, but the campaign was not. Only 4,000 French defeated the British force of 16,000 men. Despite the heavy defeat, Thomas Gage was promoted to brigade commander after the battle.
As the new general he was given command of a fort at Albany and was soon ordered to take control of the newly captured Fort Niagara which the general had just died to capture Fort La Galette on Lake Ontario and advance on Montréal if possible . However, upon arriving at Fort La Galette, Gage decided there were not enough troops to destroy it, which angered his superiors.
After the French finally surrendered, Thomas Gage was appointed military governor of Montreal. His wife Margaret moved to live with him in Montreal and his first two children were born there. He appeared to be a decent administrator, but after the excitement of the war he grew weary of his post job. His superiors were on furlough in England, so Gage was delighted to assume the position of Commander-in-Chief, North America.
He did not expect unexpected difficulties from the Indians then. The Pontiac Rebellion, as it came to be known, was provoked in part by strict policies prohibiting the sale of ammunition by the British to Indians and in part by the continued expansion of British colonies on Indian soil. The Indians conducted a series of raids on several British forts, sometimes successfully driving out the population. Thomas Gage was responsible for sending officers to negotiate peace treaties, and the Pontiac Rebellion ended in July 1766.
When his superiors announced he had no plans to return to the United States, Thomas Gage was appointed official commander-in-chief. He was stationed in New York and used his relatively well-paid and advantageous position to advance the careers of family members and close friends and send his six children to school in the UK.
During Gage’s tenure there was growing unrest in the colonies. He began drawing troops from the frontier to fortify larger colonies like New York and Boston, leading to a growing need for food and clothing for the soldiers. Gage thought about the commotion around himonion stampcame from a select few in Boston and sent two regiments to take Boston and blow up an already nasty city. The Quartering Act of 1765, passed by Congress, required the colonists to form regiments.
Gage began to see that democracy was “too widespread” in America and that independent government was undermining the power of the British Parliament. He brought his family to England in June 1773 and thus missed outBoston Tea Partythat December. The following action taken by Parliament, intolerable action, was intended to attack the colonies and stems in part from Thomas Gage, who was overseeing the developing situation in the Chosen Colonies and the implementation of these new laws.
In 1774 Thomas Gage was appointed royal military governor of Massachusetts. Bostonians were glad their former governor was leaving, so they were happy to see Gage at first, but as he began enforcing the Inviolability Act, the Boston Port Act, and the Massachusetts Government Act, his popularity quickly waned. When it turned out that Massachusetts had sent representatives therecontinental congress, he dissolved the council and founded the “Council of Governors”. People refused to meet the council, but he successfully enlisted political leader Benjamin Church, who provided him with information on rebel leaders.
Gage rallied his forces in Boston, withdrew his garrisons in New York, New Jersey, and Philadelphia, and ordered the Army to seize guns, powder, and weapons, specifically targeting a Somerville magazine. The rebels responded and urged the militia to invade Cambridge, but they eventually dispersed. His mission was successful, but he was much more wary of the colonists and faced criticism from other officers. Gage feared he would need more troops to defeat the rebellion, “because starting with small numbers encourages resistance, not terror; and will end up costing more blood and treasure.”
In the end, Britain had had enough and Gage was ordered to act decisively. He received information that Concord, MA is being used to store weapons. He sent a troop march there that resulted in a skirmish at Lexington, but very few were found when he reached Concord because Gage’s plan reached the Patriots and the weapons were shipped. On leaving Concord, the rebel militia attacked the British column. battles ofLexingtonandunityresulted in more British casualties than the rebels. The colonial militia, emboldened by their successes,Building the Siege of Boston, to doGeneral Artema Ward.
Thumbnails of General Thomas Gage by Jeremiah Meyer | Public domain images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
It is speculated that Thomas Gage’s wife, Margaret Kemble Gage, passed information to the Patriots, tracked down her husband, and passed information about the Battles of Lexington and Concord to Joseph Warren. Although the evidence is only circumstantial, her husband sent her to England in the summer of 1775.
Gage received reinforcements along withGen. William Howeand brigadeJohn BurgoyneandGeneral Henry Clintonwho he worked withSiege of Bostonand fight withBattle on Bunker Hill.
Thomas Gage wrote to England with the results of the battle. Within three days they wrote him a reply and replaced him with General William Howe. Thomas Gage went to England, where he earned both ridicule and sympathy for his failure to quell the rebellion. During a possible invasion of France in 1782, he was briefly reinstated and promoted to general. Eventually he died in 1787.
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Thomas Gage was a British general best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as military commander in the early days of the American Revolution. Born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent George Washington in the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. After the fall of Montreal in 1760, he was named its military governor. During this time he did not distinguish himself militarily,, but proved himself to be a competent administrator. From 1763 to 1775 he served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, overseeing the British response to the 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion. In 1774 he was also appointed the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to implement the Intolerable Acts, punishing Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. His attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in Apr…