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Where in the mitochondrion does the electron transport chain …
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Summary: Articles about Where in the mitochondrion does the electron transport chain … ·
Match the search results: The mitochondrion has an outer membrane and an inner membrane with folds (cisternae). The electron transport chain is a series of transmembrane proteins found in the inner membrane.
Summary: Articles about Electron transport chain – Wikipedia An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of protein complexes and other molecules that … of the main sites at which premature electron leakage to oxygen occurs, …
Match the search results: When bacteria grow in aerobic environments, the terminal electron acceptor (O2) is reduced to water by an enzyme called an oxidase. When bacteria grow in anaerobic environments, the terminal electron acceptor is reduced by an enzyme called a reductase. In mitochondria the terminal membrane complex (…
Oxidative phosphorylation | Biology (article) | Khan Academy
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Summary: Articles about Oxidative phosphorylation | Biology (article) | Khan Academy Oxygen sits at the end of the electron transport chain, where it accepts electrons and picks up protons to form water. If oxygen isn’t there to accept electrons …
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Biochemistry, Electron Transport Chain – StatPearls – NCBI
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Summary: Articles about Biochemistry, Electron Transport Chain – StatPearls – NCBI It occurs in mitochondria in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis. In the former, the electrons come from breaking down organic …
Match the search results: Flavin adenine dinucleotide has 4 redox states, 3 of them being FAD (quinone, fully oxidized form), FADH- (semiquinone, partially oxidized), and FADH2 (hydroquinone, fully reduced). FAD is made up of an adenine nucleotide and a flavin mononucleotide (FMN), connected by phosphate groups. FMN is synth…
Summary: Articles about Electron Transport Chain | Biology for Majors I If cyanide poisoning occurs, would you expect the pH of the intermembrane space to increase or decrease? What effect would cyanide have on ATP synthesis? Show …
Match the search results: Complex II directly receives FADH2, which does not pass through complex I. The compound connecting the first and second complexes to the third is ubiquinone (Q). The Q molecule is lipid soluble and freely moves through the hydrophobic core of the membrane. Once it is reduced, (QH2), ubiquinone deliv…
Where does the electron transport chain take place
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Summary: Articles about Where does the electron transport chain take place Answer: Electron transport chain occur on the inner mitochondrial membrane known as cristae. Question: Where are the proteins of the electron …
Match the search results: Question: How many ATP are generated in the electron transport chain? Summary of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain 1). The electron transport chain as indicated by its name “transport means transfer”, is a membrane-embedded protein labelled Read more…
Summary: Articles about Electron Transport Chain – TeachMePhysiology Physiology. The electron transport chain is located in the mitochondria. There are five main protein complexes in the ETC, located in the inner membrane of the …
Match the search results: The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes. This information is intended for medical education, and does not create any doctor-patient relationship, and should not be used as a substitu…
Electron Transport Chain – Definition and Steps – Biology …
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Summary: Articles about Electron Transport Chain – Definition and Steps – Biology … Where Does the Electron Transport Chain Occur? … Complex III, or cytochrome c reductase, is where the Q cycle takes place.
Match the search results: 3. Where is the higher concentration of protons while the electron transport chain is activated? A. Phospholipid layer B. Mitochondrial matrix C. Intermembrane space D. Cell membrane
Electron transport chain – Cellular respiration – BBC Bitesize
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Summary: Articles about Electron transport chain – Cellular respiration – BBC Bitesize For Higher Human Biology, discover how and where energy is made in the cell and the chemical reactions involved.
Match the search results: Starch, glycogen, proteins (amino acids) and fats can all be broken down into intermediates in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle. This provides alternative metabolic pathways to make ATP.
Summary: Articles about 2.29: Electron Transport – Biology LibreTexts (Hint: How does electron transport occur in photosynthesis?) … for an overview of the electron transport chain.
Match the search results: The pumping of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane creates a greater concentration of the ions in the intermembrane space than in the matrix. This chemiosmotic gradient causes the ions to flow back across the membrane into the matrix, where their concentration is lower.ATP synthase acts as a cha…
7.4A: Electron Transport Chain – Biology LibreTexts
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Summary: Articles about 7.4A: Electron Transport Chain – Biology LibreTexts To start, two electrons are carried to the first complex aboard NADH. Complex I is composed of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and an enzyme …
Match the search results: The electron transport chain is the final component of aerobic respiration and is the only part of glucose metabolism that uses atmospheric oxygen. Electron transport is a series of redox reactions that resemble a relay race. Electrons are passed rapidly from one component to the next to the endpoin…
Electron Transport Chain: Florida Community College
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Summary: Articles about Electron Transport Chain: Florida Community College The Electron Transport Chain. Electron transport chain (ETC). Inside the mitochondria of animal or plant cells, a series of chemical reactions produce ATP.
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Inside the mitochondria of animal or plant cells, a series of chemical reactions produce ATP. This ATP contains chemical energy, and is the main “fuel” that cells use to stay alive. Most of this ATP is produced by a series of proteins on the inner membrane of the mitochondria – these proteins coll…
Explain the respiratory chain (electron transport chain) and its role in cellular respiration
You just read about two pathways that produce ATP in cellular respiration – glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. However, most of the ATP produced during the aerobic catabolism of glucose is not produced directly by these pathways. Rather, it derives from a process that begins with the movement of electrons through a series of electron carriers that undergo redox reactions:electron transport chain. This causes hydrogen ions to accumulate in the matrix space. Thus, a concentration gradient is formed in which hydrogen ions pass through the ATP synthase and diffuse through the matrix cavity. The influx of hydrogen ions powers the catalytic action of ATP synthase, which will phosphorylate ADP and produce ATP.
Figure 1. The electron transport chain is a series of electron carriers embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to transfer electrons from NADH and FADH.2ndto molecular oxygen. During this process, protons are pumped through the mitochondrial matrix into the intramembrane space and oxygen is reduced to form water.
The electron transport chain (Figure 1) is the final component of aerobic respiration and the only part of glucose metabolism that uses atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen is constantly diffused into plants; In animals, it enters the body through the respiratory system. Electron transport is a series of redox reactions, similar to a relay or bucket brigade, in which electrons are rapidly transferred from one component to another, to the end of the chain in which the electrons are transported. The electrons deoxygenate the molecule, forming water. In Figure 1 there are four complexes of proteins labeled I to IV, and the assembly of these four complexes together with their associated mobile electron carriers is known as the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain is found in multiple copies in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes and the plasma membrane of prokaryotes. Note, however, that the electron transport chain of prokaryotes may not require oxygen, as some organisms live under anaerobic conditions. A common feature of all electron transport chains is the presence of a proton pump to induce a proton gradient across the membrane.
To begin with, two electrons are brought into the first complex on NADH. Labeled as I, this complex consists of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and an iron-sulfur containing protein (Fe-S). FMN from vitamin B2nd, also known as riboflavin, is one of several pseudogroups or cofactors in the electron transport chain. onefake groupIt is a non-protein molecule necessary for the functioning of proteins. Mock groups are organic or inorganic molecules other than peptides that attach to a protein to facilitate its function; The prosthetic group includes co-enzymes, which are a group of prosthetic enzymes. The enzyme in Complex I is NADH dehydrogenase, and it is a very large protein containing 45 amino acid chains. Complex I is able to pump four hydrogen ions from the substrate across the membrane into the intermembrane space, thereby establishing and maintaining a hydrogen ion gradient between the two compartments separated by the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Q and Complex II
Complex II accepts FADH directly2nddoes not pass through complex I. The compounds that link the first and second complex to the third complex are:ubiquinone(Q). The Q molecule is lipid soluble and moves freely through the hydrophobic core of the membrane. When reduced, (QH2nd), ubiquinone donates its electrons to the next complex in the electron transport chain. Q accepts electrons from NADH and electrons from FADH from complex I2ndfrom complex II containing succinate dehydrogenase. This enzyme and FADH2ndbypasses the first complex, forming a small complex that transports electrons directly to the electron transport chain. As these electrons bypass and therefore do not power the proton pump in the initial complex, fewer ATP molecules are produced than FADH.2ndelectrons. The final number of ATP molecules obtained is proportional to the number of protons pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The third complex consists of cytochrome b, another Fe-S protein, Rieske center (2Fe-2S center) and cytochrome c proteins; This complex is also known as cytochrome oxidoreductase. Cytochrome proteins have a pseudoheme group. The heme molecule is similar to heme in hemoglobin but carries electrons, not oxygen. As a result, the iron ion in its nucleus is reduced and oxidized as it passes through electrons, oscillating between different oxidation states: Fe++(reduced) and Fe+++(oxidized). The heme molecules in the cytochromes have slightly different properties due to the action of the different proteins that bind them, giving slightly different properties for each complex. Complex III pumps protons across the membrane and transfers its electrons to cytochrome c for transport to the fourth protein and enzyme complex (cytochrome c is the electron acceptor from Q; however, while Q carries electron pairs, cytochrome c can only accept one at a time).
The fourth complex consists of cytochrome c, a and a proteins.3. This complex contains two heme groups (one of the two cytochromes, a and a.).3) and three copper ions (a pair of Cuoneand a CuTO PICK UPin cytochrome a3). The cytochromes hold an oxygen molecule very tightly between the iron and copper ions until the oxygen is completely depleted. At that time, the reduced oxygen will take two hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium to form water (H2ndHE). The removal of hydrogen ions from the system contributes to the ionic gradient used in the chemical process.
In chemotherapy, free energy from the redox chain reaction just described is used to pump hydrogen ions (protons) across the membrane. uneven distribution of THE+Ions across the membrane form both a concentration and an electric gradient (hence an electrochemical gradient) due to the positive charge of the hydrogen ions and their pooling on one side of the membrane.
If the membrane is open to diffusion by hydrogen ions, the ions will tend to diffuse back to the substrate, driven by their electrochemical gradient. Recall that many ions would not be able to diffuse into nonpolar regions of the phospholipid membrane without the aid of ion channels. Similarly, hydrogen ions in matrix space can only pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane via an integral membrane protein called ATP synthase (Figure 2). This complex protein acts as a small generator that is rotated along its electrochemical gradient by the force of hydrogen ions radiating through it. The transfer of parts of this molecular machinery facilitates the addition of a phosphate to ADP, which creates ATP using the potential energy of the hydrogen ion gradient.
Figure 2. ATP synthase is a complex molecular machine that uses a proton gradient (H) to generate ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). (Credit: Modification of work by Klaus Hoffmeier)
Dinitrophenol (DNP) is an indivisible substance that causes the inner mitochondrial membrane to leak protons. It was used as a weight loss drug until 1938. What effect do you expect DNP to have on pH changes across the mitochondrial inner membrane? Why do you think this could be an effective weight loss drug?
Chemiosmosis (Figure 3) was used to generate 90% of the ATP produced during aerobic glucose catabolism; It is also the method used in the light reaction of photosynthesis to use the energy of sunlight during photophosphorylation. Recall that ATP production in mitochondria using chemiosmosis is known as oxidative phosphorylation. The common result of these reactions is the production of ATP from the energy of electrons leaving the hydrogen atom. These atoms were originally part of the glucose molecule. At the end of the path, electrons are used to reduce an oxygen molecule to oxygen ions. The extra electrons on the oxygen attract hydrogen ions (protons) from the environment and water is formed.
Figure 3. During oxidative phosphorylation, the pH gradient is created by the electron transport chain, which is used by ATP synthase to form ATP.
Cyanide inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, a component of the electron transport chain. If cyanide poisoning occurs, would you expect the pH of the membrane cavity to increase or decrease? What effect will cyanide have on ATP synthesis?
The number of ATP molecules produced from glucose catabolism varies. For example, the number of hydrogen ions that the electron transport chain complex can pump across the membrane varies between species. Another source of variance comes from the electron shuttle across the mitochondrial membrane. (NADH produced by glycolysis cannot easily enter the mitochondria.) Therefore, electrons are captured by NAD inside the mitochondria.+or FAD+. As you have already learned, this FAD+molecules can carry fewer ions; therefore, less ATP molecules are produced when there is FAD+acts as a carrier. NAD+used as electron carrier in liver and FAD+activity in the brain.
Another factor affecting the output of ATP molecules produced from glucose is the use of intermediate compounds in these pathways for other purposes. Glucose catabolism is linked to pathways that form or break down all other biochemical compounds in the cell, and the result is somewhat more complex than the ideal states described so far. For example, sugars other than glucose are included in the glycolytic pathway for energy extraction. Also, the five-carbon sugars that make up nucleic acids are produced from glycolysis intermediates. Some non-essential amino acids can be produced from intermediates of both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. Lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, are also produced from intermediates in these pathways, and both amino acids and triglycerides are broken down for energy via these pathways. Overall, in living systems, these glucose catabolism pathways extract about 34% of the energy found in glucose.
Summary: The Electron Transport Chain
The electron transport chain is part of aerobic respiration that uses free oxygen as the final electron acceptor of electrons removed from intermediates in glucose catabolism. The electron transport chain consists of four large complexes, many proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and two small scattered electron carriers that transfer electrons between them. Electrons are transferred through a series of redox reactions with a small amount of free energy used at three points to transport hydrogen ions across the membrane. This process contributes to the gradients used in chemical chemiosmosis. Electrons passing through the electron transport chain gradually lose energy, High energy electrons are donated to the chain by NADH or FADH.2ndComplete the chain as low-energy electrons reduce oxygen molecules and form water. The free energy of electrons decreases from about 60 kcal/mol in NADH or from about 45 kcal/mol in FADH.2ndabout 0 kcal/mol in water. The end products of the electron transport chain are water and ATP. Some intermediates of the citric acid cycle can be redirected to the anabolism of other biochemical molecules such as non-essential amino acids, sugars and lipids. It is these molecules that can serve as an energy source for glucose pathways.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane. This creates an electrochemical proton gradient that drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that stores energy chemically in the form of highly strained bonds. The molecules of the chain include peptides, enzymes (which are proteins or protein complexes), and others. The final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport chain during aerobic respiration is molecular oxygen although a variety of acceptors other than oxygen such as sulfate exist in anaerobic respiration.
In chloroplasts, light drives the conversion of water to oxygen and NADP+ to NADPH with transfer of H+ ions across chloroplast membranes. In mitochondria, it is the conversion of oxygen to water, NADH to NAD+ and succinate to fumarate that are required to generate the proton gradient.
In Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, NADH-CoQ reductase, or NADH dehydrogenase; EC 220.127.116.11), two electrons are removed from NADH and ultimately transferred to a lipid-soluble carrier, ubiquinone (Q). The reduced product, ubiquinol (QH2), freely diffuses within the membrane, and Complex I translocates four protons (H+) across the membrane, thus producing a proton gradient. Complex I is one of the main sites at which premature electron leakage to oxygen occurs, thus being one of the main sites of production of superoxide.
The pathway of electrons is as follows:
NADH is oxidized to NAD+, by reducing Flavin mononucleotide to FMNH2 in one two-electron step. FMNH2 is then oxidized in two one-electron steps, through a semiquinone intermediate. Each electron thus transfers from the FMNH2 to an Fe-S cluster, from the Fe-S cluster to ubiquinone (Q). Transfer of the first electron results in the free-radical (semiquinone) form of Q, and transfer of the second electron reduces the semiquinone form to the ubiquinol form, QH2. During this process, four protons are translocated from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.  As the electrons become continuously oxidized and reduced throughout the complex an electron current is produced along the 180 Angstrom width of the complex within the membrane. This current powers the active transport of four protons to the intermembrane space per two electrons from NADH.
In Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase or succinate-CoQ reductase; EC 18.104.22.168) additional electrons are delivered into the quinone pool (Q) originating from succinate and transferred (via flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) to Q. Complex II consists of four protein subunits: succinate dehydrogenase, (SDHA); succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial, (SDHB); succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C, (SDHC) and succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, (SDHD). Other electron donors (e.g., fatty acids and glycerol 3-phosphate) also direct electrons into Q (via FAD). Complex 2 is a parallel electron transport pathway to complex 1, but unlike complex 1, no protons are transported to the intermembrane space in this pathway. Therefore, the pathway through complex 2 contributes less energy to the overall electron transport chain process.
In Complex III (cytochrome bc1 complex or CoQH2-cytochrome c reductase; EC 22.214.171.124), the Q-cycle contributes to the proton gradient by an asymmetric absorption/release of protons. Two electrons are removed from QH2 at the QO site and sequentially transferred to two molecules of cytochrome c, a water-soluble electron carrier located within the intermembrane space. The two other electrons sequentially pass across the protein to the Qi site where the quinone part of ubiquinone is reduced to quinol. A proton gradient is formed by one quinol (2H+2e-) oxidations at the Qo site to form one quinone (2H+2e-) at the Qi site. (in total four protons are translocated: two protons reduce quinone to quinol and two protons are released from two ubiquinol molecules).
QH2 + 2 cytochrome c (FeIII) + 2 H+in → Q + 2 cytochrome c (FeII) + 4 H+out
When electron transfer is reduced (by a high membrane potential or respiratory inhibitors such as antimycin A), Complex III may leak electrons to molecular oxygen, resulting in superoxide formation.
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