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  • Match the search results: The Selma Campaign is considered a major success for the Civil Rights Movement, largely because it was an immediate catalyst for the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on Aug. 6, 1965, the Voting Rights Act guaranteed active federal protection of…

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  • Summary: Articles about Selma to Montgomery March – MLK, Purpose & Distance The Selma to Montgomery march was part of a series of civil-rights protests that occurred in 1965 in Alabama, a Southern state with deeply entrenched racist …

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  • Summary: Articles about Selma Marches | National Archives The three marches at Selma were a pivotal turning point in the civil rights movement. Because of the powerful impact of the marches in Selma …

  • Match the search results: The three marches at Selma were a pivotal turning point in the civil rights movement. Because of the powerful impact of the marches in Selma, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was presented to Congress on March 17, 1965. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the bill into law on August 6, 1965.

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    The violence in Selma compelled President Johnson to introduce a federal voting-rights bill. In a speech to Congress, Johnson introduced the bill and, using the language of Civil Rights singers, said, “We shall overcome.” The Selma-to-Montgomery voting campaign attracted national attentio…

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  • Match the search results: On March 15, just over a week after Bloody Sunday, Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson introduced voting rights legislation in an address to a joint session of Congress. In what became a famous speech, he identified the clash in Selma as a turning point in U.S. history akin to the Battles of Lexington and Conco…

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  • Summary: Articles about Selma March | Date, Route, Bloody Sunday, & Facts | Britannica Voter registration in Selma · Civil Rights Act of 1964, local law enforcement—led by the county’s militant segregationist sheriff, · Southern …

  • Match the search results: Clark, however, failed to heed Smitherman’s directive. By early February 1965, with the SCLC’s organizing efforts in full swing, police violence had escalated and at least 2,000 demonstrators had been jailed in Dallas county. In January and February King pointed to the situation in Selma when he sou…

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The Selma Conflict – Stanford University

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SELMA MOVEMENT – National Voting Rights Museum

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  • Summary: Articles about SELMA MOVEMENT – National Voting Rights Museum The Selma to Montgomery March consisted of three different marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American Civil Rights …

  • Match the search results: The Selma to Montgomery March consisted of three different marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American Civil Rights Movement.  These three marches grew out of the voting rights movement in Selma, Alabama, launched by local African Americans who formed the Dallas…

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  • Summary: Articles about Civil Rights, Voting Rights, and the Selma March – Amistad … The year 1964 marked a legislative victory for civil rights activists and was a pivotal moment in the political history of African Americans.

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    The violence in Selma compelled President Johnson to introduce a federal voting-rights bill. In a speech to Congress, Johnson introduced the bill and, using the language of Civil Rights singers, said, “We shall overcome.” The Selma-to-Montgomery voting campaign attracted national attentio…

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  • Summary: Articles about The Selma Voting Rights Struggle: 15 Key Points from Bottom … Martin Luther King Jr., the interracial marchers, and President Lyndon Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act. This version of history, emphasizing a top-down …

  • Match the search results: Today, issues of racial equity and voting rights are front and center in the lives of young people. There is much they can learn from an accurate telling of the Selma (Dallas County) voting rights campaign and the larger Civil Rights Movement. We owe it to students on this anniversary to share the h…

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The Importance of Selma 50 Years Ago and Today | Sierra Club

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  • Summary: Articles about The Importance of Selma 50 Years Ago and Today | Sierra Club Eventually, the march went on unimpeded — and the echoes of its significance reverberated so loudly in Washington, D.C., that Congress passed the Voting Rights …

  • Match the search results: In 2013, the Supreme Court decimated a vital portion of the Voting Rights Act that guaranteed federal review of changes to voting laws on a state level. The Court declared this law was somehow outdated, putting the onus on Congress to update it. As Congress has sat idly by, many state legislatures t…

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Also check out the Ten Things You Should Know Before Watching the Movie About Selma and the short version of this article.Lessons are free to download at Selma.

Download full article as .pdf

by Emily Crosby

On the 50th anniversary of the Selma-Montgomery March and the Voting Rights Act that helped inspire, national attention focused on the iconic “Dopy Sunday” blood images,” he said. Interracial hikers Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and President Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act. This version of history, which emphasizes a top-down narrative and isolated events,main storywhat civil rights activists describe as “Rosa sat down, Martin stood up, and the whites went south to save the day.”

Today, issues of racial equality and suffrage are at the center of young people’s lives. They can learn a lot from a true story about Selma’s (Dallas County) suffrage campaign and the broader Civil Rights Movement. This anniversary, we owe our students to share the history that can help equip them to continue the struggle today.

A march of 15,000 in Harlem in solidarity with Selma voting rights struggle. World Telegram & Sun photo by Stanley Wolfson. Library of Congress.A march of 15,000 people was held in Harlem in solidarity with the suffrage struggle in Selma. World Telegram

1. Selma’s suffrage campaign began long before the modern Civil Rights Movement.

Amelia Boynton Robinson as a teen in the 1920s. Courtesy of Mrs. Amelia Boynton Robinson.Amelia Boynton Robinson in the 1920s.

Grandmother.Amelia Boynton RobinsonFounded by her husband, Samuel William Boynton, and other African-American activistsDallas County Confederation of Voters (DCVL)In the 1930s, the DCVL became the basis for a group of activists seeking suffrage and economic independence.

Bruce Boynton, the son of Howard University law student The Boyntons, is the plaintiff in the case.Boynton v. VirginiaA 1960 U.S. Supreme Court case found isolated facilities for interstate travel—such as bus and train stations—unconstitutional. This case inspired the freestyle races held by the Congress for Racial Equality (CORE) in 1961.

2. Selma is one of the communities where the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) started to organize in the early 1960s.

veteran activists in 1963Kolia (Liddell)andBernard Lafayetteto Selma as a field workerNonviolent Student Coordinating Committee (SNCC)It’s called “Snick”. Founded in 1960 by youth who started the sit-in, SNCC has moved to the Deep South, where majority black communities do the dangerous job of organizing with surrounding local residents.

Working with the Boyntons and other DCVL members, Lafayettescivic education schoolclasses focus on the literacy test required for voter registration and are door-to-door, encouraging African-Americans to register to vote. (Learn more about SNCC’s daily work at Selma in field reports by Colia and Bernard Lafayette.April 6, 1963, reportColia Lafayette’s photo. Also read an article by Bernard Lafayette.Selma: Diary of a Freedom Fighter”By James FormanFounding of Black Revolutionaries.)

Prathia HallAn SNCC field secretary who arrived in Selma in the fall of 1963 explained:

“If the SNCC had not launched Selma in 1962 and 1963, the 1965 Selma Movement would never have happened. The movement then known nationally was the product of more than two years.lotsto be careful,lotstake it slow.” —Prathia HallHands on the Freedom Plow(Learn more about Hall’s account)How are you today?.)

3. The white power structure used economic, “legal” and extra-legal means, including violence, to deny African Americans access to their constitutional right to vote.

LiteracytestAlabama Literacy Test. Click the picture for details.

The organization of the SNCC was necessary and extremely challenging because African-Americans in Selma, despite making up the majority of the population, were systematically nationalized by the white elite.text testeconomic coercion and violence to maintain the status quo.

According to a 1961 Human Rights Commission report, only 130 of Dallas County’s 15,115 eligible blacks signed up to vote. The situation is even worse in neighboring Wilcox and Lowndes counties. In these rural counties, which are about 80% Black, there are hardly any Blacks at the ballot box. Ironically, in some counties of Alabama,more than 100%eligible white population was recorded. checkpoint

4. White terror has created a climate of fear that hinders organizational efforts.

Alabama Governor George Wallace, holding photograph of alleged "known agitators", while speaking to Citizens' Council group in Atlanta in 1963. Library of Congress.Alabama Governor George Wallace holds a photograph of “agitators” while speaking to a Citizens’ Assembly group in Atlanta, 1963. Library of Congress.

While many knew about the violent attacks on Bloody Sunday, the suppression of whites in Selma was systematic and prolonged. Selma is the home of Sheriff Jim Clark, a fierce racist and one of Alabama’s most powerful whites.Citizens Council—Composed of the community’s elite whites and committed to preserving white segregation and white supremacy. The threat of violence and retaliation is so strong that most African-Americans are afraid to attend a mass gathering. Many of Lafayettes’ first recruits were high school students. Too young to vote, they amassed and taught classes for adults.

“Alabama is extremely dangerous. In Gadsden, for example, police applied cattle stimulants to the torn feet of [young protesters] and taped the stimulants to the groins of boys. Selma is brutal. Civil rights workers entered the town under the cover of darkness.”—Prathia Hall.

To encourage attendance at a mass meeting, the Lafayettes combined a May 14, 1963 memorial to Mr. Boynton with a voting workshop and rally. leader of SNCCJames Formanspoke and 350 people attended. The whites first tried to intimidate the minister into giving up the use of the church, and then they gathered around the church in a menacing crowd with guns. As the crowd included Sheriff Jim Clark and other local attorneys, SNCC agents sought help from federal officials (unsuccessfully) and remained inside until 1am, when the armed crowd had dispersed – they sang songs, sang freely to boost their courage – until 1 am.

5. Although civil rights activists often use nonviolent tactics in public protests, they always use guns in self-defense at home and in their communities.

Selma_lafayette_63Bernard Lafayette was defeated after 1963.

Self-defense in Lowndes County. Library of Congress.Self-defense in County Lowndes. Library of Congress.

12 June 1963, nightMedgar EversThe assassinated white man in Jackson, Mississippi, viciously attacked Bernard Lafayette outside the Selma apartment, which many believed was a concerted effort to crack down on Black activities.

Lafayette believed in a philosophy of nonviolence, but his life was probably saved by a neighbor who shot into the air to scare off white attackers.

this apparmed self-defense intertwined with movementand because neither local nor federal law enforcement provides adequate protection, keeping nonviolent activists alive is crucial. (More in the post)Charles E. Cobb Jr.)

6. Local, state, and federal agencies conspired and became complicit in preventing blacks from voting.

Despite the persistent work of the SNCC and the Dallas County Confederation of Voters, it was nearly impossible for African-Americans to register to vote. The registration office is only open twice a month, on the first and third Mondays, and potential applicants are frequently and arbitrarily rejected, even if they are well-educated. Some were attacked, some were shot at.Howard ZinnVisiting Selma as SNCC advisor in the fall of 1963a look at the printnoted that white officials fired teachers for trying to register them, and they frequently arrested SNCC employees, sometimes sending them to jail. In one case, a police officer knocked out a 19-year-old girl and tortured her with a cattle.

Image: A brave boy protests for his freedom outside the Dallas County Courthouse in Selma, July 8, 1964. Sheriff Selma approached and arrested him. Photo courtesy of Matt Herron / Take Stock Photos.

In another example, in the summer of 1964, Judge James Hare made it illegal to assemble three or more people. This made demonstrations and voter registration nearly impossible, as SNCC maintained a slow appeals process. While the Justice Department is pursuing its own legislative action to address discrimination against Black voters, when local officials made the Civil Rights Act of 1957 public, their lawyers did not defend and intervene.

The FBI is even worse. In addition to refusing to protect the attacked civil rights workers from agents, the FBI also spied and sought to discredit movement activists. In 1964, the FBI sent King an anonymous and threatening letter urging him to commit suicide and then defaming the white activist.Viola LiuzzoHe was killed after arriving from Detroit to participate in the Selma-Montgomery March.

7. SNCC developed creative tactics to highlight the need to vote for Blacks and the brutal violence at the heart of Jim Crow.

To highlight the desire of African-Americans to vote and encourage collective action, SNCC organized:Monday, October 7, 1963 Freedom Day, one of the monthly subscription days. They invited Black celebrities like James Baldwin andfuck Gregory, so Selma niggas will know they’re not alone.

During the day, 350 African-Americans queued to register, but the registry only processed 40 applications, and white lawyers refused to let people leave the line and return. Lawmakers also arrested three SNCC employees standing on federal property holding voter registration notice boards.

Howard Zinn, James Baldwin, and a journalist on Freedom Day October 1963. SNCC volunteers were beaten for trying to bring water to people (many elderly) who waited in the heat for hours to register to vote. © John Kouns.

In the afternoon, SNCC was so interested in those who stood in the scorching sun all day that the two field secretaries filled their arms with water and bread and approached the electorate who would become the electorate.

Highway Patrol immediately attacked and arrested two of them, while three FBI agents and two Justice Department attorneys refused to intervene. (Read the narrative of the day by Howard ZinnHow are you today?.)

This federal action was typical, but Southern white officials persistently and openly rejected both the 1957 Civil Rights Act and the constitutional protections of freedom of assembly and speech. The FBI insists it has no authority to take action as this is a matter of local police, but has always ignored such restrictions to catch bank robbers and others violating federal law.

8. With regard to voter registration, the SNCC grassroots organization has trained the Justice Department’s attorneys on the need for additional voting legislation.

In Selma, as in parts of Mississippi, SNCC organizers played an important role in illustrating the widespread, relentless discrimination faced by prospective Black voters.

"Freedom Day" in Selma, October 1963. Blacks line up at the courthouse to apply to register to vote. (c) John Kouns.“Liberty Day” in Selma in October 1963. Blacks queued up in court to apply to vote. © John Kouns.

This helped Justice Department officials (includingJohn Doarand Burke Marshall) document discrimination in their own voting rights lawsuits against stubborn white registrars in the Deep South. Over time, the slow pace and fragmented nature of these cases convinced the Justice Department that a more systematic solution was needed.

Speaking on the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Civil Rights division at the Ministry of Justice, Doar said:

“Selma’s success and voting rights built on earlier but less obvious work by SNCC and farmers in Greenwood, Mississippi, and prompted the division to develop a new, global approach for the first time. Representation to protect voting rights became the template for the intervention ministry in Selma. “

9. Selma activists, Dr. King to join an active movement with a long history.

In late 1964, Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) sought a local community from which they could launch a campaign to force the country to face persistent and pervasive structural discrimination. The power of Southern whites over prospective Black voters.

SCLCNewsletterAt the same time, Ms. Boynton, longtime leader of the Dallas County Voters Union, wanted to escalate the struggle in Selma and invited the SCLC to join. SCLC sees Selma as ideal because: (1) the ongoing work of SNCC and DCVL has provided a strong organizer and human base that can be relied upon to attend rallies and marches during demonstrations, seeking to register and persuade potential registrants; (2) The indecisive superiority of Sheriff Jim Clark led King to believe he could publicly attack peaceful protesters and draw national attention to human violence. White people are denied the rights of blacks; and finally, (3) the Justice Department lawsuit alleging racial discrimination in Dallas County voter registration has reinforced the need for action.

Since SNCC and SCLC have different priorities on how the organization is changingSCLC’s entry into Selma created some tension between the two groups. Which activist did SNCC use?Bob MosesHe calls his “community organizing” approach a slow, long-term approach that focuses on developing and supporting local leaders who demand access to full citizenship.

In response, the SCLC is trying to quickly mobilize large numbers of people for protests and short-term goals. SCLC’s model is based on creating a crisis that will attract public opinion and force federal intervention.Learn more about these differences.

10. Young people and teachers play an important role in the Selma Movement.

“I find it strange that people write stories as if they were there. The movement was in its final stages when they came out, but they took it all in. All young people, like my classmate Cleophus Hobbs, were excluded from the Selma Movement. “-Bettie Mae FikesinHands on the Freedom Plow

A major breakthrough in the Selma Movement came when teachers, angered by the physical attack on Ms. Boynton, marched together to the courthouse on January 22, 1965. most teachers and ministers stayed on the sidelines throughout the movement. Teachers who joined the Civil Rights Movement, hired and paid by white school boards and inspectors, nearly faced losing their jobs.

p49aRachel West and Sheyann Webb, 1965. (c) Univ-Ala. Print

The “teacher march” was particularly important in Selma.young activistThe center of the Selma movement. One of them,Sheyann WebbShe is only 8 years old and regularly attends walks. He reflects

“The thing that struck me the most on the day of the teachers’ parade was the idea of ​​them being there. I had to go to school before their walk, and it was like a report. They were as scared as my family because they might lose their jobs. It was surprising to see how many teachers were involved. They followed us that day. It was just excitement.” —Sheyann Webb, insounds of freedom

Young activists, too young to enroll themselves, used the courage and determination of their teachers. Collectively, the Civil Rights Movement is dominated by what we might call “surprise agents.”

High School Students Sing Freedom at Brown Chapel. © John Kouns, 1965 Young students marching for the right to vote under house arrest. © John Kouns, 1965

While the top-down approach to the Civil Rights Movement focused on the grassroots King, presidents, and the Supreme Court, the Movement was primarily composed of youth, women, and other educated people. Limited formal education and scarce economic resources.

11. Women were at the center of the movement, but they were sometimes pushed aside and their contribution is often overlooked today.

Amelia BoyntonMiss Amelia Boynton.

In Selma, for example, Amelia Boynton firmly believes in DCVL and has played a key role for decades in fueling African-American voter registration efforts. She invites SNCC to the city and helps support young activists and their work. When Judge Hare’s order slowed grassroots organizing, he forwarded the invitation to King and the SCLC.

Marie Foster is another prominent local activist who taught Civil Rights classes even before the arrival of the SNCC and remained steadfast throughout the slow, relentless work of building movement amid severe repression. In early 1965, when the SCLC begins to escalate the conflict in Selma, Ms. Boynton and Foster both inspire others and put their bodies at risk. They were leaders on Bloody Sunday and the march to Montgomery that followed. Although they worked behind the scenes when the movement was young, and even though they were close to the front as the whole country watched Selma, they were both brave and determined.

AgainColia Liddell LafayetteShe worked side-by-side with her husband Bernard, recruiting student staff and doing the painstaking work of building grassroots movements in Selma, almost invisible and often referred to only as his wife in death. his older brother.

His father and grandfather worked togetherSouthern Tenant Farmers Associationand Jackson, Mississippi, was a powerful organizer in his own right who founded the important NAACP Youth Branch.Medgar EversBefore she moves to Selma to celebrate with her new husband. He remained there at the request of the SNCC Secretary General.James FormanHe moved to nearby Birmingham to help organize protests in the spring of 1963. In Birmingham, her pregnancy was unprotected and she was seriously injured when white authorities used water cannon to attack protesters.

Colia Liddell Lafayette Clark, 2005 Prathia Hall, 1964, Alabama. (c) Danny Lyon Diana Nash, 1960.

Prathia Hall of Philadelphia, who started working with SNCC in Southwest Georgia,join the selma effortWhen Lafayettes moved to Nashville in the fall of 1963. In terms of his philosophy of nonviolence, he was an excellent organizer and orator, and later became a pastor. After Bloody Sunday, she returned to Selma to help SNCC and local activists figure out how to move on.

Diana NashHe was a veteran veteran whose plans for a nonviolent war in Montgomery inspired the original Selma operation, led the Nashville army, helped found the SNCC, and implemented decisive action to move freedom forward. married in 1961Jim Slopeand then follow it from SNCC to SCLC. According to SCLC’s Andrew Young, “A lot of what we see as Jim’s genius stems from Diane’s rational thinking and influence.”

Young girls sing a song of freedom in Selma church on August 7, 1964. (c) Matt Herron / Photographed Stock Photograph.

These are just a few of the many women who were crucial to the success of the movement, both in Selma and across the country. Like their male counterparts, they organize, demonstrate, teach, lecture and strategize. They also cook and hire workers, try to register, and recruit friends and neighbors. And like men, they were threatened, attacked, beaten, and fired. Against all odds, they stood up for themselves and their communities, asserting their “right to freedom.”

12. Selma’s march was triggered by official white terror.

Selma_JLJWhite Highway Patrolman James Fowler killed Jimmie Lee Jackson while attending a nighttime march organized by the SCLC with his mother in Marion, Alabama. Jackson was shot dead while trying to intervene and protect his beaten mother. White lawmakers have turned off street lights and targeted the media to hide this attack on peaceful marchers. In response to Jackson’s murder, SCLC activists sought to bring Jackson’s body to Montgomery Governor George Wallace, emphasizing his guilt in perpetuating the violence.

The idea is comingsuggested moveFounder of SNCC and he is SCLC employeeDiana NashShe wrote (to her then-husband, SCLC officer Jim Bevel) after the bombing of the Birmingham church. Nash proposed a completely nonviolent campaign against Montgomery, Alabama’s capital.

While the mass violence on Bloody Sunday the 13th sparked nationwide outrage, most whites still don’t understand how deep-rooted racism is in our country’s institutions, how are we.

Although the march in Selma drew national attention to black disenfranchisement and white violence, long before Bloody Sunday, President Lyndon Johnson, the Justice Department, and other Members of Congress know that African-Americans were denied the right to vote. The nation’s response to this outrage was less than the outright violence perpetrated by out-of-control legislators, and then the presence of well-meaning whites, including celebrities, came from across the country at the King’s invitation.

Edmund Pettus Bridge.On March 9, 1965, on the Edmund Pettus Bridge, federal sheriff Andrew Young (arms crossed) met Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and read the orders given to the other marchers. AP photo.

Tuesday

When Father James Reeb, one of those who answered the King’s call, was later killed by white bandits in the streets of Selma, his death was noted by President Johnson in the address. Being the Voting Rights Act. There was more national backlash over Reeb’s death.Jimmie Lee Jacksona few weeks ago. (Rita Schwerner Bender solved this problemIn connection with the murders of her then-husband Mickey Schwerner and two other civil rights workers at the head of the 1964 Liberty Summer project in Mississippi.) Charles Payne’s “rough historical manuscript“An excellent analysis of how the Civil Rights Movement received media coverage provides a top-down, normative understanding of the issues.The Essay of Hasan Kwame JeffriesOn cartoons from Barack Obama’s first presidential campaign showing how these normative insights into the Movement have persisted to this day.

14. President Lyndon Johnson is often credited for enacting the Voting Rights Act, but the movement caused this problem.

Operation Selma was considered a major success for the Civil Rights Movement as it was the immediate catalyst for the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It was enacted by President Lyndon B. Johnson. On August 6, 1965, the Federal Guarantees Rights Act vote favorably protected the right of African-Americans to vote in South Africa.

Protest at White House of Bloody Sunday. By Warren K. Leffler, LOC.Protest at the White House on Bloody Sunday. By Warren K. Leffler, Library of Congress.

While Johnson supported the Voting Rights Act, significant impetus for the bill came from the Movement itself. The SNCC’s community organization, made up primarily of rural African-Americans in Mississippi, has made it increasingly difficult for the nation to ignore official, violent, and pervasive white opposition to white-black voting and African-Americans’ claim to full citizenship. This, along with protests organized by the SCLC, generated public support for the suffrage law. Scholar Charles Payne warns us that it can be easy to focus on key legal provisions when, in fact, it may be more important than the background that made it necessary or the subsequent action that led to it.

15. The Voting Rights Act was not the end of the movement.

CarmichaelinLowndesbyVarelaStokely Carmichael passes through County Lowndes. Library of Congress.

Although many saw the Voting Rights Act as the end of the Civil Rights Movement, the Voting Rights Act was actually an inspiration for new organizing and a new tool to revive existing movements locally. This is particularly evident in rural Lowndes County, Alabama, located between Selma and Montgomery. Although SNCC organizers initially opposed Selma’s march, they decided to use it to develop connections in Lowndes County, known as Lowndes County, rather than oppose it.Bloody Lowndes“There were 80 percent Blacks and there was only one Black voter registered at the time.

LCFO brochure. Click for source and text.LCFO brochures. Click to find source and text.

SNCC worked with local African Americans on the assumption that the vote was to refer to SNCC.Courtland Cox, “Necessary but not sufficient.” Cox’s rhetorical question was, “What would be in favor of a man (who) won the votes and couldn’t control it?”Lowndes County Liberal Party (LCFP). Known for the iconic Black Panther, they co-hosted the LCFP and briefly practiced what historians do.Hassan Kwame JeffriesIt’s called “liberal politics”. While the right to vote for blacks is not a panacea, activistJohn HulettShe was elected sheriff and promptly lifted the police brutality that has plagued the community since the end of Reconstruction.

lessons for today

This brief introduction to Selma’s bottom-up history can help students and others learn valuable lessons for today. As a filmmaker and SNCC veteranJudy Richardsontalk,

If we didn’t know that it was people just like us—our mothers, uncles, schoolmates, missionaries—who created and sustained the modern Civil Rights Movement, then we wouldn’t know if we could do it again. And then the other side wins – before we even start the war.

Federal protection of the suffrage is still needed.

In July 2013, the US Supreme Court was deeply dividedShelby Voting Rights Act v. HandleA case from Alabama. Arguing, in part, that the full focus on the Confederacy was arbitrary and no longer necessary, the majority of the courts removed the pre-authorization requirement for the nine Confederate states. This means that the Department of Justice is no longer responsible (or authorized) to test new laws on racial bias. It is arbitrary to hold former Confederate states to a different standard, given widespread efforts to block voting access. But the responses of these states – along with other forms of nationwide voter suppression – make it clear that we still need strong, proactive tools to protect the right to vote for all citizens. , especially African-Americans and others are still being targeted. The Voting Rights Act should be expanded rather than cut. No doubt, future historians will look to today’s voter identity laws and other forms of voter suppression (including Jim Crow’s ballot boxes) as a centuries-old version.

The Civil Rights Movement has made significant gains, but the struggle continues.

admin_selma-trayvonCurrent protests over police brutality and disregard for black lives; persistence of extremeseconomic and racial discrimination; and permanenceseparate and unequal schoolsIt clearly demonstrates that voting is necessary, not enough to address white supremacy and the oppression of non-whites. Unfortunately, the wordsElla Baker, one of the most important figures in the black freedom struggle, still resonates to this day. In 1964, he said, “we are those who believe in freedom, until the murder of a black man, the son of a black mother, becomes as important to the rest of the country as the murder of the son of a white mother.” He won’t be able to relax.” Baker was quoted “Ella’s song,” throughBernice JohnsonReaganSNCC field secretary and founder of Sweet Honey in the Rock. Although the context has changed, there are many direct links between the freedom struggle of the 1950s and 1960s and the problems of today. And activists of the centurycreate a new movementIt builds on the work of previous generations.

SNCC voter registration campaigns provide an important model for effective community organization today.

DeepInfluenced by Ella BakerSNCC officers lined up their bodies to demand seclusion, refuse to back down from violence, and join hands to work with the older generation by organizing around voter registration and empowerment for the community. Working with and learning from people who have been marginalized for a long time,SNCC helped develop and support new leadershipwhile forcing our country to approach its democratic ideals.

© Teaching for Change 2015

References and recommendations

Film

Closing Your Eyes to the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Movement 1954-1985.

Book

Stokely Carmichael, with Ekwueme Michael Thelwell, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture) (New York: Scribner: 2003).
James Forman, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997, orig. Pub. 1972).
Karlyn Forner, Why Voting for Selma Isn’t Enough (Duke University Press, 2017).
David Garrow, Protests in Selma: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978).
Henry Hampton, Steve Fayer and Sarah Flynn, editors, Voices of the Civil Rights Movement: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s to the 1980s (New York: Bantam, 1991).
Wesley Hogan, Many Minds, One Heart: SNCC’s Dream for a New America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).
Faith Holsaert, Martha Prescod, Norman Noonan, Judy Richardson, Betty Garman Robinson, Jean Smith Young, and Dorothy Zellner, Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012).
Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Black Power in Alabama Black Belt (New York: New York University Press, 2009).
Steven F. Lawson and Charles M. Payne, Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1968 (Lanham: Rowman
Deborah Menkart, Alana D. Murray, and Jenice L. View, Training to Bring the Movement Back to Civil Rights: A Resource Guide for Classes and Communities (Washington, D.C: Teaching for Change and PRRAC, 2004). With the accompanying website: Civilrightteaching.org
Charles M. Payne, I’ve the Light of Freedom: The Organization Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995, 2006).
Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Liberal Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2005).
Andrew Young, An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and America’s Transformation (New York: Harper, 1998).
Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964).
Howard Zinn, You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train: A Personal History of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994).

Internet page

massmtg2Veteran of the Civil Rights Movement. This Website CRMvet.orgProvides information resources about the Southern Freedom Movement compiled by the people living there. Contains lots of important documents, photos, interviews and reflections. Here is the topselma.

KingPapersProjectPapers Project, Martin Luther King Jr.at Stanford University. Find copies of King’s speeches online in a collection calledA Call to Conscience: Keynote by Martin Luther King Jr.including the King’s speech to Selma-Montgomery at the end of March.Our Lord is on the march!(March 25, 1965).

This SNCC Digital Portal: Learn from the Past, Organize for the Future, Realize DemocracyIt is a documentation website about SNCC. This is a joint project of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC – pronounced “Snick”), The Heritage Project, the Duke Documentary Research Center, and the Duke University Library.

Credit

Emily CrosbyHe is a professor of history and Black Studies coordinator at SUNY Geneseo. he is the authorA taste of freedom(University of North Carolina Press, 2005) and editorCivil rights history from the beginning(University of Georgia Press, 2011). She is currently a member of the National Center for the Humanities at SNCC where she studies women’s and gender history.

Deborah MenkartCollaborated to develop the 15-item list, organization, and order.Liz DierenfieldProvides extensive research. valuable feedback provided bySarah C. Campbell,Kathleen Connelly,Julian Hipkins III, Wesley Hogan,Hassan Kwame Jeffries, and more.

Photographs and text are generously provided by the reprint rights.Matt Herron / Take Stock Photo,Holly Jansen,Charles M Payne(AuthorI got the light of freedom), andHoward Zinn Trust.Photographs registered with the Lowndes County Library of Congress were obtained from the Printing and Photography Division.TO LOOKJournals Anthology, LC Look-Job 65-2434.

SELMA-IMAGE-long

Video tutorials about a result of the selma voting rights marches was that

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In which John Green teaches you about the early days of the Civil Rights movement. By way of providing context for this, John also talks a bit about wider America in the 1950s. The 1950s are a deeply nostalgic period for many Americans, but there is more than a little idealizing going on here. The 1950s were a time of economic expansion, new technologies, and a growing middle class. America was becoming a suburban nation thanks to cookie-cutter housing developments like the Levittowns. While the white working-class saw their wages and status improve, the proverbial rising tide wasn’t lifting all proverbial ships. A lot of people were excluded from the prosperity of the 1950s. Segregation in housing and education made for some serious inequality for African Americans. As a result, the Civil Rights movement was born. John will talk about the early careers of Martin Luther King, Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, and even Earl Warren. He’ll teach you about Brown v Board of Education, the lesser-known Mendez vs Westminster, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and all kinds of other stuff.

Hey teachers and students – Check out CommonLit’s free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. The Civil Rights Movement gained national attention with the murder of Emmett Till in 1955:

-https://www.commonlit.org/texts/emmett-till

That same year, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus, beginning the Montgomery bus boycott:

-https://www.commonlit.org/texts/rosa-parks-and-the-montgomery-bus-boycott

A young preacher named Martin Luther King Jr. gained national fame rallying support for the Montgomery bus boycott:

-https://www.commonlit.org/texts/martin-luther-king-jr

The end of segregation also began in the South with the Showdown in Little Rock in 1957:

-https://www.commonlit.org/texts/showdown-in-little-rock

Want to learn more about the Civil Rights movement? Check out these videos from Crash Course Black American History:

School Segregation and Brown v Board (#33):

-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBlqcAEv4nk

Emmett Till (#34):

-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4HljsKwpv3g

The Montgomery Bus Boycott (#35):

-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ylOpide9dus

Martin Luther King, Jr (#36):

-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmeUT7zH62E

—Crash Course Black American History will be uploading new videos through 2022!—

Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at

-http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse

Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?

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Learn more about history and science with Studies Weekly!

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keywords: #abc, #abcnews, #news, #BloodySunday, #USA, #US, #UnitedStates, #voting, #votingrights, #Biden, #JoeBiden, #Bidenadministration, #BloodySundayanniversary, #Selma, #Alabama, #civilrights, #humanrights, #JohnLewis, #JohnBarron, #voterrights, #trump, #planetamerica

This week marked the 56th anniversary of the Bloody Sunday march by voting rights activists in Selma, Alabama and the first since the death of civil rights campaigner John Lewis.

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-http://ab.co/1svxLVE

As Planet America’s John Barron explains, the legacy of John Lewis endures, with a new push for voting rights in his name, while some states are actively trying to wind them back.

ABC News provides around the clock coverage of news events as they break in Australia and abroad, including the latest coronavirus pandemic updates. It’s news when you want it, from Australia’s most trusted news organisation.

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