Best 15 united states map puerto rico

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Map of U.S. Territories – Geology.com

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  • Summary: Articles about Map of U.S. Territories – Geology.com U.S. Territories Map: The United States of America holds claim to 16 territories outside of the United States. These range from Puerto Rico, with over 140 …

  • Match the search results: Puerto Rico: Includes the main island of Puerto Rico and over 140 smaller islands in the Caribbean Sea. Puerto Rico is the largest and most populous of the U.S. territories, with over 3 million residents. People born in Puerto Rico are granted U.S. citizenship.

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Puerto Rico – Wikipedia

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  • Summary: Articles about Puerto Rico – Wikipedia Puerto Rico officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is a Caribbean island and unincorporated territory of the United States. It is located in the …

  • Match the search results: Since 2007, the Puerto Rico State Department has developed a protocol to issue certificates of Puerto Rican citizenship to Puerto Ricans. In order to be eligible, applicants must have been born in Puerto Rico, born outside of Puerto Rico to a Puerto Rican-born parent, or be an American citizen with …

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Map of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands – USGS

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  • Summary: Articles about Map of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands – USGS An official website of the United States government. Here’s how you know … Map showing the location of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

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581 Puerto Rico Map Premium High Res Photos – Getty Images

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  • Summary: Articles about 581 Puerto Rico Map Premium High Res Photos – Getty Images

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  • Summary: Articles about Search results for Map, Puerto Rico, Available Online, Puerto … Black, U.S.A.” Available also through the Library of Congress web site as a raster image. Contributor: United States. Army; Date: 1898.

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  • Summary: Articles about Search results for Map, Puerto Rico, Available Online This military map of Puerto Rico was published in 1898, the year in which the United States, in the course of the Spanish-American War, …

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United states map puerto rico Images, Stock Photos & Vectors …

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  • Summary: Articles about United states map puerto rico Images, Stock Photos & Vectors … Puerto Rico vector map silhouette isolated on white background. High detailed illustration. Map of The United States of America …

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United States Virgin Islands | History, Geography, & Maps

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  • Summary: Articles about United States Virgin Islands | History, Geography, & Maps United States Virgin Islands, also called U.S. Virgin Islands, … about 40 miles (64 km) east of Puerto Rico, in the northeastern Caribbean …

  • Match the search results: About three-fourths of the population is black, and between one-tenth and one-fifth is white. English is the official language, but some French is spoken on St. Thomas, and Spanish is spoken on St. Croix among Puerto Rican immigrants.

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Puerto Rico | History, Geography, & Points of Interest …

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  • Summary: Articles about Puerto Rico | History, Geography, & Points of Interest … From the time the United States took possession of the island in 1898 until the mid-20th century, settlement in Puerto Rico was …

  • Match the search results: Puerto Rico, officially Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Spanish Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, self-governing island commonwealth of the West Indies, associated with the United States. The easternmost island of the Greater Antilles chain, it lies approximately 50 miles (80 km) east of the Domin…

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Where is the U.S. Virgin Islands: Geography

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  • Summary: Articles about Where is the U.S. Virgin Islands: Geography The Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands Map. The US Virgin Islands are 40-50 miles east of Puerto Rico; and about …

  • Match the search results: The US Virgin Islands are 40-50 miles east of Puerto Rico; and about 1106 miles southeast Miami, Florida.

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Where is Aruba located? Map and geography of our …

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  • Summary: Articles about Where is Aruba located? Map and geography of our … The Lesser Antilles are several islands extending in an arc from Puerto Rico to the north-eastern coast of South America. Some of the islands that are part …

  • Match the search results: The Lesser Antilles are several islands extending in an arc from Puerto Rico to the north-eastern coast of South America. Some of the islands that are part of the Lesser Antilles are the Virgin Islands, Saint Martin, Guadeloupe, Grenada, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Curacao and Bonaire.

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Puerto Rico Map – Cities and Roads – GIS Geography

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  • Summary: Articles about Puerto Rico Map – Cities and Roads – GIS Geography A Puerto Rico map with cities, roads, municipalities, and major landmarks – Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States.

  • Match the search results: This Puerto Rico map shows cities, roads, municipalities, and major landmarks. Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States and it is not recognized as an independent country. This is why its official name is the “Commonwealth of Puerto Rico”.

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File:USA Puerto Rico location map.svg – Wikimedia …

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Puerto Rico location on the North America map

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  • Summary: Articles about Puerto Rico location on the North America map Description: This map shows where Puerto Rico is located on the North America Map. Go back to see more maps of Puerto Rico. . Maps of Puerto Rico.

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Puerto Rico (US): Location Map (2019) – ReliefWeb

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  • Summary: Articles about Puerto Rico (US): Location Map (2019) – ReliefWeb English Map on Puerto Rico (The United States of America); published on 03 Sep 2019 by OCHA and ReliefWeb.

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    Puerto Rico (The United States of America)

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Multi-read content united states map puerto rico

Puerto Rico (disambiguation)Borinquen (disambiguation)Puerto Rico (location)

Porto Rico
Unincorporated and Organized Community of the United States
Community of Puerto Rico [a] free association of Puerto RicoEstado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico (in Spanish)
Flag Coat of Arms Seal of Puerto Rico
Nickname: “Isla del Encanto” (Spanish) (‘Island of Magic’)
Motto: “Joannes est nomen ejus” (Latin) (‘John is his name’)
National Anthem: “La Borinqueña” (Spanish) (English: “The Borinquenian”)
Puerto Rico’s Place
sovereign state United States of America
pre-annexation Puerto Rico Captaincy General
transfer from spain April 11, 1899
Current Constitution 25 July 1952
Capital and largest city San Juan18°27’N 66°6’W / 18450°N 66100°W / 18450; -66,100
A common language 94.3% Spanish 5.5% English 0.2% other [2]
Official language Spanish [3]
Ethnic Groups (2020) [4] By race:
49.8% multiracial
17.1% white
7.0% Black
0.5% Native Americans
0.1% Asia
25.5% Others

By ethnicity:
98.9% Hispanic or Latino
1.1% not Hispanic or Latino

Satan Puerto Rico (Spanish: Puertorriqueño) Boricua
State President’s dependence on the constitution grows
• Minister Joe Biden (D)
• Governor Pedro Pierluisi (PNP/D)
legislature Legislature
• Senate Senate
• House of Commons House of Commons
United States Congress
• Resident Commissioner Jennifer Gonzalez (PNP / Right)
Domain
• Total 9,104 km2 (3,515 sq mi)
• Country (%) 1.6
highest altitude 4,390 ft (1,340 m)
Population
• Census 2020 3,285,874 [5]
• Intensity 350.8/km2 (908.6/sq mi) (39th)
GDP (PPP) Estimated 2021
• Total $112,273 billion [6] (88th)
• Per person $35,943 [6] (40th)
GDP (nominal) Estimated 2021
• Total $100,684 billion [6] (61st)
• Per person $32,233 [6] (28th)
genie (2011) 53.1 long [7]
HDI (2015) 0.845 [8] too high 40.
Currency unit US Dollar (USD) (USD)
Time Zone UTC-04:00 (AST)
Date format mm / dd / yyyy
side driver this is true
dialing code 1 (787), 1 (939)
abbreviation USPS public relations
ISO code 3166 PRUS-PR
Internet TLD .pr

Porto Rico[b](Spanishfor ‘rich port’; abbreviationpublic relations;Taino:boriken,Borinquen),[front]officiallyPuerto Rico Community[one](Spanish:Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico,lighting’Free Partner State of Puerto Rico’), aCaribbeanisland andunincorporated territoryLater onUnited States of America. It is located in the northeast.Caribbean, about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeastMiami,Florida.

Congregation is onearchipelagonumericallyGreater Antilles FoundationbetweenDominican RepublicandUnited States Virgin Islands; It includes the main island of the same name and several minor islands.mona,cube, andviques. It has a population of about 3.2 million andcapitalandmost populated cityTo beSan Juan.[front] SpanishandEnglishto beofficial languagethe executive branch of government,[11th]Although he is fluent in Spanish.[twelfth]

Puerto Rico was inhabited by various indigenous peoples beginning 2,000 to 4,000 years ago.[13]This includesorthothyroid,cucumber, andTaino. later colonizedSpainafter his arrivalChristopher Columbusin 1493,[front]. Puerto Rico was discussed by other Europeansstrength, but remained in Spanish hands for the next four centuries. a streamAfrican slavesand settlers mostlyCanary IslandandAndalusiasignificantly changed the cultural and demographic structure of the island. Inspanish empirePuerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to the wealthier colonies.PeruandNew Spain.[14][15]In the late 19th century, a distinctive Puerto Rican identity began to emerge, centered around a combination of indigenous, African, and European elements.[16][17]in 1898, afterSpanish American War, UNITED STATES OF AMERICAbuy back Puerto Rico.[front][18]

Puerto Rican peopleit happenedUS CitizensSince 1917 it can move freely between the island and the mainland.[19]However, as a residenceunincorporated territoryAmerican citizen of Puerto Riconational disenfranchisement, don’t do thatvote for president or vice president,[20]and usually don’t payfederal income tax.[21][22][Note 1]Puerto Rico, along with four other districts, sends a non-voting representative to Congress, andpresidential primary elections; because not onesituation, Puerto Rico has no voting rightsUnited States Congress, adjust accordinglyPuerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. Puerto Rico is federally represented by only one personnon-voting member of parliament, in your nameResident Commissioner. The United States Congress passedlocal constitutionIn 1952, US citizens were allowed to reside on Election Island.a governor. Porto Ricocurrent and future political situationhas always been the subject of significant debate.[23][24]

Beginning in the middle of the 20th century,government american, withPuerto Rico Industrial Development Corporationlaunched a series of economic projects aimed at transforming Puerto Rico into a high-income industrial economy. It is classified according toInternational Monetary Fundalonejurisdiction has been developedwith advanced,high income economy;[25]40th placehuman development index. The main drivers of the Puerto Rican economy are:Make(primarilymedicine,petrochemicaland electronics), followed by the service sector (especially tourism and accommodation).[26]

  • 1 etymology
  • 2 History
  • 2.1 Pre-Colombian era
    2.2 Colonies of Spain (1493-1898)

    2.2.1 Conquer and settle soon
    2.2.2 Colonies Under the Habsburgs
    2.2.3 End of colonial period
    2.2.4 Liberalism politics
    2.2.5 Spanish-American War

    2.3 Colonies of the Americas (1898 – present)

    2.3.1 Unified Organized Territories of the United States
    2.3.2 US Citizenship and Puerto Rican Citizenship
    2.3.3 Independent Organized Regions of the United States under the Commonwealth Constitution
    2.3.4 Estado Libre Asociado
    2.3.5 21st century

  • 3 Environment
  • 3.1 Climate

    3.1.1 Storm
    3.1.2 Climate change

    3.2 Biodiversity

  • 4 Demographics
  • 4.1 Population structure

    4.1.1 Population genetics
    4.1.2 Being able to read and write
    4.1.3 Lifespan

    4.2 Migration and immigration
    4.3 Population distribution
    4.4 Languages
    4.5 Religion

  • 5 Governments
  • 5.1 Political parties and elections
    5.2 Law
    5.3 Political Situation

    5.3.1 Within the United States

    5.4 Foreign and Intergovernmental Relations
    5.5 Military
    5.6 Administrative units

  • 6 Economy
  • 6.1 Travel
    6.2 Heavy financial debt
    6.3 Public Finance
    6.4 Cost of Living
  • 7 Education
  • 8 Public health and safety
  • 8.1 Crime
  • 9 Culture
  • 9.1 Architecture
    9.2 Art
    9.3 Literature
    9.4 Tools
    9.5 Music
    9.6 Kitchen
    9.7 Philately
    9.8 Sports
    9.9 Folklore
  • 10 Infrastructure
  • 10.1 Transportation
    10.2 Utilities

    10.2.1 Electricity
    10.2.2 Water and Wastewater

    10.3 Telecommunications

  • 11 See more
  • 12 comments
  • 13 notes
  • 14 References
  • 15 Read more
  • 16 External Links
  • 16.1 Geography
    16.2 US Government
    16.3 United Nations (U.N.) Declaration of Puerto Rico

etymology

Puerto Rico means “rich port” in Spanish.[front] Puerto Rican peopleusually call the candidateBorinquen, a resourceboriken, welllocal TainoThe name meaning “Land of the Mighty Lord”.[27][28][29]conditionsboricuaandborinanooften used to describe someone of Puerto Rican heritage,[30][thirtyfirst]and it’s comingborikenandBorinquencorresponding.[32]The island is also known as Spanish.la isla del encantomeans “island of talisman”.[33]

Columbus named the island afterSan Juan Bautista, in honor of the saintHazrat Yahya, when naming the capitalCiudad de Puerto Rico(“Prosperous Port City”).[front]Eventually, traders and other seafarers referred to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and capital.[c]

The name of the island has changedPuerto Ricoby the United States1898 Treaty of Paris.[35]The angular name has been used by the US government and private businesses. The name was changed to Puerto Rico by consensus in Congress in 1931.Felix Cordova Davila.[36][D][41][42][43]

The official name of the institution in SpanishEstado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico(“FreeConnection Statusof Puerto Rico”), its official English namePuerto Rico Community.[front]

Date

Puerto Rico History

Pre-Colombian Period

TainoLocationHurricane Eloise

[44]

The ancient history of the archipelago that is now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World (Aztecs,MayaandInca) left behind abundant archaeological and physical evidence of their own society, scant artifacts, and still surviving evidence of Puerto Rico’s oldest population. Rare archaeological finds and early Spanish documents from colonial times form all that is known about them. Written by the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico.Fray Iñigo Abbad and LasierraIn 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island.[45]

First known settlersorthothyroids, oneancient timescultureindianshunters and fishermen migrating from mainland South America. Some scientists suggest that their settlement dates back about 4,000 years.[forty-six]An archaeological dig on the island in 1990viquesHe found the remains of a man known as the “Puerto Ferro Man” dating back to 2000.[47]This orthothyroidreplaced bycucumberBetween 430 and 250 BC, a culture came to the island from the same region.[forty-six]

This needleTribes that migrated to Puerto Rico between 120 and 400 ADorinocoRiver in northern South America. Arcaico and Igneri coexisted on the island between the 4th and 10th centuries.[citation needed]

Between the 7th and 11th centuries,TainoCulture flourished on the island. Around 1000 AD, it became dominant. At the time of Columbus’s arrival, there were about 30,000 to 60,000 Taino Americans led by him.cacique(chef)Agüeybana, inhabited by the island. they call himborikenmeans “the heroic and venerable vast land”.[48]Locals live in small villages, each ruled by a cacique. In addition to hunting and fishing, which is usually done by men, they are also inhabited by women who gather and prepare local food.maniocroots and fruits. This lasted until the arrival of Columbus in 1493.[49][50]

Colony of Spain (1493-1898)

Colombia LoyaltyNew SpainPuerto Rico Captaincy General

Juan Ponce de Leon

Conquer and solve soon

When Columbus arrived in Puerto Rico on his second voyage on November 19, 1493, the Taino people lived on the island. they call himborikenwas written in different ways by different writers of the day.[51]Columbus, to the island of St. named San Juan Bautista in his honor.Hazrat Yahya.[to]Columbus brought a letter from King Ferdinand, this time after reporting the findings of his first voyage.[52]an authorized bypope’s bullallowed any action plan necessary to extendspanish empireand the Christian faith.Juan Ponce de Leon, onelieutenantFounded the first Spanish settlement under Columbus,Anchor, on August 8, 1508.Governoryour island.[f]Eventually, traders and other seafarers named the entire island Puerto Rico, and San Juan became the name of the main trading/shipping port.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the Spaniards began to explore the island. DespiteBurgos Law1512 and other edicts to protect the natives, some Taino Indians were forced to joinencomiendasystemforced laborin the early colonial years. Very high population deaths due to epidemics in Europeinfectiondiseases.[g][H][I][j]

Colonization under the Habsburgs

in 1520,King Charles I of Spainissued a royal decree to liberate the remaining Tainos. At that time, the Taino people were very few in number.[59] Enslaved Africans began to be importedTo make up for the loss of native laborers, but commensurate with dwindling commercial interests in their numbers, Spain soon began to prove to its island colony. Other nearby islands, for exampleCuba, Hispanic andGuadalupePerhaps because of the greater agricultural interest in these islands, where the colonists developed large sugar plantations and had the capital to invest, it attracted more slave traders than Puerto Rico.Atlantic Slave Trade.[60]

From the earliest days of the country’s founding, the colonial government relied on the industry of enslaved Africans and creole blacks for public works and defense, especially in the ports and coastal cities where the small colonial population was heavily concentrated. Due to the absence of significant industries or large-scale agricultural production, slave and free-living communities around some coastal settlements, particularly San Juan, also formed permanent. .Afro-creolecommunity. Meanwhile, in the interior of the island, a mixed and independent peasant class developed based on a subsistence economy. This mostly uncontrolled population provided the villages and settlements with food and, in relative isolation, set the template for what was later to be named.Puerto Rico’s Jíbaro Culture. By the end of the 16th century, the Spanish Empire was in decline and facing increasing attacks from European rivals, colonial authorities all over the world.Americafalling into the “shelter mentality”. Imperial strategists and city planners repurposed port settlements into military outposts to defend Spain’s territorial claims and ensure the safe passage of the silver-laden king.Atlantic Fleetto arriveIberian Peninsula. Because of its strength, San Juan served as an important port for transatlantic ships.trade wind. West Indies convoys travel between them, connecting Spain to the island.Cadizand the Spanish West Indies. The colony’s seat of government is located in the jungle.San Juan Islandand for a time became one of the most fortified settlementsSpanish CaribbeanIt was called the “Walled City”. This island is still full of various castles and walls.La Fortaleza,Castillo San Felipe del Morro, andCastillo San CristobalDesigned for residential and strategic protectionSan Juan HarborFrom the attacks of European Spanish rivals.

in 1625,Battle of San Juan,Dutchto commandBoudewijn Hendricksztested the limits of defense like never before. learn fromfrancis drakepre-fail here, he broke the cannons of the fortress of San Felipe del Morro and quickly brought 17 ships.San Juan Bay. Then he took the harbor and attacked the city as the people rushed to take shelter behind the Morro moat and the high walls. Historians consider this event to be the worst attack on San Juan. Although the Dutch burned the village, they were unable to suppress Morro and his batteries bombarded his troops and ships until Hendricksz accepted his cause as a failure. Hendricksz’s expedition eventually spurred a frenzied fort attack. The construction of defenses for San Cristóbal Hill soon took effect to prevent the invasion of the invaders out of the reach of Morro artillery. Town planning responded to the need to keep the colony in Spanish hands.

end of colonial period

haciendas

In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Spain focused its colonial efforts on the more prosperous North, Central, and South American colonies on the mainland. With the emergence of the vibrant Bourbon Dynasty in Spain in the 1700s, the island of Puerto Rico slowly began to shift towards more imperial attention. More roads began to connect previously isolated inland settlements with coastal cities, and coastal settlements such as Arecibo, Mayaguez, and Ponce began to take on an importance of their own apart from San Juan. In the late 18th century, merchant ships from various nations threatened the strict regulations of the Mercantile system, diverting each colony to the great electricity pylons of Europe and maintaining limited contact with other powers. American ships took over the Spanish trade and with it the exploitation of the island’s natural resources. Slaves formerly on the island began to sell more Africans into slavery to grow sugar and coffee plantations. An increasing number of Atlantic wars in which the Caribbean islands played an important role, for exampleJenkins’ Ear Battle,Seven Years’ WarandAtlantic Revolutionmaking Puerto Rico more and more valued in Madrid’s eyes. On April 17, 1797, sirRalph Abercrombytheir fleet occupied the island with a force of 6,000-13,000 men,[sixty one]It included between 60 and 64 ships with German soldiers and the Royal Marines. Fierce clashes with the Spanish army continued in the following days. Both sides suffered heavy losses. On Sunday, April 30, the British stopped their attack and began withdrawing from San Juan. At a time when independence movements in the larger Spanish colonies were successful, a new wave of loyal Creole immigrants had begun to arrive in Puerto Rico, helping to tip the political balance of the island in Puerto Rico’s favour.

Castillo San Felipe del MorroSan Juan

in 1809 to secure political relations between the island and European countries.Peninsular War,Supreme Central JuntabasedCadizIt recognized Puerto Rico as an overseas province of Spain. This gave the islanders the right to vote on behalf of those recently summoned.Cortes of Cádiz(actually the Spanish government partiallyNapoleonic War), with equal representation for the Spanish provinces of mainland Iberia, the Mediterranean (Balearic Islands) and the Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands).[citation needed]

Ramón Power and GiraltThe first Spanish congressman from the island of Puerto Rico died after serving three years on the Cortes. Thisparliamentary and constitutional reformIt was in effect from 1810 to 1814 and again from 1820 to 1823. They were reversed twice during the restoration of the traditional monarchy.Ferdinand VII. Immigration and commercial reforms in the 19th century increased the population and economy of the island’s European peoples, while expanding the Spanish cultural and social footprint on the island’s Spanish character.[citation needed]

Small slave revolts occurred on the island for many years and were planned and organized by the revolts.Marcos Xiorro1821 is the most important. Although the plot failed, Xiorro achieved legendary status and is part of Puerto Rican folklore.[62]

Liberalism politics

In the early 19th century, Puerto Rico became St. Thomas. The movement was heavily inspired by his ideals.simon bolivarwhen installingProvinces of New GranadaandVenezuelanIncluding Puerto Rico and Cuba. Among the influential members of this movement was the Brigadier General.Antonio Valero de BernabeandMaria de las Mercedes Barbudo. The movement was discovered and the GovernorMiguel de la Torreimprisoned or exiled its members.[63]

With the rapid development of independent former Spanish colonies in the South and Central American states in the first half of the 19th century, the Spanish crown made Puerto Rico and Cuba of strategic importance. The Spanish crown was revived to increase the likelihood of retaining the last two colonies of the New World.Royal Decree of 1815As a result, 450,000 immigrants, mostly Spaniards, settled on the island until the conquest of America. Published in three languages—Spanish, English, and French—the book was also intended to appeal to non-Hispanic Europeans in the hope that independence movements would lose their popularity if the new settlers had closer ties to the Crown. Hundreds of families, mostly of non-Hispanic descentCorsica,France,Germany,Irish, Italy and Scotland also immigrated to the island.[sixty-four]

Those wishing to reside on the two islands were offered free land as an incentive, provided they swore allegiance to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.[sixty-four]The proposal was very successful and European immigration continued even after 1898. Puerto Rico still accepts Spanish and European immigrants.

Poverty and political alienation from Spain led to a small but important uprising in 1868.Grito de Lares.It started in the rural town of Lares, but was suppressed when the rebels moved to the neighboring town of San Sebastián.

Among the leaders of this independence movementRamon Emeterio Betaances, considered the “father” of the Puerto Rican independence movement, and other political figuresSegundo Ruiz Belvis. In 1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico “with provisions for apprenticeship.”[65]

1873 abolished slaveryPonce

The leaders of “El Grito de Lares” went into exile in New York. Many people attendedPuerto Rico Revolutionary Committeewas founded on December 8, 1895, and continued its journey of independence for Puerto Rico. in 1897Antonio Mattei Lluberasand local leaders of the independence movement in Yauco staged another uprising.Intentona de Yauco. They lifted what they called the flag of Puerto Rico, which serves as the national flag. Local conservative political groups opposed independence. Rumors of the planned event spread to local Spanish authorities, who acted quickly and put an end to the island’s last major revolt against colonial rule.[66]

in 1897Luis Munoz Riveraand others persuaded the liberal Spanish government to agree to grant limited autonomy to the island.royal decreein the Autonomy Agreement, includingbicameral legislature.[sixtyseven][self-published source?]In 1898, Puerto Rico’s first self-governing but short-lived government was organized as an “overseas state.”[citation needed]of Spain. It maintains a governor appointed by bilaterally accepted statute.King of Spain- have the right to overturn any legislative decision[citation needed]— And a partially elected parliamentary structure. Governor-General in FebruaryManuel MaciasA new government took office under the Autonomous Region Agreement. General elections were held in March and a new government took office on 17 July 1898.[68][self-published source?][69][self-published source?][70]

Spanish American War

Spanish American WarPuerto Rico CampaignTreaty of Paris (1898)

bombardment of San JuanSpanish American War

captain in 1890Alfred Thayer MahanA member of the Naval Warfare Committee and a leading American strategic thinker, he published a book.The influence of sea power on historyHe advocated the establishment of a large and powerful navy modeled after the British navy.royal navy. Part of its strategy calls for the purchase of Caribbean colonies that will function as coal mining and offshore stations. They will act as strategic defensive points by building a canal.Isthmus of Panama, to allow ships to travel more easily between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[71]

William H. SewardMinister of Foreign Affairs under the PresidentsAbraham LincolnandAndrew Johnson, also stressed the importance of building a canal.Honduras,Nicaraguaor Panama. He proposed that the United States annex the Dominican Republic and buy Puerto Rico and Cuba. The US Senate did not approve of his proposal for unification, and Spain rejected the US offer.160 million wonDollars for Puerto Rico and Cuba.[71]

United States since 1894Naval Academydevelopedemergency action planFor a war with Spain. In 1896, the United States Naval Intelligence Agency had drawn up a plan for military operations in Puerto Rican waters. Plans often focused on attacks on Spanish territory to support operations against Spanish forces in and around Cuba.[72]Recent research acknowledges that the United States values ​​Puerto Rico as a maritime outpost and acknowledges that it and Cuba produced lucrative sugar crops, for which the United States was a valuable commodity for the Lost period before development.sugar beetindustry in the United States.[seventy three]

On July 25, 1898,Spanish American WarThe United States invaded Puerto Rico with landings.guanica. After the United States was victorious in the war, Spain left Puerto Rico along with Puerto Rico.PhilippinesandGuamby the United StatesParis agreementeffective April 11, 1899; Spain renounced its sovereigntyCuba, but did not leave the United States.[74]

Colonial America (1898 – present)

Unincorporated Organized Districts of the United States

The United States and Puerto Rico begin a long-standing urban-colonial relationship.[75]This relationship has been noted by many scholars, including the United States Federal Appeals Judge.Juan Torruella,[76]US CongressmanNydia Velasquez,[77]President of the Puerto Rico Supreme CourtJose Trias Monge,[78]and beforeUniversity of AlbizuPresident Angel Collado-Schwarz.[79][k]

In the early 20th century, Puerto Rico was ruled by the US military and was appointed by officials, including the governor.Heads of States. This Forakers Law1900 brought a certain amount of popular civilian government to Puerto Rico, including a popularly elected House of Representatives. The Senate and the governor are appointed by the United States.

Puerto Rico Supreme CourtForakers Law

The judicial system was reformed[citation needed]to make it suitableUnited States Federal Court System; onePuerto Rico Supreme Court[citation needed]and oneUnited States District Courtestablished for the unincorporated territory. The deputy was not elected, he was authorized as an appointed “Resident Commissioner”. In addition, this Act extends all US laws “not locally applicable” to Puerto Rico and specifically specifies an exemption from US Local Tax laws.[84]

The law gives the civilian government the power to legislate “on all matters of a legislative nature that cannot be enforced locally,” including the power to amend and repeal any existing law in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican legislature.[84][85]In a speech to the Puerto Rican legislature in 1906, the PresidentTheodore RooseveltIt recommends Puerto Ricans become US citizens.[84][eighty six]

In 1914, the Puerto Rico House of Representatives unanimously voted in favor of independence from the United States, but this was rejected by the United States Congress as “unconstitutional” and violated in 1900.Forakers Law.[eighty seven]

US Citizenship and Puerto Rican Citizenship

Puerto Rican Nationality

In 1917 the United States Congress passed.Jones-Shafroth Law(commonly known as the Jones Act) grants U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans born on or after April 25, 1898.[88]Opponents (who voted unanimously), including the entire Puerto Rican House of Representatives, claim that the United States imposes citizenship on Puerto Rican men becauseAmerica entered the First World Warsame year.[eighty seven]

The Jones Act also enabled a popularly elected Senate to complete a bicameral Legislature.bill of rights. Allows the Resident Commissioner to be elected by the people for a term of four years.

65th InfantryCamp Santiago

natural disasters includingearthquakeandtsunami1918 and somestormyAlongside the Great Depression impoverished the island during the first few decades of US rule.[89]some political leaders such asPedro Albizu Campuswho ledPuerto Rican Nationalist PartyHe demands a change in relations with the United States. held a protestUniversity of Puerto Ricoin 1935,four people were killedyour police.

US Senator in 1936Millard Writingsintroduced a pro-independence bill for Puerto Rico; previously co-sponsorTydings-McDuffie Lawto ensure independence,PhilippinesAfter the transition to 10 years of limited autonomy. While almost all of Puerto Rico’s political parties supported the bill,Luis Munoz MarinLater onLiberal Party of Puerto Rico,[90]lead to failure[90]

In 1937, Albizu Campos’ party held a rally.Ponce. Insular Police, similarNational Guardopened fire on unarmed practitioners and bystanders.[91]US congressman reports attack on unarmed protestersVito Marcantonioand confirmed by a report by the Hays Commission, which investigated events led byArthur Garfield Hays, advice forAmerican Civil Liberties Union.[91]19 people were killed and more than 200 seriously injured, many shot in the back as they fled.[92][ninety-three]The Hays Commission declared it.massacreand the actions of the police mafia,[92]and calledPonce Massacre. Then, on April 2, 1943, Tydings introduced another bill in Congress calling for independence for Puerto Rico, but was again defeated.[84]

in recent yearsRoosevelt-TrumanThe island’s internal administration and administration was changed according to a compromise reached with Luis Muñoz Marín and other Puerto Rican leaders. In 1946, President Truman appointed the first governor born in Puerto Rico.Jesus T. Pinero.

Since 2007, the Puerto Rico Department of State has developed a certification process.Puerto Rican NationalityTo Puerto Ricans. To be eligible, applicants must be born in Puerto Rico, be born outside of Puerto Rico to a Puerto Rican parent, or be a U.S. citizen who has resided in Puerto Rico for at least one year.

Unincorporated Organized Territories of the United States under the Commonwealth Constitution

In 1947, the United States Congress passed the Elected Governors Act, signed by President Truman, allowing Puerto Ricans to vote for them.Governor. The first elections under this law were held the following year, on November 2, 1948.

On May 21, 1948, a bill was introduced earlier.Puerto Rico Senatethis would limit the rights of independence and nationalist movements on the island. controlled by the SenatePopular Partido Democratico(PPD) hosted byLuis Munoz Marinpassed the bill that day.[ninety four]This law is like anti-communismSmith’s LawAdopted in the United States in 1940, known asLey de la Mordaza(law of silence) when the governor of Puerto Rico is appointed by the United States,Jesus T. Pinerowas signed into law on June 10, 1948.[95]

According to this new law, it will be a crime to print, publish, sell or display any material with the aim of paralyzing or destroying the revolutionary government; or to organize any society, group or people for similar destructive purposes. Singing a patriotic song was made illegal and strengthened the 1898 law regulating the showPuerto Rico flagAnyone found guilty of any violation of the law is subject to a prison sentence of up to 10 years, a fine of up to $10,000 (equivalent to $113,000 in 2021), or both. .[l][97]

Dr.Leopoldo FigueroaThe only non-PPD member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, the law was brutal and violated the First Amendment.US Constitution, make sureFreedom of speech. He claimed that such a law was a violation of the civil rights of Puerto Ricans. This law was repealed in 1957.[98]

In the November 1948 election, Muñoz Marín became Puerto Rico’s first popularly elected governor, succeeding Piñero, who was appointed by the United States on January 2, 1949.

US 65th Infantry RegimentKorean War

Estado Libre Asociado

In 1950, the United States Congress gave Puerto Ricans the right to organize.constitutional associationadopt a referendum; Voters can accept or reject a law proposed by the United States that would organize Puerto Rico as a “community” under continued US domination. This Puerto Rico ConstitutionIt was accepted by the constitutional convention on February 6, 1952, and by 82% of the electorate in the March referendum. It was revised and approved by the United States Congress, approved by President Truman on July 3 of that year, and proclaimed by Governor Muñoz Marín on July 25, 1952 – the anniversary of the landing of the United States military.Puerto Rico CampaignLater onSpanish American War, until it is celebrated as an annual Puerto Rican holiday.

Puerto Rico takes its nameEstado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico(literally “Free Affiliate State of Puerto Rico”[99]), officially translated into English as:Federal, for myselfpolitical device.[m][one hundred][101]Congress, Puerto Rican community citizenship, currency, postal services,foreign policy, military defense, trade and finance and other subjects.[102]

In 1967, the Puerto Rican Legislature voted for the political views of Puerto Rican voters by voting.referendumThe law that votes on Puerto Rico’s status. This constituted the Legislature’s first general requirement for an election from among the three state options (community, city-state, and independence). In subsequent elections held by Puerto Rico in 1993 and 1998 (without any formal commitment from the US government to respect the results), the current political status was not supported by the majority. While Commonwealth status was won by majority vote in 1993 (48.6% versus 46.3% for state status), “none of the above” was not an option.Famous Democratic Partyresponsive election won in 1998 with 50.3% of the vote (vs 46.5% at the state level). Disagreements have arisen over the definition of each voting alternative, and Commonwealth supporters, among others, are said to have called for voting for “none of the above”.[103][104][105]

In 1950, the United States Congress passed the Public Act 600 (P.L. 81-600) that allowed democracy.referendumTo determine whether Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico want to draft their local constitution.[106]This law had to be passed “at the core of a contract”. It requires congress to ratify the Puerto Rican Constitution for it to take effect and repeal certain parts of the Organic Act of 1917. Some parts of the current statute,Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act.[107][108]US Secretary of the InteriorOscar L. ChapmanUnder the Department for Puerto Rican affairs, it clarified the new community as follows:.mw-parser-output .templatequote { stream: hidden; margin: 1em 0; padding: 0 40px} .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite { line-height: 1.5em; text alignment: left; left padding: 1.6em; top margin: 0}

The bill (which allows Puerto Rico to write its own constitution) will only allow Puerto Ricans to ratify their own constitutions and regulate local governments… The bill will not change Puerto Rico’s social and economic-political relations with the United States. [109] [110]

external video
U.S. Embassy in Vienna, Puerto Rico, October 24, 2014
Watch short Spanish-language footage of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Revolt of the 1950s on YouTube

On October 30, 1950,Pedro Albizu Campusand other nationalists led a three-day revolt against the United States in various cities and towns of Puerto Rico.Nationalist National Party Riots in Puerto Rico in the 1950s. The most remarkable thing happenedjayuyaandUtuado. During Jayuya’s uprising, “Jayuya rebel”, the governor of Puerto Rico explainedmartial lawand attacked the rebels in Jayuya with infantry, artillery, and bombers under the command of a Puerto Rican commander. “Utuado Uprising“Climaxing with the Utuado massacre, Albizu Campos spent many years in a federal prison.Atlantafor an ambitious conspiracy to overthrow the US government in Puerto Rico.[111]

Puerto Rican nationalists from New York on November 1, 1950,Griselio TorresolaandOscar Collazo,assassination attemptMinisterHarry S. Trumanhis temporary residence is at Blair House. Torresola was killed in the attack, but Collazo was wounded and captured. He was found guilty of murder and sentenced to death, but President Truman commuted his sentence to life in prison. After serving 29 years in federal prison, President Jimmy Carter commuted his sentence by term and was released in 1979.

Puerto Rico economyAgricultureMake

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Puerto Rico experienced rapid industrialization, in large part.Operacion Manos a la Obra(“Boot Activity”), an arm of FDR’s New Deal. It aims to transform Puerto Rico’s economy from agriculture to manufacturing to provide more jobs. Puerto Rico has become a major tourist destination as well as a global focus for pharmaceutical manufacturing.[112]

21st century

Proposed political situation for Puerto RicoPuerto Rico Statute Referendum 2012President’s Task Force in the State of Puerto RicoPuerto Rico Statutes Referendum 2020

On July 15, 2009,United Nations Special Commission on DecolonizationIt adopted a draft resolution urging the United States government to accelerate a process that would allow the Puerto Rican people to fully exercise their inalienable right to self-determination and independence.[113]

On 6 November 2012, a two-question referendum was held simultaneously with the general election.[114][115]The first question, voted on in August, asks voters whether they want to maintain the status quo under the territorial provision of the US Constitution. 54% voted against the status quo and effectively endorsed the second question to be voted on in November. The second question offers three alternative status options: state, independent, orfree association.[116]61.16% voted for statehood, 33.34% for sovereign free association and 5.49% for independence.[117][verification failed]

On June 30, 2016, President Obama, H.R. 5278: PROMESA establishes the Board of Supervisors for the Puerto Rican government. This board will have substantial federal control over its composition and operations. Specifically, the authority to establish the supervisory board derives from the federal government’s constitutional power to “make all necessary rules and regulations” relating to the territory of the United States; The President will appoint all seven voting members of the board of directors; and the governing body will have broad sovereign power to effectively pass the decisions of the legislature, the governor, and other public authorities of Puerto Rico.[118]

Puerto Rico hostedstate referendumIn the general elections of 3 November 2020; The ballot raised a question: “Should Puerto Rico be admitted to the Union immediately?as a state? “The results showed that 52 percent of Puerto Rican voters answered yes.[119]

Environment

Puerto Rico GeographyPuerto Rico Geology

Patillae

Puerto Rico includes the main island of Puerto Rico and many other smaller islands, includingviques,cube,mona,desecheo, andCaja de Muertos. Of these five species, only Culebra and Vieques live year-round. Mona, which has an important place in maritime history, was mostly uninhabited except for maritime personnel throughout the year.Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources.[120]There are many who are even smallersmall island, asmonitornear Mona,[121] Isla de CabrasandLa Isleta de San Juanboth lie downSan Juan Bay. The latter is the only small island inhabited by communities such as the one below.old San JuanandPuerta de Tierraand is connected to the main island by bridges.[122][123]

[124]

The Community of Puerto Rico covers an area of ​​5,320 square miles (13,800 km).2nd), of which 3,420 square miles (8,900 km)2nd) of land and 1,900 sq mi (4,900 km)2nd) is water.[125]Puerto Rico is larger than Delaware and Rhode Island. The main island has a maximum length of 110 miles (180 km) from east to west and a maximum width of 40 miles (64 km) from north to south.[126]Puerto Rico is the smallest of the Greater Antilles. It is 80% of its size.Jamaica,[127]just over 18% of its sizeHispanicand 8% of the area of ​​Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles.[128]

The north and south of the island are mostly mountainous with extensive coastal areas.[explanation needed]The main mountain range “La Cordillera Center”(Central Range). Highest altitude in Puerto Rico,Cerro de Punta4,390 feet (1,340 m),[125]in this range.

Another important peak isEl Yunque, one of the highest levelsSierra de LuquilloinEl Yunque National ForestAt an altitude of 3,494 ft (1,065 m).[129]

Puerto Rico has 17 lakes, all man-made, and more50 rivers, most of them originate from the Central Cordillera.[130]The rivers in the northern part of the island are usually longer and higher.water flow rateCompared to the South, due to the fact that the South receives less precipitation than the Central and North regions.

Puerto Rico includesCretaceous periodto arriveEocene volcanoandplutonicrock, covered by youngerOligoceneand more recentlybaking sodaand the othersediments.[131]AlmostcaveandkarstThe topography on the island occurs in carbonate salts in the northern region. The oldest rocks are approx.190 million wonyears old (Jura) and is located in the Sierra Bermeja in the southwest of the island. may represent someocean shelland is said to come from the kingdom of the pacific.

Puerto Rico is located on the border between the Caribbean and North America.plateand is distorted byhelpstress from their interactions. These stresses can causeearthquakeandtsunami. Thisseismicactivity withlandsliderepresents some of the most dangerousgeological hazardson the island and in the northeastern Caribbean.

This 1918 San Fermin earthquakeit happenedOctober 11, 1918 and estimated size 7.5wealth scale.[132]appeared on the shoresaguadilla, a few kilometers from the north coast andtsunami. It damages infrastructure, especially bridges, causing massive property damage and widespread damage. It resulted in an estimated 116 deaths and $4 million in property damage. The government’s failure to act quickly to ensure the general welfare was fueled by the political activism of the dissidents and ultimatelyPuerto Rican Nationalist Party.

On January 7, 2020,[133]country of experiencesecond largest earthquake,[134]It is estimated at 6.4 magnitude.[135]Economic losses are estimated at more than $3.1 billion.[136]

This Puerto Rico TrenchThe largest and deepest trench in the Atlantic Ocean is located at the border between the Caribbean and North American plates, about 114 km (71 mi) north of Puerto Rico.[137]It is 170 miles (270 km) long.[138]at its deepest pointMilwaukee deepIt is approximately 27,600 ft (8,400 m) deep.[137]

Climate

Puerto Rico’s climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, the climate of Puerto Rico is as follows:tropical rain forest. Temperatures vary from warm to hot throughout the year, averaging around 85°F (29°C) in the lower elevations and 70°F (21°C) in the mountains. The Easter trade winds blow over the island year-round. Puerto Rico has a rainy season that lasts from April to November. The mountains of the Central Cordillera are the main cause of the temperature and precipitation differences that occur over very short distances. Mountains can also cause widespread changes in local wind speeds and directions, as shielding and channeling effects contribute to climate variability.

The island has an average temperature of 82.4°F (28°C) year-round, with an average minimum temperature of 66.9°F (19°C) and a maximum of 85.4°F (30°C). The daily seasonal variation in temperature is quite small in the plains and coastal areas. Temperatures in the south are usually a few degrees higher than in the north, and temperatures in the mountains inland are consistently cooler than the rest of the island.

There is a temperature variation of about 6°F (3.3°C) between the dry and rainy seasons. This change is mainly due to the warm waters of the tropics.Atlanticsignificantly replaces the cold air from the north and northwest. Coastal water temperatures throughout the year range from around 24°C (75°F) in February to 85°F (29°C) in August. The highest temperature ever recorded was 99°F (37°C).Arecibo,[139]The lowest temperature ever recorded was 40°F (4°C) in the mountains.assistants,aibonito, andcorosal.[140]Average annual precipitation is 66 inches (1,676 mm).[141]

Storm

Puerto Rico experienceAtlantic hurricane seasonIt is similar to the rest of the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. On average, a quarter of the annual precipitation comes from tropical cyclones, which are more common during La Niña periods.El Nino.[142]An average hurricane of tropical storm intensity passes near Puerto Rico every five years. On average, a hurricane passes around the island every seven years. since 1851,Storm Lake Okeechobee(also known as Hurricane San Felipe Segundo in Puerto Rico) was the only hurricane to make landfall as a Category 5 hurricane in September 1928.[143]

busyAtlantic hurricane season 2017, Puerto Rico 5. Avoids a direct hit from Hạnghurricane IrmaAs it passed about 60 miles (97 km) north of Puerto Rico on September 6, 2017, high winds caused power outages for nearly one million residents. About 50% of hospitals run on electricity provided by generators.[144]Type 4Typhoon Jose, as expected, left Puerto Rico.[145]demolition soon afterHurricane MariaLanded recently in Puerto Rico on Wednesday, September 20.yabucoaAt 10:15 UTC (6:15 a.m. local time), urban, high-profile Category 4 hurricane, sustained winds of 250 km/h, heavy rain and widespread flooding causing widespread damage. The electricity grid will last 4-6 months in most parts of the island.[146][147][148]

Hurricane DorianThird hurricane in three years to make landfall in Puerto Rico in 2019. Infrastructure is recovering from the 2017 hurricanes like the new governor.Wanda Vazquez Garcedtested against a potential humanitarian crisis.[149][150] Tropical Storm KarenIt also affected Puerto Rico in 2019.[151]

climate change

Climate change in Puerto Rico

[Editor]

Climate change in Puerto Ricoincluding effectsclimate change, man-made increase in atmospherecarbon dioxide, in the US region of Puerto Rico.

US Environmental Protection Agency

[152]

[153]

biodiversity

Puerto Rico faunaPuerto Rico flora

In this image there is a brown coquí. The species resembles a small frog.

General Coqui

Puerto Rico is home to three terrestrial ecoregions:Wet Jungle in Puerto Rico,Dry Forest in Puerto Rico, andGreater Antilles Mangrove Forest.[154]

Speciesendemic239 trees, 16 bird species and 39amphibians/reptileIt was recognized in 1998. Most of these (234, 12 and 33 respectively) are found on the main island.[155]Most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pridecoke, a small frog easily recognizable by its sound, for which it is named. Mostcokespecies (13 out of 17)El Yunque National Forest,[citation needed]onetropical rain forestnortheast of the island was formerly known as the Caribbean National Forest. El Yunque is home to more than 240 plant species, 26 of which are endemic to the island. It is also home to 50 bird species, including critically endangered species.Amazon Puerto Rico.

Cross the island to the southwest, 15 sq mi (39 km.)2ndArid areas in the Guánica Commonwealth Forest Reserve have more than 600 species of rare flora and fauna, of which 48 are endangered and 16 are endemic to Puerto Rico.[156]

Puerto Rico has three bioluminescent coves: rare bodies of water occupied by microscopic sea creatures that glow when touched.[157][better source needed]However, tourism, pollution and storms threaten living things.[158]

Demographic

historical population
census Pop music. ±%
1800 155,426
1860 583,308
1910 1.118.012
1920 1,299,809 16.3%
1930 1.543.913 18.8%
1940 1,869,255 21.1%
1950 2,210,703 18.3%
1960 2,349,544 6.3%
1970 2,712.033 15.4%
1980 3,196.520 17.9%
1990 3,522,037 10.2%
2000 3,808,610 8.1%
2010 3,725,789 -2.2%
Year 2020 3,285,874 -11.8%
1765–2020 [159] [5]

Puerto Rico demographicsCultural Diversity in Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico’s population was originally shapedUS settlement,Colonization of Europe,slavery, economic immigration, and Puerto Rico’s status as an unincorporated territory of the United States.

population composition

Puerto Rican people

Racial and Ethnic Composition in Puerto Rico (2020 Census) [160]
people
White 17.1%
Black 7.0%
Asia 0.1%
two or more races 49.8%
indians 0.5%
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 0.0%
other races 25.5%

Puerto Rico’s population, according to the 2020 census, is 3,285,874, down 11.8% since then.United States Census 2010.[5]From 2000 to 2010, Puerto Rico’s population fell from 3,808,610 to 3,725,789 for the first time in census history.[161]

Continuous and high European immigrationnatural increaseIt helped increase Puerto Rico’s population from 155,426 in 1800 to nearly one million at the end of the 19th century. A census by royal decree on September 30, 1858 gave the total number for Puerto Rico’s population at that time: 341,015 people.free color; 300,430white; and 41,736slave.[162]The 1887 census showed a population of about 800,000, including 320,000 blacks.[163]

Hundreds of families came to Puerto Rico in the 19th century.Canary IslandandAndalusia, but also from other parts of Spain, for exampleCatalonia,Asturias,GaliciaandBalearic Islandsand many Spanish regulars from former Spanish colonies in South America. Settlers from outside Spain also reached the islands.Corsica,France,Lebanon,Chinese,Portugal,Irish,Scotland,GermanyandItaly. Immigration from these non-Hispanic countries,The real Cedula de Gracias at 1815(“Royal Decree of 1815”) allows European Catholics to settle on the island with land allotments in the interior of the island, provided they pay their taxes and continue to support the Catholic Church.

From 1960 to 1990, census surveys in Puerto Rico did not ask about race or ethnicity. This United States Census 2000Includes a self-described racial survey in Puerto Rico. According to the census, most Puerto Ricans identify as white and Latino; a few identified as black or another race.

population genetics

A group of researchers from the University of Puerto Rico conducted a study on this subject.mitochondrial DNAThis revealed that the modern population of Puerto Rico has a high Taíno genetic composition, andguanch(especially the island of Tenerife).[164]Other studies show Amerindian ancestry in addition to Taíno.[165][166][167][168]

A genetic study of the racial makeup of Puerto Ricans (including all races) found that they were about 61%.Western Eurasia/North Africa(mainly from Spain), 27%Sub-Saharan Africaand 11%Native Americans.[169]Another genetic study from 2007 states that “average genome-wide ancestry (i.e. Puerto Rican) was estimated at 66%, 18%, and 16% for Europeans, West Africans, and Native Americans, respectively.”[170]In another study, 63.7% European, 21.2% African (sub-Saharan) and 15.2% Native American; European ancestry is more common in Western and Central Puerto Rico, African ancestry in eastern Puerto Rico, and Native American ancestry in northern Puerto Rico.[171]

academic level

A survey by Pew Research showed that in 2012 the adult literacy rate was 90.4%.United Nations.[172]

long life

Puerto Rico has a life expectancy of about 81.0 years, an improvement from 78.7 years in 2010, according to the CIA World Factbook. This means Puerto Rico has the second longest life expectancy in the United States when measured by year region.[173]

Immigration and immigration

racial group
Five Population White Mixed (mostly white Europeans and biracial black Africans) Black Asia Other
2000 3,808,610 80.5% (3,064,862) 11.0% (418,426) 8.0% (302,933) 0.2% (7,960) 0.4% (14,429)
2010 3,725,789 75.8% (2,824,148) 11.1% (413,563) 12.4% (461,998) 0.2% (7,452) 0.6% (22,355)
2016 3,195,153 68.9% (2,201,460) n / a (n / a) 9.8% (313,125) 0.2% (6,390) 0.8% (25,561)

As of 2019, Puerto Rico is home to 100,000 legal permanent residents.[174]Most recent immigrants, both legal and illegal,Dominican RepublicandHaiti.[175][176][177][178][179]Other important sources of recent immigrants include:Cuba,Mexican,Colombia,Panama,Jamaica,Venezuelan,Spain, andNigeria.[180][181]There are also many non-Puerto Rican US citizens who have settled in Puerto Rico from the continental United States.United States Virgin Islands, togetherthe Niyorikansand the otherstate of Puerto Ricoreturn.[182]Most of the recent immigrants settled in and around San Juan.

MigrationIt is a staple of contemporary Puerto Rican history. start right afterWorld War IIPoverty, cheap airfare, and promotion of the island government caused waves of Puerto Rico to move to the United States mainland, specifically the United States.northeastern statesand closeFlorida.[183]This trend continues even as Puerto Rico’s economy recovers and the birth rate falls. Puerto Ricans continue to follow the model”circular migration”, with some immigrants returning to the island. In recent years, the population has declined markedly, with birth and migration rates falling by about 1 percent in 2012 and another 1 percent (36,000 people) in 2013, due to population decline.[184]effect of the stormMariaandIrmaIn 2017, combined with the deteriorating economy of the unincorporated region, it caused the largest population decline since the US bought the archipelago.

According to the 2010 Census, the number of Puerto Ricans living outside Puerto Rico in the United States far exceeds those living in Puerto Rico. Immigration exceeds immigration. This highlights Puerto Rico’s economic decline, as those who leave tend to be better educated than those who remain.

According to the forecasts for 1 July 2019US Census BureauThe Commonwealth population has decreased by 532,095 people since the 2010 Census data were tabulated.[185]

Population distribution

List of cities in Puerto Rico

The most populated city is the capital,San JuanWith 318,441 people, according to 2019 Census Bureau estimates.[186]Other major cities includeBaymon,Carolina,Ponce, andCaguas. Eight of the ten most populated cities on the island are in what is considered an island.metropolitan area of ​​San Juan, while the other two are located in the south (Ponce) and west (Mayagüez) of the island.

Largest Cities or Towns in the 2010 Puerto Rico Census [187]
To grant Name Metropolitan Statistical Area Pop music.
San Juan Bayamon first San Juan San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 395,326 CarolinaPonce
2nd Baymon San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 208,116
3 Carolina San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 176,762
4 Ponce Ponce 166,327
5 Caguas San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 142,893
6 Guaynabo San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 97,924
7 Arecibo San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 96,440
8 Toa Baja San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 89,609
9 Mayagüez Mayagüez 89,080
front Trujillo Alto San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 74,842

Slice

Puerto Rican SpanishEnglish in Puerto Rico

This official language[188]executive branch of the Puerto Rican government[189]Spanish and English, the main language is Spanish. Spanish was and still is the only official language of the Commonwealth’s entire judicial system, despite the English-only language law in 1902.[190]However, all official businessUnited States District CourtIt is done in English for the County of Puerto Rico. English is the mother tongue of less than 10% of the population. Spanish is the main language of business, education and daily life, spoken by almost 95% of the population on the island.[191]

Of those aged 5 and over, 94.3% spoke only Spanish at home, 5.5% English and 0.2% other languages.[2nd]

Education in public schools in Puerto Rico is almost entirely in Spanish. About a dozen of the more than 1,400 public schools currently have English-only pilot programs in place. Opposition from the teaching staff is common, perhaps because many of them are not fully fluent in English.[192]English is taught as a second language and is a compulsory subject from primary to high school. The languages ​​of the deaf community are:American Sign Languageand its local variant,Puerto Rican Sign Language.

This Puerto Rican SpanishIt has developed many distinctive lexical and syntactic features that distinguish Spanish from Spanish spoken elsewhere. A product of Puerto Rican history, the island has a unique Spanish dialect. Spaniards in Puerto Rico use it a lot.TainoEnglish words as well as words. The most influential Spanish-speaking people in Puerto Rico are the Canary Islands. Tainodebtoften used in the context of vegetation, natural phenomena, and indigenous musical instruments. Similarly, the words are said to be predominantly from the West.African languagesespecially in the coastal towns where the descendants of Sub-Saharan Africa are concentrated, it has been applied in the context of food, music and dance.[193]

Religion

Religion in Puerto Rico (2014)[194][195]

Catholic RomeProtestantismUngodly

The Catholic faith was brought in by Spanish colonists and gradually became the dominant religion in Puerto Rico. Firstbishopricin the Americas, includingof Puerto Ricoauthorized byPope Julius IIin 1511.[196]In 1512, priests were established for parish churches. In 1759 there was a priest for each church.[197]a Pope,John Paul IIvisited Puerto Rico in October 1984.autonomous cityPuerto Rico has at least one Catholic church, most located in downtown, orSquare.

ProtestantismPersecuted under the Spanish Catholic regime, it had returned to US rule, making contemporary Puerto Rico more skeptical than in previous centuries, although Catholicism remained the dominant religion. First Evangelical Church,Iglesia de la Santisima TrinidadFounded in Ponce byAnglican Diocese of Antiguain 1872.[198]This is the first fully non-Catholic church.spanish empireinAmerica.[199][200]

The pollster Pablo Ramos stated in 1998 that 38% of the population was Roman Catholic, 28% was Pentecostal and 18% belonged to independent churches. The total number of Protestants amounted to about two million. Another researcher offers a more conservative assessment of the percentage of Protestants:

Thanks to its long-standing political relationship with the United States, Puerto Rico is the most Protestant of any Latin American country, with a Protestant population of 33 to 38 percent, the majority of which is sectarian. David Stoll calculates that if we estimated the growth rate of mission churches over the next 25 years from 1960 to 1985, Puerto Rico would be 75 percent evangelical. (Ana Adams: “Brincando el Charco…” in Power, Politics, and Pentecost in Latin America, Edward Cleary, ed., 1997, p. 164). [201]

oneRelated pressThe March 2014 article states that “more than 70 percent of them self-identify as Catholic,” but does not provide a source for this information.[202]

This CIA World FactbookHe reported that 85% of Puerto Rico’s population self-identified as Roman Catholic, and 15% as Protestant and Other. No date or source of this information has been provided and may not be new.[203]A 2013 Pew Research study found that only 45% of Puerto Rican adults are Catholic, 29% Protestant, and 20% non-religious. Those surveyed by Pew include Puerto Ricans living in all 50 states and DC, and may not be indicative of Commonwealth residents.[204]

majority

A report by Pew Research up until 2014, with the subtitleWidespread change in a historic Catholic siteStating that only 56% of Puerto Ricans are Catholic and 33% are Protestant; This survey was completed between October 2013 and February 2014.[205][172]

oneEastern OrthodoxyChurch of St. Theotokos / Church of St. Spyridon is located in Trujillo Alto and serves the small Orthodox community.[206][207]According to a Pew Research report, this group made up less than 1% of the population in 2010.[208]in 1940Juanita Garcia Peraza’s photo.to createMita CongregationThe first religion of Puerto Ricans.[209] practicing the Taíno religionreinvented/reinvented to some extent by a handful of supporters.[210]Similarly, certain aspects of African religious traditions have been observed by some adherents. African slaves brought and perpetuated the different religious practices of the African people associated with different peoples; especially,Yorubafaithsanteriaand/orif one, andCongo-sourcePalo Mayombe. Various aspects were absorbed into syncretic Christianity. In 1952, severalAmerican Jewsfirst island formedsynagogue; According to a Pew Research report, this religion made up less than 1% of the population in 2010.[211][212]known as the synagogueSha’are ZedeckIn 1954 he hired his first rabbi.[213]Puerto Rico has the largest Jewish community in the Caribbean, with 3000 people.[214]and the only Caribbean island inConservative,make a revolutionandOrthodox Judaismmovements are displayed.[213][215]In 2007 it was about 5,000 yen.MuslimIn Puerto Rico, about 0.13% of the population.[216][217]Eightmosqueit is found all over the island and most Muslims live here.Rio PiedrasandCaguas; Most Muslims are of Palestinian and Jordanian descent.[218][219]also aBahá’ícommunity.[220]25,832 in 2015Jehovah’s witnessesWith 324 churches it represents about 0.70% of the population.[221]This Padmasambhava Buddhist Center, followers practicingTibetan Buddhism, togetherNichiren BuddhismIt has a branch in Puerto Rico.[222]There are a number of atheist educational institutions and activists and a parody religion called atheism.pastafarianPuerto Rico Church.[223]oneISKCONThe temple in Gurabo is dedicatedKrishnaConscious with two preaching centers in the capital area.

State

Puerto Rico GovernmentPuerto Rico Politics

a Puerto Ricorepublican form of governmentbased onamerican model, withdecentralizationIt is subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States of America.[224][225]Delegated by all government powersUnited States Congressincluding the head of stateHeads of States. as a singleunincorporated territorylacks adequate protection under Puerto RicoUS Constitution.[226]

The Puerto Rican government consists of three branches. The CEO is chairingGovernor, to presentPedro Pierluisi Urrutia. This legislative branchincludesbicameral Legislature, consisting of aSenateupper room andHouse of Commonsas the lower chamber; headed by the Senateminister, to presentJosé Luis Dalmau, while governed by parliamentspeaker of the house, to presenttatito hernandez. Governors and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years.The last election to be held in November 2020. This judicial branchheaded byPresident of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, to presentMaite Oronoz Rodriguez. Members of the judiciary are appointed by the governor.advice and consentof the Senate.

Puerto Rico is represented in the United States Congress by a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives,resident commissioner, to presentJennifer Gonzalez. Current Congressional rules have removed the right of voters to vote.General Assembly, but the commissioner can vote in the committee.[227]

In Puerto Rico, elections are held as follows:Federal Election CommissionandPuerto Rico State Election Commission.[228][229]Puerto Rican residents, including other U.S. citizens, cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections, but they can.primaries. Puerto Ricans become residents of a city.our situationor District of Columbiacan vote in presidential elections.

Puerto Rico has8 superior regions,40 representative regionsand78 autonomous cities; There is no first-level administrative unit as defined by the United States government. Cities are divided into wards orbarriosand these items. Each municipality has aMayorand a city council elected for a four-year term. CouncilSan Juanthe oldest, founded in 1521;[230]next earliest settlementsSan Germanin 1570koamoin 1579,Areciboin 1614,aguadain 1692 andPonceIncreasing settlement in the 18th century, 34 more communities were established in the 19th century, and then 30 more.Floridain 1971.[231]

Political parties and elections

The power of political parties in Puerto Rico

divided government

Since 1952, Puerto Rico has had three main political parties:Famous Democratic Party(PPD in Spanish),New Radical Party(Spanish PNP) andPuerto Rico Independence Party(PIP). The three parties stand in different political positions. PPD, for example, searchpreserve the island’s status as a community with the United States, on the other hand, PNP,Making Puerto Rico a state of the United States. In turn, PIP wants to leave the United States altogether.Making Puerto Rico a sovereign nation. In terms of party strength, the PPD and PNP typically each account for about 47% of the vote, while the PIP only holds about 5%.

After 2007, other parties emerged on the island. First,Puerto Ricans for the Puerto Rican Party(PPR in Spanish) was registered in the same year. The party claims that it is trying to resolve the problems of the archipelago on a neutral basis. However, when it failed to get the necessary votes in the 2008 general elections, it ceased to be a registered party and four years later, in the 2012 elections.Movimiento Union Soberanista(MUS; English:Sovereign Unity Movement) andPartido del Pueblo Trabajador(PPT; English:Workers People’s Party) but none of them received more than 1% of the votes.

Other unregistered parties include:Puerto Rican Nationalist Party,Socialist Workers’ Movement, andHostosian National Independence Movement.

Live

Puerto Rico ConstitutionPuerto Rico Law

The legal system is basically a mixture of:civil lawandcommon lawsystems.

Puerto Rico is the only US jurisdiction whose legal system operates primarily in a language other than American English: that is,Spanish. becauseUnited States federal governmentFirst of all, all Puerto Rican lawyers operating in English must be bilingual in order to file lawsuits in English.United States Federal Courtand to sue federal immunity matters in Puerto Rico courts.[citation needed][original research?]

Title 48 of the United States CodeIt outlines the role of United States Law for US territories and territories such as Puerto Rico. After the U.S. government took control of Puerto Rico in 1901, it embarked on legal reforms that resulted in the adoption of penal codes, penal procedures, and civil procedures modeled on the rule.California. While Puerto Rico has since followed the federal example of transferring criminal and civil cases from the state,LegalAs for the rules enacted by the judiciary, parts of the criminal law still reflect the influence of the judiciary.California Penal Code.

by the judicial branchJudgeLater onPuerto Rico Supreme CourtThe only appellate court prescribed by the Constitution. All other courts created byPuerto Rico Legislature.[232]also aPuerto Rico Federal District Courtand a person charged with a crime at the federal level cannot be charged with similar conduct in a Commonwealth court and vice versa, because Puerto Rico is stately separate from Congress as an unincorporated, sovereign territory.[233]Such a parallel accusation,double danger.

political situation

Political Situation of Puerto RicoProposed political situation for Puerto Rico

The nature of Puerto Rico’s political relationship with the United States,discussion continuesin Puerto Rico,United States Congress, andUnited Nations.[234]A particularly fundamental question is whether Puerto Rico will continue to be a country.unincorporated territories of the United States, to beour situationor become an independent country.[235]

in America

Capital of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico constitutionallyomnipotent powerLater onUnited States CongressUnderzone clausebetweenIV of the US Constitution. clause.[236] Laws enacted at the federal level in the United StatesThis also applies to Puerto Rico, regardless of its political status. residentsNo voting representation in the United States Congress. Like other states of the United States, Puerto Rico lacks the “full sovereignty of an independent state”, for example, the right to manage “foreign relations with other nations” exercised by the United States federal government. The United States Supreme Court has pointed out that when the United States Constitution is extended to a district (by Congress or a court), its scope is irrevocable. Claiming that the political branches can open and close the Constitution as they wish would lead to a regime that they, not this Court, call “what is the law”.[237]

Puerto Ricans “taken togetherUS Citizens”After all, in 1917Jones-Shafroth Law.[238]U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico cannot vote in the U.S. presidential election, but both major parties, the Republicans and Democrats, have primaries to elect delegates to vote in Puerto Rico. votes for the presidential candidates of the parties. Because Puerto Rico is aunincorporated territory(see above) and not a state of the United States,US Constitutionnot exactlyentitlement US CitizensHe resides in Puerto Rico.[226][239]

Onlyfundamental rightsIn accordance with the United States federal constitution and the jurisdictions applicable to Puerto Ricans. Various other decisions of the United States Supreme Court have laid down which rights apply in Puerto Rico and which do not. Puerto Ricans have a long history of service in the United States Armed Forces and have been drafted in the United States since 1917.mandatory draftWhen did it come into effect?

Although the Commonwealth government has its own tax laws, Puerto Ricans are required to pay a variety of federal taxes in the United States, with the exception of federal personal income tax on income from Puerto Rico, but only under certain conditions.[240][241][242][243][244][245][246][247]Puerto Rico paid in 2009$3.742 billionintoUS Treasury.[248]Puerto Rican residents contribute to Social Security and are therefore eligible for Social Security benefits in retirement. They are excludedAdditional Security Income(SGK) and the island actually got a smaller sharemedicineThe funding it would receive if it were a US state.[249]In addition, Medicare providers receive less government-like reimbursement for services rendered to a beneficiary in Puerto Rico, even if the person has paid in full to the system.[250]

Puerto Rico’s power to enact its penal code comes from Congress, not from local sovereignty like the states. As a result, perpetrators can only be tried in federal or regional courts, which otherwise poses a double danger and is unconstitutionally unacceptable.[233]

President in 1992George H. W. Bushissued a memorandum of understanding to the heads of agencies and executive departments establishing the existing administrative relationship between the federal government and the Community of Puerto Rico. This memorandum instructs all federal departments, divisions, agencies, and officials to treat Puerto Rico administratively as if it were a state because it does not interrupt programs or federal activities.

Many federal executive branch agencies have a significant presence in Puerto Rico, as well as in any state, including.Federal Bureau of Investigation,Federal Emergency Management Agency,Transportation Security Management,Social Security Institution, and others. While Puerto RicoCommonwealth justice systemSimilar to that of a United States state, Puerto Rico also has a federal district court of the United States, and Puerto Ricans have served as judges in this Court and other federal courts in the United States, regardless of their state of residence at the time. meeting. .Sonia Sotomayor, oneNew Yorkers of Puerto Rican descent, to servetie of justiceLater onUnited States Supreme Court. Puerto Ricans are also regularly appointed to high-ranking federal positions.US Ambassadorto other countries.

Foreign and Intergovernmental Relations

Puerto Rico’s Foreign and Intergovernmental Relations

Depends on Puerto RicoTradeandRegional TermsIt is part of the United States Constitution and is therefore limited in how state governments can relate to other nations by sharing, if not identical, opportunities and limitations. As with state governments, it has made a number of trade agreements with other countries, primarily Latin American countries such as Colombia and Panama.[251][252]

It has also established trade promotion offices in many foreign, all Spanish-speaking countries, and now within the United States, which includes Spain, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Colombia, Washington, D.C., New York, and Florida, and in Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico. incorporated into previous offices. Such arrangements require permission from the US Department of State; most are permitted by applicable law or by trade agreements between the United States and other countries that supersede trade agreements conducted by Puerto Rico and other US states. Hosted by Puerto Ricoconsularfrom 41 countries, mostlyAmericaand Europe, most of which are found in San Juan.[230]

At the local level, Puerto Rico has been established by law that international relations that countries and territories are allowed to enter should be handled by:Puerto Rico Ministry of Foreign Affairs, oneoperation room, headed byPuerto Rico Minister of Foreign AffairsHe also serves as the senior governor of the unincorporated district. It also applies to general communication.consulandhonorary consulBased in Puerto Rico. This Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration, withOffice of the Resident Commissioner, manages all intergovernmental business with entities in the United States or the United States (including the United States federal government, local and state governments of the United States, and public or private individuals in the United States).

Both organizations regularly assist the Puerto Rican State Department in collaborating with ambassadors based in Washington, D.C. and federal agencies dealing with Puerto Rico’s foreign affairs, such as the U.S. Department of State,international development agencies, and others. current foreign ministerLarry Seilhamer RodriguezfromNew Radical Party, while availableHead of the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs AdministrationTo beJennifer M. Stopiranalso from the NPP and a member of the United States Republican Party.

This Puerto Rico resident commissioner,representativeElected by Puerto Ricans to represent them before the federal government, including the United States Congress, he sits in the United States House of Representatives, serves and votes on congressional committees, and acts as a legislator in all respects. final decision on legislature on footrests. current resident commissionerJennifer Gonzalez-Colon, a Republican, was elected in 2016. He received more votes than any other official elected in Puerto Rico that year.[253]

Many Puerto Ricans have served as ambassadors of the United States to various countries and international organizations such as the Organization of American States, many not just in Latin America. For example, Maricarmen Aponte, Puerto Rican and currently acting assistant secretary of state, previously served as the US ambassador to El Salvador.[254]

Army

Puerto Rico Army

Protecting Puerto Rico, as it is an unincorporated territory of the United States,Paris agreementwith the President of the United Statescommander. Puerto Rico’sNational Guardand your ownstate defense force,Puerto Rico State Guard, in accordance with local laws under the jurisdiction of the Puerto Rico National Guard.

This commanderboth local forcesGovernor of Puerto Ricowho allowedPuerto Rico Assistant General, to presentBrigadier Jose J. Reyes. The Joint Chiefs of Staff also delegated the State Guard to another officer, but retained overall authority over the Puerto Rico National Guard.
US military facilities in Puerto Rico,US Atlantic CommandLANTCOM (after 1993 USACOM) has jurisdiction over all US military operations across the Atlantic Ocean. Puerto Rico was considered critical in supporting LANTCOM’s mission until 1999, when US Atlantic Command was renamed and given a new mission.United States Joint Forces Command. Puerto Rico is currently his responsibility.United States Northern Command.

Both the Caribbean Navy (NFC) and the Caribbean Fleet Air Arm (FAIR) were formerly located at Naval Base Roosevelt Road. NFC has jurisdiction over all US Navy operations in the Caribbean, while FAIR has jurisdiction over all US military flights and air operations over the Caribbean. With the closure of Roosevelt Streets and training facilities on Vieques Island, the United States Navy essentially abandoned Puerto Rico, with the exception of the steamers and the only significant military presence on the island.our armyinFt Buchanan,Puerto Rico Armyand the National Guard andUS Coast Guard. Protests over the noise of the bombing caused the naval base to be closed. This resulted in the loss of 6,000 jobs and a $300 million reduction in local annual revenue.[255]

a branchUnited States Army National Guardstationed in Puerto Rico – known asPuerto Rico Army National Guard- performing duties equivalent to other National Guardsmenstates of the united statesincluding ground defense, disaster relief and civil unrest control. The local National Guard alsoUnited States National Air Force- in your namePuerto Rico Air National Guard- To perform duties equivalent to the Air National Guard of each state of the United States.

Ohio-class

ballistic missile submarineMarylandNaval Base Roosevelt Roads

At various times during the 20th century, the United States had about 25 military or naval facilities in Puerto Rico, some of them very small.[256]as well as large facilities. The oldest of theseNaval Base Roosevelt Roadsinceiba, Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility (AFWTF)viques, National Guard training facilityCamp Santiagoinsalines,Allen CastleinJuana Diaz, armyBuchanan CastleFormer U.S. Air Force Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla and Puerto Rico Air National Guard in San JuanMuniz National Air Defense BaseinSan Juan.[257]

Former US Navy facilities at Roosevelt Roads, Vieques, and Sabana Seca were decommissioned and partially transferred to local governments. other than thatUS Coast Guardand Puerto Rico National Guard facilities, there are only two military facilities left in Puerto Rico: the United States Army’s Small Ft. Buchanan (supporting local veterans and reservists) and Muniz PRANG Air Force Base (Puerto Rico Air National Guard) (Squadron C-130). In recent years,United States Congressthey considered decommissioning their operations, but these were opposed by various public and private entities in Puerto Rico – such as the retired military based in Ft. Buchanan, for services there.

They participated in many US military conflicts, including Puerto Ricans.American Revolution, volunteers from Puerto Rico,Cuba, andMexicanfought withbrotherUnder the command of the Shogun in 1779Bernardo de Galvez(1746-1786).[258]They continue to be disproportionately represented in today’s conflicts.IraqandAfghanistan.[259]The most striking example is65th Infantry RegimentLater onamerican army, NicknameBorinqueneers,from the island’s original Taíno name (Borinquen). Everything-Porto Ricoparticipating regimental commanderWorld War I,World War II,Korean War, andwar on terror; Awarded in 2014National Assembly Gold MedalFor his heroism during the Korean War.

A significant number of Puerto Ricans serve in the United States Armed Forces, the majorityNational Guardmembers and officers. The size of the overall military related community is estimated at 100,000, including retired personnel.[257]Fort Buchanan has approximately 4,000 military and civilian personnel. In addition, approximately 17,000 individuals are members of the Puerto Rican Army and Air National Guard, or United States Reserve.[260]

Administrative units

Puerto Rico Cities

Unlike the vast majority of states in the United States, Puerto Rico has no first-level administrative units.countiesbut there are 78autonomous cityor municipalityit is a secondary administrative unit; becauseUS CensusThe purpose is considered autonomous cities.equivalent particle. Cities are divided into twobarriosand these items. Each municipality has aMayorand a city council elected for a four-year term,Autonomous Cities Act 1991.

very economical

Puerto Rico EconomyPuerto Rico Government Debt Crisis

Classified as Puerto Ricohigh income economyequalworld BankandInternational Monetary Fund.[25]It is considered the most competitive economy.Latin AmericaequalWorld Economic Forumand on the tophuman development index. based onworld Bank,total national income$21,740 per person in Puerto Rico in 2020.[261]Puerto Rico’s economy is primarilyMake(mainly pharmaceuticals, textiles, petrochemicals and electronics), followed by services (mainly finance, insurance,Real estateandtravel); Agriculture accounts for less than 1% of GNP.[262][N][HE]In recent years, it has also become a popular destination for MICE (meeting, promotion, conference, exhibition), with a modern conference center overlookingSan Juan Harbor.[263]

Puerto Rico Geographyandpolitical situationall of the factors that determine its economic well-being, mainly due to its relatively small size;lack of natural resourcesand the next addictionimported goods; and resistance to the United Statesforeign policyand transaction restrictions, especiallyits shipping industry.

Puerto Rico experienced a recession from 2006 to 2011 that was interrupted by four-quarters of its economic growth, and in 2013, after increasing financial imbalances and the IRS Section 936 era, it is spurring businesses.US Internal Revenue CodeHe applied to Puerto Rico. This part of the IRS is important to the economy becausetax exemptionsTo allow US companies to settle in Puerto Rico and for their executive-level subsidiaries to remit their earnings to the parent company at any time without paying federal taxes on company income. Puerto Rico has surprisingly managed to maintain relatively low inflation over the past decade.purchasing power paritythe per capita rate is more than 80% of the rest of the world.[264]

gross domestic producteconomy

Academically, much of Puerto Rico’s economic woes stem from federal regulations that have expired, repealed, or no longer applicable to Puerto Rico; not being self-sufficient and sustainable throughout history;[P]Highly politicized public policy tends to change.when a political party gains power;[q]asInadequate local government[r][S]accumulatedPublic debtequal to 68%gross domestic productduring.[t][u]Puerto Rico currently has a public debt of $72,204 billion (103% of GNP) and a government deficit of $2.5 billion.[270][271]

By American standards, Puerto Rico is underdeveloped: It is poorer than Mississippi, the poorest state in the United States, with 41% of its population below the poverty line.poverty line.[v]However, it has the highest GDP per capita in Latin America. Puerto Rico’s main trading partnersUnited States of America,Irish, andJapan, with most incoming productsEast Asia, primarilyChinese,Hong Kong, andTaiwan. Puerto Rico is dependent on oilcar and its dependence on electricity generation and imports of food and raw materials makes Puerto Rico volatile and highly reactive to change.World Economyandclimate.

Travel

Tourism in Puerto RicoIt is also an important part of the economy. in 2017Hurricane MariaIt disrupted tourism for months, causing serious damage to the island and its infrastructure. Damage is estimated at $100 billion. An April 2019 report noted that with only a few hotels closed at the time, life has largely returned to normal for tourists in and around the capital.[273]By October 2019, nearly all the amenities popular with tourists in major destinations such as San Juan, Ponce and Arecibo are operational on the island and tourism is recovering. This is important to the economy, as tourism contributes up to 10% of Puerto Rico’s GDP, according to Discover Puerto Rico.[274]

The most recent Discover Puerto Rico campaign started in July 2018. An April 2019 report stated that “following the hurricane’s first anniversary in September [2018], the organization has begun to move towards a more optimistic message.” Is There a We Have Met Campaign Yet? It aims to “emphasize the island’s culture and history, making it distinct and distinct from other Caribbean destinations. In 2019, Discover Puerto Rico planned to continue the campaign that includes “streaming options for branded content.”[275]
[check the quote syntax]

At the end of November 2019, 90 searches were made to San Juan, according to reports.Royal CaribbeanShips will be canceled in 2020 and 2021. The move will mean 360,000 fewer visitors and cost the island’s economy 44 million people. Also, 30 trains departing from San Juan were cancelled. The rationale for this decision was discussed in a news release:[276]

The reason for the cancellation was the privatization of the cruise terminals in San Juan due to intensive care. An investment of approximately 250 million dollars is required to ensure that cruise ships can dock here in the coming years. Governor Wanda Vazquez urged not to continue the privatization process for the news to flow.

heavy financial debt

At the beginning of 2017,Puerto Rico Government Debt CrisisIt creates serious problems for the government, which has $70 billion in bond debt.[277]Debt grew during the decade-long recession.[278]

The Commonwealth has defaulted on many debts, including bonds, since 2015. When debts come due, the governor risks the government shutting down and failing to fund the managed healthcare system.[279][280]”If action is not taken by April, Puerto Rico’s ability to contract with managed care institutions for Fiscal Year 2018 will be threatened, so the healthcare of 900,000 poor U.S. citizens living in Puerto Rico will be at risk from January 1, 2017.” A letter sent to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. They also said that “Congress should enact measures proposed by both Republicans and Democrats to fix Puerto Rico’s inequitable health financing structure and promote sustainable economic growth.”[280]

First, the supervisory board was established.PROMESAApplication to the governor of Puerto RicoRicardo RosselloPrepare a financial recovery plan by 28 January. Just before this deadline, the supervisory board gave the Commonwealth government until 28 February to submit a financial plan (including negotiations with creditors for debt restructuring) to resolve the issues. The moratorium on debtors’ lawsuits has been extended until 31 May.[278]It is essential that Puerto Rico reaches restructuring agreements to avoid a bankruptcy-like process.PROMESA.[281]An internal survey conducted by the Association of Puerto Rican Economists found that the majority of Puerto Rican economists rejected the policy recommendations of the Rosselló Board and his government, and more than 80% of economists had economic arguments in favor of a debt control.[282]

In early August 2017, the island’s financial supervisory board (established by PROMESA) planned to issue two days of unpaid leave a month for government employees, below the original four-day plan. The latter is expected to save $218 million. Governor Rossello rejected the plan, finding it unreasonable and unnecessary. Pension reforms were also discussed, including a proposal to cut benefits by 10 percent to begin work on the $50 billion unpaid retirement debt.[283]

public finance

Puerto Rico Government Debt CrisisPuerto Rico Government BudgetPuerto Rico’s public debt

a Puerto Ricooperating budgetapproximately $9.8 billion at a cost of approximately $10.4 billion, which creates a structural deficit of $775 million (about 7.9% of the budget).[284]The practice of approving structural deficit budgets has been applied for 22 consecutive years since 2000. This practice has increased Puerto Rico’s retained debt as the government issues bonds.to balance the actual budgetFor forty years beginning in 1973.[w][286]

The projected deficit places a significant overhead on a country that is already in debt and has already accumulated.Public debt$71 billion, or about 70% of Puerto Rico’s gross domestic product. why does this happenan ongoing government debt crisisAfter Puerto Rico’s general liability bonds were downgraded to speculative non-investment status (“junk status”) by three credit rating agencies. In terms of financial controls, about 9.6% of the Puerto Rican government’s 2014 central budget spending — or about $1.5 billion — is expected to be spent on debt service.[x]More severe budget cuts are expected as Puerto Rico has to pay off larger debts in the coming years.[needs update]

For practical reasons, the budget is divided into two parts: the “general budget”,Puerto Rico Treasury Departmentand “compound budgets” include tasks financed by the general budget.Companies owned by the Puerto Rican governmentincome expected from loans, sales of government bonds, subsidies providedUnited States federal government, and by other funds.

There is a sharp contrast between the two budgets, with the consolidated budget often three times the size of the joint budget; currently $29 billion and $9.0 billion, respectively. About one in four dollars in the consolidated budget comes from US federal subsidies, while state-owned companies contribute more than 31% of the consolidated budget.

Highlights come from bond sales, which account for 7% of the consolidated budget – a rate that increases each year due to the government’s inability to prepare a balanced budget beyond the inability to generate enough revenue to cover all of its expenses. State-owned companies, in particular, place an additional burden on the overall budget and public debt as no company is self-sufficient. For example, in 2011 state-owned companies reported losses totaling more than $1.3 billion.Puerto Rico Highway and Transportation Authority(PRHTA) reported a loss of $409 million,Puerto Rico Electricity Authority(PREPA; the government monopoly that controls all electricity on the island) reported $272 million in losses.Puerto Rico Sewers and Bridges Authority(PRASA; the government monopoly that controls all water facilities on the island) reported losses of $112 million.[288]

State-owned companies’ losses were offset by bond issues, which today account for more than 40% of Puerto Rico’s total public debt.[289]Overall, Puerto Rico’s debt between 2000 and 2010 wascompound annual growth rateGDP remains stagnant at 9% (CAGR).[290]This does not always provide a permanent solution. For example, in early July 2017, the mighty PREPA went bankrupt after defaulting on its $9 billion bond debt restructuring plan; The agency planned to seek protection from the Court.[291]

With the governor in terms of protocolPuerto Rico Office of Management and Budget(OGP in Spanish) prepares a budget for the next fiscal year that it believes is necessary to operate all branches of government. He then submitted this formula as a budget request to the Puerto Rico legislature by July 1, the date set as the start of Puerto Rico’s fiscal year. While the constitution requires that requests be submitted “at the beginning of each regular session”, requests are usually submitted during the first week of May when regular sessions of the legislature begin in January, and it would be impractical to submit requests first. Once the budget is presented, it is approved by the legislature, usually with amendments.co-locationand went back to the governor for his approval. The governor then either approves or vetoes it. If vetoed, the legislature can then roll back with amendments for the governor’s approval, or approve it by two-thirds of each house’s organs without the governor’s approval.[292]

After the budget is approved, the Department of the Treasury distributes funds to the Office of Management and Budget, which in turn provides funds to the relevant agencies.Puerto Rico State Development Bank(intergovernmental bank) manages all banking-related matters, including those involving state-owned companies.

cost of living

Jones Law

The cost of living in Puerto Rico is high and has increased over the past decade.[y][293][294][295][296][297][298][299]

Statistics for cost of living sometimes do not take into account certain costs, such as the high cost of electricity, which ranges from 24¢ to 30¢ per kilowatt-hour, two to three times the national average. travel costs for longer flights, additional shipping charges, and forfeiture of promotional opportunities for customers “outside the United States”. While some online stores offer free shipping on orders to Puerto Rico, many sellers exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, and other US territories.

In the 2015 update of the US Census Bureau, the median household income is $19,350 and the median income is $30,463. The report also states that 45.5 percent of individuals are below the poverty line.[300]The median home value in Puerto Rico ranges from $100,000 to $214,000, while the national median home value is $119,600.[z]

One of the biggest contributors to the high cost of living in Puerto Rico,Commercial Transport Act 1920, also calledJones Lawpreventing foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports,devastating.[302]As per the Jones Act, foreign ships arriving with cargo from abroad,centreandSouth America,West Europe, andAfricaIt cannot stop in Puerto Rico, it cannot unload cargo in Puerto Rico, it cannot land cargo made by Puerto Rico, and it cannot proceed to United States ports. Instead, they have to go directly to US ports where distributors are located.collectiveand sending goods made in Puerto Rico to Puerto Rico across the ocean by ships flying the flag of the United States.[302]

This Puerto Rico local governmentrequested many timesUnited States CongressSuccessfully removed Puerto Rico from the Jones Act restrictions.[AA]Last action taken17th Legislature of Puerto Ricovia R. Conc. del S. 21.[304][305]These measures have always received support from all parties.major local political parties.

in 2013State Audit OfficeThe Jones Act published a report concluding that “repeating or changing the vandalism law could reduce Puerto Rico’s shipping costs” and that “shippers believe opening trade to competing competitors without the U.S. flag can reduce costs.”[ab][HUNGRY]The same GAO report also noted that “[shippers] doing business in Puerto Rico, whom the GAO contacted, reported that freight rates were often – though not always – for foreign carriers. Despite longer distances, similar goods could be shipped to and from the United States and the United States. Fees charged by shippers for transport from the United States. We will verify samples provided or verify the extent to which this discrepancy has occurred.”[307]In conclusion, the report states that “[the impact] of amending the application of the Jones Act to Puerto Rico is significant for both Puerto Rico and the United States, particularlyUS shipping industryand US military readiness.[306][307]

A 2018 study by economists at Boston-based ReeveJones Act 1920Does not affect retail prices or cost of living in Puerto Rico. Studies show that Puerto Rico receives similar or lower freight rates compared to neighboring islands, and shipping costs have no effect on retail prices on the island. Based in part on actual comparisons of consumer goods in retail stores in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Jacksonville, Florida, the study found no significant differences in food or durable goods prices between the two locations.[308]

Education

Education in Puerto Rico

first school in Puerto RicoEscuela de Gramatica(Grammar School). It was founded by Bishop.Alonso MansoIn the area where the Church of San Juan was built in 1513. The school is free and offers classes in Latin, literature, history, science, art, philosophy and theology.[309]

Education in Puerto Rico is divided into three levels – Elementary (elementary 1 to 6), Intermediate (middle and high school grades 7-12), and Advanced (research). college and graduate school). As of 2002, the literacy rate of Puerto Rico’s population was 94.1%; According to gender, this rate is 93.9% for men and 94.4% for women.[310]According to the 2000 Census, 60.0% of the population had a high school or higher education, and 18.3% had a bachelor’s degree or higher.

Education at primary level is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 18. as of 2010[Update]There are 1539 public schools and 806 private schools.[311]

The largest and oldest university system is open to the public.University of Puerto Rico(UPR) with 11 facilities. The largest private university systems on the islandSistema Universitario Ana G. MendezbusinessUniversidad del Turabo,Metropolitan UniversityandUniversidad del Este. Other private universities include multiple campusesPan-American University,Pontifical Catholic University,Universidad Politecnica de Puerto Rico, andUniversidad del Sagrado Corazon. Puerto Rico has four ABA-approved Medical schools and three Law schools.

public health and safety

In 2017, Puerto Rico had 69 hospitals.[312]

Reforma de Salud in Puerto Rico(Puerto Rico Health Reform) – locally namedLa Reforma(Reform) – a government program that provides health and wellness services to the poor andpoorby signing a special contractHealth insurancecompanies rather than using government-owned hospitals and emergency centers. Reform implemented by the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Corporation.[313]

Crime

Crime in Puerto RicoIllegal drugs in Puerto Rico

Gun homicide rates are high in non-independent areas. The homicide rate of 19.2 per 100,000 population is significantly higher than any other US state in 2014.[314][315]Most murder victims are gang members and drug dealers, and about 80% of murders in Puerto Rico are drug related.[316]

car theftIt is common in many parts of Puerto Rico. In 1992 the FBI made it a federal crime and the rate per stat dropped,[317]however, as of 2019, the problem persists in autonomous cities such as Guaynabo and others.[318][319][320][321][322]From January 1, 2019 to March 14, 2019, 30 car robberies occurred on the island.[323]

Cultural

Puerto Rican Culture

Modern Puerto Rican culture is a unique blend of previous cultures: European (mostly Hispanic,Italian,French,Germanandthe Irish), Africans, and more recently some North Americans and many South Americans. Many Cubans and Dominicans have settled on the island over the past few decades.

From Spanish, Puerto Rico got the Spanish language,Catholicreligion and most of its cultural and moral values ​​and traditions. The United States added the influence of the English language, the university system, and the adoption of some holidays and practices. On March 12, 1903,University of Puerto Ricowas formally established and split from “Escuela Normal Industrial”, a smaller organization founded in Fajardo three years ago.

Much of Puerto Rican culture is centered around musical influences and has been shaped by other cultures combined with local rhythms and traditions. Early in Puerto Rican music history, the influence of Spanish and African traditions is most notable. Cultural movements in the Caribbean and North America have played an important role in more recent musical influences to Puerto Rico.[324][325]

Puerto Rico has many national symbols, but onlyFlor de MagaIt was officially started by the Government of Puerto Rico.[326]Other popular, traditional or unofficial symbols of Puerto Rico:reina mora bird,kapok tree,coqui frog,jibaro,indian taino, andcariteview.[327][328]

architecture industry

Puerto Rican Architecture

Puerto Rico’s architecture exemplifies the many traditions, styles, and national influences that have accumulated over four centuries of Spanish rule and one century of American rule.Spanish colonial architecture,Iberian-Islamic,art decoration,postmodern, and many other architectural forms can be seen all over the island. From town to town, there are also many regional distinctions.

old San Juan

One of two in Old San Juanbarrios, outsidesanturce, this doesurbanIt was the former independent municipality of San Juan from 1864 to 1951.Rio Piedraswas annexed. With an abundance of shops, historic sites, museums, outdoor cafes, restaurants, luxury homes, tree-lined squares, and ancient beauty and architectural features, Old San Juan is a prime destination for local and domestic tourism. The peculiarity of this area is that there are many squares and churches.San Jose ChurchandSan Juan Bautista Churchcontaining the tomb of the Spanish explorerJuan Ponce de Leon. It is also home to the Colegio de Párvulos, built in 1865, which is the oldest Catholic school for primary education in Puerto Rico.

The oldest parts of the old San Juan area are still partially surrounded by large walls. Some defensive and notable structuresCastle, like the symbolFort San Felipe del Morro,San Cristóbal Castle, andEl Palacio de Santa Catalina, Also known asLa FortalezaActing as the main defense force of the settlement, it was subjected to numerous attacks.La Fortalezacontinues to act as executive residence forGovernor of Puerto Rico. Many pieces of historical fortificationsSan Juan National Historic Site.

In the 1940s, parts of Old San Juan fell into disrepair and numerous renovation plans were proposed. There is even strong pressure to develop Old San Juan as “”.City of ManhattanStrict remodeling rules were applied to prevent the new structures from affecting the overall Spanish colonial architectural themes of the old city. The historic building was declared and then requested to be converted into a hotel in a new facility. This has becomeHotel El ConventoIn Old San Juan. The old city’s pattern of recreating, renovating, and revitalizing was followed by other cities, particularly in America.Havana,LimaandIndia at Cartagena.

Ponce Creole aarchitectural stylewhen createdPonce, Puerto Rico, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This Puerto Rican style of building is primarily found in residential homes throughout the United States.PonceIt was developed between 1895 and 1920. Ponce Creole architecture borrowed heavily from French, Spanish and Caribbean traditions to create homes that were custom built to withstand the hot and dry climate of the area and take advantage of the sun. and the typical sea breeze of southern Puerto RicoCaribbeanbeach.[329]It is a mix of wood and brick masonry, incorporating architectural elements of other styles.classical renaissanceandrenaissance of spainto arrivevictorian era.[330]

Art

Puerto Rican Art

Puerto Rican art reflects many influences from its largely ethnically diverse past. Formfolk art, to callSantosIt has evolved from the use of the Catholic Church.statuesto convert native Puerto RicansChristianity.SantosIt depicts figures of saints and other religious symbols and is made of native wood, clay and stone. After simple shaping, it is usually finished by painting it in vibrant colors.SantosSizes vary, with the smallest specimens about 8 inches and the largest about 20 inches tall. Traditionally, Santa Claus is seen as the messenger between earth and heaven. Therefore, they occupied a special place in the house.altarwhere people pray for them, seek help or seek protection.

Also popular,caretasor vegansmask is put onFestival. Similar masks representing evil spirits were used in both Spain and Africa, albeit for different purposes. Spaniards use their masks to nullify fearChristiantribal Africans used them to ward off the evil spirits they represented, and they returned to the church. Puerto Rico that stays true to its historical rootscaretasalways bears at least a few horns and teeth. Usually when builtpulp, coconut shells, and fine metal sieves are also sometimes used. Red and black are typical colors.caretashowever, their palette has expanded to include brighter colors and patterns.

Literature

Puerto Rican Literature

Eugenio Maria de Hostos

Puerto Rican literature evolved from artoral storytellingto its present state. Works written by indigenous peoples on the island of Puerto Rico were banned and suppressed by the Spanish colonial government. Only those who are allowed by the Spanish Royal Family to record the chronological history of the island are allowed to write.

Diego de Torres VargasHe was allowed to break this strict ban for three reasons: he was a priest, came from a prosperous Spanish family, and his father was a Sergeant Major in the Spanish Army, who died while defending Puerto Rico from a military invasion.Dutcharm. In 1647 Torres Vargas wrote:Description de la Ciudad e Isla de Puerto Rico(“Description of the Island and City of Puerto Rico”). This history book was the first to give a detailed geographical description of the island.[331]

The book describes all the fruits of the period and its commercial establishments, mainly concentrated in the towns of San Juan and Ponce. The book also lists and describes every mine, church, and hospital on the island at the time. The book includes State and Capital announcements along with a comprehensive and knowledgeable bibliography.Description de la Ciudad e Isla de Puerto RicoIt was the first successful attempt to write a comprehensive history of Puerto Rico.[331]

Some of Puerto Rico’s early writers,Rafael Cordero. Among them, Dr.Manuel A. Alonso, the first Puerto Rican writer of notable importance. It was published in 1849.El Gibaro, a collection of verses whose main theme is the poor peasant in the country of Puerto Rico.Eugenio Maria de HostosWrittenLa peregrinacion de Bayonused in 1863Bartholomew de las CasasAs a springboard to reflect Caribbean identity. After this first novel, Hostos gave up fiction and wrote essays that he thought could inspire more social change.

In the late 19th century, Puerto Rican literature began to flourish with the arrival of the first printing press and the establishment of the Royal Academy of Belles Letters. Journalists were the first to voice their political views on the island’s Spanish colonial rule. After the United States occupied Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War and the island was handed over to the Americans as a condition of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, writers and poets began to voice their opposition. Essays on patriotic themes. .

Alejandro Tapia and RiveraAlso known as the Father of Puerto Rican Literature, he ushered in a new eraDatewith publishingPuerto Rico Historical Library.Cayetano Coll and Toastis another Puerto Rican historian and author. his jobIndo-Antillano Vocabularyvaluable to understand howTainoslived.Manuel Zeno Gandiawrote in 1894la charcaand about hard life in Puerto Rico’s remote mountainous coffee region.Antonio S. Pedreiradescribed in hisInsularismoCultural survival of Puerto Rican identity after the American occupation.

For the Puerto Rican community of the 1940s, it was heavily influenced by a phenomenon known as Puerto Rican literature.Niyorican Movement. Puerto Rican literature has continued to flourish, and since then many Puerto Rican writers, journalists, poets, novelists, playwrights, essayists, and screenwriters have become. The influence of Puerto Rican literature has extended beyond the borders of the island, to the United States and the rest of the world. In the last fifty years, notable authors include:Ed Vega(Omaha Bigelow),Miguel Pinero(short eyes),Piri Thomas(In these meaningful streets),Giannina Braschi(Yo Yo Boing!),Rosario Ferrer(The eccentric neighborhood). andEsmeralda Santiago(Puerto Rican).[332][333]

media

Media in Puerto Rico

This mass medialocal in Puerto RicoRadio station,TVandNewspaper, most of them are runningSpanish. Also three stationsUnited States Armed Forces Radio and Television Service. daily newspapers,El Nuevo Dia,El Voceroandindex,Metro, andPrimera Hora.El Vocerodistributed free of charge.indexandMetro.

Newspapers distributed weekly or regionally include:claridad,La Perla del Sur,Opinion,Dream, andLa Estrella del Norte, among others. Several TV channels offer local content on the island. IncludingWIPR-TV,telemundo, Univision branchWLII-DT(teleonce),WAPA-TV, andWKAQ-TV.

Music

Puerto Rican Music

play media

bomb

Puerto Rican music has evolved as a dynamic and heterogeneous product of diverse cultural resources. The most prominent sources of music are Hispanic and West African, although many aspects of Puerto Rican music reflect origins elsewhere in Europe and the Caribbean, and from the United States to literary present-day Puerto Rican music culture encompasses a rich and diverse diversity. your species. local species such asbomb,please ,Aguinaldo,danceandsalsato the last hybrids likereggaeton.

There are a number of ethnic musical instruments such as Puerto Rico.cuatro(Spanish for “four”). The cuatro is a “Jibaro” or a local musical instrument made by people from the mountains. Initially, the Cuatro consisted of four steel wires, hence the name, but now the Cuatro consists of five pairs of steel wires. Easily confused with a guitar, even with locals. When held upright, the strings from right to left are G, D, A, E, B.

in the areaclassic music, the island is home to two main orchestras,Orquesta Sinfonica in Puerto Ricoand the Orquesta Filarmonica de Puerto Rico. This Casals FestivalIt takes place in San Juan every year, which attracts classical musicians from around the world.

ForoperaThe legendary tenor of Puerto Ricoantonio paolishe was so honored that she performed soloPope Pius Xand the TsarNicholas II of Russia. In 1907, when Paoli attended the show, he became the first opera singer in world history to record an entire opera.PagliaccithroughRuggiero LeoncavalloinMilan, Italy.

Puerto Rican artists such as Jorge Emmanuelli over the past fifty years,Yomo Toro,ramito,José Feliciano,Bobby Kapo,Rafael Cortijo,Ismail Rivera,chayanne,Tito Puente,Eddie Palmieri,Beam Barrett,Dave Valentine,Omar Rodriguez-López,Hector Lavoe,Ricky Martin,Marc AnthonyandLuis Fonsiwas famous in the world.

culinary

Puerto Rican Cuisine

Cuchifritos

carnival

Puerto Rican cuisine has its roots in European (Spanish), African and indigenous culinary traditions and practices.Tainos. In the late 19th century, Puerto Rican cuisine was heavily influenced.United States of Americain the ingredients used in its preparation. Puerto Rican cuisine has transcended the island’s borders and can be found in many countries outside the island.archipelago. Key components include:seedandpea tree,herbsandspice, starchy tropicalrelated to, vegetables, meat and poultry, seafood and shellfish, and fruit. Main meals include:mofongo,Arroz Last Ganduller,colored chalk,alcapurriasandroasted pork(or lechón). Drinks includedblueandpina colada. Pies among desserts,arroz con dulce(sweetrice cake),piraguas,brazo gitanos,shake,polvorones, anddulce de leche.

Locals order their foodcokina criolla. Traditional Puerto Rican cuisine was established in the late 19th century. The first restaurant in 1848,Mallorquina, Openold San Juan.El Cocinero PuertorriqueñoThe island’s first cookbook was published in 1849.[334]

from your dietTainopeople come to many tropical roots and tubers.yautia(taro) and specialYuca(cassava), since then thin as a crackerbutcherbread is made. Ajicito or cachucha peppers, some hot habanero peppers,recao / culantro(thorn leaves),achiote(annato),Hot pepper,pepper,aji caballero(the hottest pepper comes from Puerto Rico), peanuts,guava,Pineapple,jicacos(cocoplum),queepas(mamoncillo),lerene(Guinea galangal),calabazas(tropical squash) andguanabana(Soursop) both are Taíno foods. Tainos also grow many varietiesbeansand some maize/maize, but maize is not as dominant in cooking as it is for the land-dwelling peoples of Egypt.Central America. This is because of the frequent storms that Puerto Rico experiences, destroying its corn crop and leaving behind more protected crops.conucos(top)yucaplanted together).

Spanish/European influences are also seen in Puerto Rican cuisine. Wheat,green beans,prank,oliveonion, garlic, rice,Coriander,thyme,basil,sugar cane,citrus,aubergine,Chicken, salted cod, beef, pork, lamb, milk, and many other fruits, herbs, and spices came to Puerto Rico from Spain. The tradition of cooking elaborate stews and potted rice dishes such as rice and beans is also thought to have originated in Europe (as did the Italians, Spaniards, and British). EarlyDutchFrench, Italian and Chinese immigrants influenced not only the culture of Puerto Ricans but also their food. The diversity of these traditions came together to form La Cocina Criolla.

Coconut, coffee (brought to Yauco by Arabs and Corsos.head, Ethiopia),Okra,sweet potato,thyme brujo,sesame grains,gandullars(bean trioEnglish), banana, banana, Guinea chickens,
other vegetables and fruits, all of which came to Puerto Rico from Africa.

philately

Puerto Rico on stamps

garita

Puerto Rico was commemorated on four US postage stamps and four characters were introduced. The Insular Territories, commemorated in 1937, is the third stamp honoring Puerto Rico, ‘La Fortaleza’, Spain Governor’s Palace.[335]The first free election for governor of United States territory in Puerto Rico was held on April 27, 1949, in San Juan, Puerto Rico. ‘Opening’ on the 3-cent stamp denotes selectionLuis Munoz MarinPuerto Rico’s first democratically elected governor.[336]San Juan, Puerto Rico is commemorated with an 8-cent stamp for its 450th anniversary, issued September 12, 1971, and includes a box of guards.Castillo San Felipe del Morro.[337]The “Flags of Our Nation” series In 2008-2012, one of the 55 country flags was introduced. Permanent stamps includedPuerto Rico FlagPictured by a bird released in 2011.[338]

Four Puerto Rican characters have appeared on US postage stamps. IncludingRobert ClementeAs an individual in 1984 and in the Baseball Legends series in 2000.[339] Luis Munoz MarinIn the great American series,[340]On February 18, 1990,[336] Julia de BurgosIn the Art and Literature series published in 2010,[341]andJosé FerrerIn the Extraordinary Americans book series published in 2012.[342]

sports

Sports in Puerto Rico

BaseballIt was one of the first sports to become widely popular in Puerto Rico. This Puerto Rico Major League BaseballIt serves as a single active professional league operating as a winter league. NumberMajor League Baseballfranchise or affiliate located in Puerto Rico; However, San Juan hostedMontreal Fairsfor several series in 2003 and 2004 before moving to Washington DC and beingWashington citizens.

This Puerto Rico National Baseball TeamjoinedBaseball World Cupwon one gold (1951), four silver and four bronze medals,Caribbean Series(won fourteen times) andWorld Classic Baseball. AboveMarch 2006, San JuanHiram Bithorn Stadiumhosting the opening round and second round of the newly established tournamentWorld Classic Baseball. Puerto Rican baseball players include:Hall of Celebrities Robert Clemente,Orlando CepedaandRoberto Alomar, were deposited in 1973, 1999 and 2011, respectively.[343][344][345]

Boxing,Basketball, andvolleyballIt is also considered a popular sport.Wilfredo GomezandMcWilliams Arroyowon in their divisionWorld Amateur Boxing Championship. Among other medal winnersJose Pedraza, a silver medalist and three boxers who finished third, José Luis Vellón,Nelson DieppaandMcJoe Arroyo. Puerto Rico finished third in the professional ringboxing world championand is the world leader in champions per capita. IncludingMiguel Cotto,Felix Trinidad,Wilfred Benitezand Gómez among others.

This Puerto Rico national basketball teamjoinedInternational Basketball Federationin 1957. He has since won more than 30 medals, three of which are gold, in international competitions.FIBA Americas Championshipand in 1994good will gameAugust 8, 2004 was an important day for the team as they were the first team to win.United States of Americain an Olympic tournament since integrationNational Basketball Associationactor. Win the first game with 92-73 points in the frame2004 Summer OlympicsheldAthens, Hellenic.[346] Baloncesto Outstanding NationalIt operates as the premier professional basketball league in Puerto Rico and has enjoyed great success since its founding in 1930.

Puerto Rican Islanders

Porto Ricoalso a memberFifaandCONCACAF. In 2008, the archipelago’s first unified tournament,Puerto Rico Football League, established.

Other sports include:professional wrestlingandrunning track. This World Wrestling CouncilandInternational Wrestling AssociationThey are the biggest wrestling promotions on the main island. This The world’s best 10KIt was among the 20 most competitive races worldwide, held annually in San Juan. The “Puerto Rico All Stars” team has won 12 world championships in unicycle basketball.[347]

to be heldstreet ballIt has held a number of competitions with teams such as the “Puerto Rico Street Ball” competing against established organizations, includingCapitanes de AreciboandAND 1’SMixed List Tour Group. Six years after their first visit, AND1 returned as part of the renamed Live Tour, losing to the Puerto Rico Streetballers.[348]As a result, they qualified for international teams, including those who practice this style.Orlando “El Gato” MelendezHe was the first Puerto Rican-born athlete to play.harlem globetrotters.[349] Orlando AntiguaHis mother, Puerto Rican, was the first Latino to play for the Harlem Globetrotters in 1995, and the first non-black player in 52 years.[350]

Puerto Rico is represented at all international competitions, including.SummerandWinter Olympic Games,Pan American Games,Caribbean World Chain, andCentral American and Caribbean Games. Puerto Rico hosted the 1979 Pan Am Games (officially in San Juan) andCentral American and Caribbean Gamesheld1993inPonceand2010inMayagüez.

Puerto Rican athletes have won ten Olympic medals (two gold, two silver, six bronze), including the first by the boxer in 1948.Juan Evangelista Venice.Monica PuigWon by winning the first gold medal for Puerto Rico at the Olympic GamesWomen’s singles tennis title at Rio 2016.[351][352]

Folklore

in your poetrymessenger-Chim,Felicia HemansIt refers to a Puerto Rican legend associated withfountain of youth, it is said that there isLucayan Islands. He took this resource from himRobertsonUnited States History. Some books on Puerto Rican folklore/mythology include:A story from Puerto RicoWritten by Robert L. Muckley and Adela Martínez-Santiago andCuentos: A Collection of Short Stories from Puerto RicoWritten by Kal Wagenheim.

Infrastructure

Transportation in Puerto RicoMedia in Puerto RicoPuerto Rico Electricity AuthorityPuerto Rico Sewers and Bridges Authority

transport

Puerto Rico Interstate Highway

Cities and towns in Puerto Rico are connected by a road system,motorway,Highway, andmotorwayIt is maintained by the Highways and Transportation Authority under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Transportation, andPuerto Rico Police Department. Justiceurban areaoffered bypublic bus transportation systemand onesubway systemto callTrain Urbano(English: Urban Train). Other forms of public transport include sea ferries (serving the Puerto Rican Islands), as well asCarros Publications(private minibus).

three of Puerto RicoInternational Airport,Luis Muñoz Marin International AirportinCarolina,Mercedita Airportin Ponce andRafael Hernandez AirportIn Aguadilla and 27 local airports. Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport is the largest air traffic hub in the Caribbean.[353]

Train Urbano

Puerto Rico ninepassagein different cities on the main island. This San Juan HarborIt is Puerto Rico’s largest port and the Caribbean’s busiest, and the 10th busiest in the United States in terms of trade and freight activity.[353]The second largest portPort of AmericaAt Ponce, currently being expanded to increase cargo capacity1.5 million wontwenty foot container (TEU) every year.[354]

Vehicles

Electricity

This Puerto Rico Electricity Authority(PREPARATION)-Spanish:Autoridad de Energia Electrica(AEE)-oneelectricity companyandcompany owned by the government of Puerto Ricoresponsible forpower generation,electrical transmission, andpower distributionin Puerto Rico.[355]PREPA is the only entity authorized by law to conduct such business in Puerto Rico, and thisstate monopolyuntil 2018. The agency is managed by a board of directors appointed by the agency.advice and consentLater onPuerto Rico Senate, and is run by an administrator.

As of July 20, 2018, Puerto Rico Act 120-2018 (Ley coin Transformar el Sistema Electrico de Puerto Rico) has been signed. This law allows PREPA to sell infrastructure and services to other vendors. As a result, the contract was signed on 22 June 2020.LUMA EnergyThe new operator of power transmission and distribution infrastructure, among other areas of PREPA’s operations, has actually privatized part of Puerto Rico’s electricity grid. The takeover is set for June 1, 2021 amid protests and uncertainty, given the public and PREPA’s former employees.union members.[356][357]

Water and wastewater

same, similar,Puerto Rico Sewage and Sewer System Administration (PRASA)-Spanish:Autoridad de Acueductos and Alcantarillados(AAA) — A water supply company and a government-owned company responsible forwater quality,to manage, andto ensurein Puerto Rico.[358]It is the only entity authorized to conduct such business in Puerto Rico, effectively making it a state monopoly. Its existence is indicated by Law No. 40 of May 1, 1945, including related amendments.[359]

Telecommunication

Telecommunications in Puerto Rico include radio, television, landline and cell phones, and the Internet. Broadcast in Puerto Rico, edited byUS Federal Communications Commission(FCC).[360]as of 2007[Update]There are 30 television stations, 125 radio stations and about 1 million televisions on the island. Cable TV subscriptions are available, and the U.S. Armed Forces Radio and Television Service also broadcasts on the island.[361]There is also Puerto Ricoamateur radio prefix, differs from the contiguous United States in that it has two letters before the number. The most famous prefix is ​​KP4, but others are reserved for use.archipelago(including Desecheo and Mona) are: KP3/KP4/NP3/NP4/WP3/WP4 (Puerto Rico,viquesandcube) and KP5/NP5/WP5 (Desecheo Island).[362]Amateur radio operators (also known as amateur radio operators) are a well-known group on the island and can acquire special license plates with their symbols on them.[363]They have been an important factor in disaster relief.[364]

see more

  • Directory of articles on Puerto Rico
  • Puerto Rico at a glance

note

  1. ^
  2. Contrary to popular misconception, Puerto Rican residents pay United States federal taxes: customs duties (which are then returned to the Puerto Rican Treasury) (see Department of the Interior, Public Affairs Office) DOI.gov Archived June 10, 2012 Wayback Machine’ de), import and export taxes (see Stanford.wellsphere.com April 1, 2010, Archived at Wayback Machine), federal property taxes (see social security taxes (see IRS .gov), etc. Residents, Social Security (see Commonwealth of Puerto Rico income taxes (see Puertoricherald.org and HTRCPA.com Archived April 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine), as well as federal payroll taxes such as IRS.gov) and Medicare (see Reuters.com). (see MCVPR.com Archived at WebCite Jan. 16, 2010) all federal employees (see United States (see page 9, line 1. Archived September 3, 2009 at the Wayback Machine) and several other countries (Example: residents) ) Porto Rico is a member of the United States military, see fig. Heritage.org Archived February 10, 2010 at the Wayback Machine and for residents of Puerto Rico who receive income from sources outside of Puerto Rico. See pages (they also pay federal income tax). Also, more and more Puerto Ricans are paying tax income because the cut-off point for income taxes is lower than the U.S. IRS code, and per capita income in Puerto Rico is much lower than per capita income in the mainland. local tax office if an IRS code has been applied to the island. This is because “the government of the Puerto Rican community has more responsibilities than the local and State governments of the United States” (see GAO.gov).

    When Puerto Ricans make Social Security payments, Puerto Ricans are eligible for Social Security benefits at retirement, but are excluded from Supplementary Security Income (SSI) (Common United States). Residents of the Northern Mariana Islands and 50 States do not receive SSI; cf. Socialsecurity.gov) and the island actually receives less than 15% of the funds. The Medicaid benefit it would normally get if it were a US state. Additionally, Medicare providers receive less government-like reimbursement for services rendered to beneficiaries in Puerto Rico, even if full funds have already been paid into the system (see page 252. Archived May 11, 2011 at the Wayback Machine). Collectively, “many federal social welfare programs have been extended to Puerto Ricans, though with lower limits than programs usually allocated to the states.” (Louisiana Acquisition and American Expansion: 1803–1898. By Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2005. Page 167. For comprehensive information on federal programs spanning Puerto Rico, see Richard Cappalli Federal Aid to Puerto Rico (1970).)

    It is also estimated that Puerto Rico as a state will have six to eight seats in the House of Representatives, as the island’s population is 50% larger than that of the United States (see Egleforum.org). Two seats in the Senate. (See Eagleforum.org, CRF-USA.org archived on the Wayback Machine on June 10, 2009, and Thomas.gov archived on the Wayback Machine on February 1, 2016. For the latter, the main database website is to the United States. Congress Question: > Committee Report > 110 > Select “Report Number” from the “Words / Phrases” drop-down menu > Enter “597” next to Report Number This will provide the 110-597 – 2007 “Internal Report” document. , Contents Select “Legal Basis and Requirements.”) Another misunderstanding is the import/export duties imposed on products manufactured by the United States. In Puerto Rico, they are returned to the Puerto Rican Treasury. This is not the case. Such import and export duties are returned only on rum products, and even then the U.S. Treasury Department retains some of these taxes (see “House Report 110-597 – Code of Practice). The aforementioned Democracy of Puerto Rico 2007”).

note

  1. ^ a b
  2. The US State Department’s definition of Commonwealth policy (as codified in the Department’s Foreign Relations Manual) is: “The term ‘Commonwealth’ does not define or confer any particular political status or affiliation.[1]
  3. ^
  4. Pronunciation: English: /pɔːrtə ˈriːkoʊ, -toʊ – / or /pwɛərtə ˈriːkoʊ, -toʊ – /; Spanish: [ˈpweɾto ˈriko], local rural: [ˈpwelto ˈχiko, – ˈʀ̥iko]. [9]
  5. ^
  6. Proyecto Salón Hogar (Spanish) “Los españoles le cambiaron el nombre de Borikén a San Juan Bautista ve la llamaron Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Con los años, Ciudad de Puerto Rico pasó a ser San Juan, y San Juan Bautista pasó a ser Puerto Rico “[34]
  7. ^
  8. In 1932, the United States Congress officially revised the Anglicized name of Puerto Rico to the Spanish name Puerto Rico. [37] [38] Since acquiring the Archipelago, it has used the old spelling in legislative and judicial records. Patricia Gherovici notes that both Puerto Rico and Puerto Rico are used interchangeably in media and documents before, during, and after the US conquest of the island in 1898. For example, Porto. It was used by The New York Times that same year. “An interesting oversight during the drafting of the Foraker Act resulted in the official misspelling of the island’s name,” explains Nancy Morris. [39] However, Gervasio Luis Garcia traced the English spelling in a National Geographic article from 1899 and was subsequently preserved by many institutions and organizations for the national and linguistic pride of English-speaking citizens of the continental United States. [40]
  9. ^
  10. Today, Puerto Ricans are also known as Boricuas or people from Borinquen.
  11. ^
  12. Vicente Yañez Pinzón is considered Puerto Rico’s first appointed governor, but was never from Spain.
  13. ^
  14. PBS without innate immunity. [53] For example, a smallpox epidemic in 1518-1519 killed most of the island’s indigenous population. [54] “The first repartimiento was established in Puerto Rico, allowing the colonists to fix large numbers of Tainos to unpaid and forced labor in the gold mines. As some priests protested, the royal Spanish demanded that the Spanish pay the native workers and provide education for them. they continued to behave like slaves.”[55]
  15. ^
  16. Poole (2011) “[Taino] began to starve; thousands caught smallpox, measles, and other European diseases to which they were immune […]” [56]
  17. ^
  18. PBS “[Taino] After Columbus arrived in the New World in 1492, he finally succumbed to Spanish soldiers and European disease.” [57]
  19. ^
  20. Yale University “[…] continued high mortality from slavery and European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) among the Taíno people.” [58]
  21. ^
  22. For additional references to Puerto Rico’s current (2020) colonial status under US administration, see Nicole Narea, [80] Amy Goodman and Ana Irma Rivera Lassén, [81] David S. Cohen [82] and Sidney W. Mintz. [83] Additional resources are available.
  23. ^
  24. Cockcroft (2001; Spanish) “[La Ley 53] fué llamada la ‘pequeña ley Smith’, debido a la semejanza con la Ley Smith de Estados Unidos […]” [96]
  25. ^
  26. However, as Robert William Anderson points out on page 14 of “Political Parties in Puerto Rico” (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 1965.), no one disputes the Current Commonwealth’s indefinite status. It is illustrated by very different images evoked by the English term “commonwealth” and its Spanish version, Estado Libre Asociado (literally, free association). The question seems to be whether this ambiguity is a pseudo-virtue or a colonial fabrication.
  27. ^
  28. pr.gov (in Spanish) “La Manufactura es el sector ana de la Ekonomiía de Puerto Rico.” [26]
  29. ^
  30. pr.gov (in Spanish) “Algunas de las Industrialrias Más destacadas dentro del sector de la Manufactura son: las farmacéuticas, los texas, los petroquímicos, las computadoras, la electrónica y las compañías Dedication to the giant fish.”[26]
  31. ^
  32. Torrech San Inocencio (2011; Spanish) “Industria alimentaria autosuficiencye en asistencia federal para alimentos podríamos desarrollar una Con los Más de anuales que Recogbimos en asistencia federal money alimentos podríamos desarrollar in Puerto Rico.” [265]
  33. ^
  34. Millán Rodriguez (2013; Spanish) “Losresentantes del Pueblo en la Junta de Gobierno de la Autoridad de Energía Electric […] corporación pública y la convierte en una agencia del Ejecutivo..”[266]
  35. ^
  36. Vera Rosa (2013; Spanish) “$15 billion in Puerto Rico mueve entre el sector público y privado en elárea de salud, las de Thieuencias en el Sistema todavía no alcanzan un nivel de emissencia óptimo.” [267]
  37. ^
  38. Vera Rosado (2013; Spanish) “Para mejorar la calidad de servicio, que se Impacta exactmente por de Thieuencias Administrationrativas y no por falta de dinero […]” [267]
  39. ^
  40. González (2012; Spanish) “[…] all analizarse la deuda pública de la Isla contra el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB), se ubicaría en una relación deuda / PIB de 68% aproximadamente.” [268]
  41. ^
  42. Bauzá (2013; Spanish) “The best results of the economic situation of a new financial situation, the newest and newest modelo economy at the end of 936. Sección 936, De la Sección, I no lo fuimos.”[269]
  43. ^
  44. Quintero (2013; Spanish) “Los indicadores de una Economyía débil son Muchos, y la Economyía en Está Sumamente Debilitada in Puerto Rico, Según Lo Evidencian la Tasa de Desempleo (13.5%), Los Altos niveles de Pobreza (41.7%), Los altos niveles de quiebra y la pérdida poblacional.”[272]
  45. ^
  46. Walsh (2013) “In each of the last six years, Puerto Rico has sold hundreds of millions of dollars of new bonds just to cover the payments on old, unpaid bonds – a red flag. It sold $2.5 billion worth of bonds to raise cash because the pension system was struggling – a risky one. operation – and they still sell longer-term bonds to cover the annual budget deficit.”[285]
  47. ^
  48. PRGDB “Activity and Financial Information Report as of October 18, 2013” p. 142 [287]
  49. ^
  50. MRGI (2008) “Many immigrant women leave their families behind because of the risk of illegal travel and high cost of living in Puerto Rico.” [175]
  51. ^
  52. FRBNY (2011) “…home values ​​vary considerably between municipalities: for the overall metropolitan area, the median value of owner-occupied homes is estimated at US$126,000 (based on 2007-09 data), but these are average values ​​in Guaynabo’ It also ranges from $214,000 to about $100,000 in some remote municipalities. $170,000.” [301]
  53. ^
  54. Santiago (2021) “Local criminals of the Jones Law […] tried unsuccessfully for years to exclude Puerto Rico from the provisions of the law […]” [303]
  55. ^
  56. JOC (2013) “Repetition or Amendment of Jones Act vandalism May Lower Puerto Rico Shipping Costs” [306]
  57. ^
  58. JOC (2013) “The GAO report states that their conversations with shippers indicated they believed that opening trade to non-US flagged competitors […] could reduce costs.” [306]

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read more

  • Isar P. Godreau,
  • The Black Scenario: American Nationalism, Cultural Nationalism, and Colonialism in Puerto Rico.
  • Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015.

external link

Porto Rico

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  • Definition from Wiktionary
  • media from Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • excerpt from Wikiquote
  • Content from Wikisource
  • Travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Data from Wikidata
  • Official website
  • (in spanish)
  • Investment
    Travel
    Ministry of Economic Development and Trade
  • United States Geological Survey Information System Geographical Name: Puerto Rico
  • “Porto Rico”. Country profile. bbc.
  • “Porto Rico”. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • “Datos y Estadisticas de Puerto Rico y sus Municipios” [Data and Statistics for Puerto Rico and Its Cities]. Tendencias PR (in Spanish).
  • Porto Rico
  • .
  • World Factbook
  • .
  • Central Intelligence Agency
  • .
  • Porto Rico
  • in
  • Curly

Geography

  • Puerto Rico Wikimedia map
  • relevant geographic data
  • Porto Rico
  • in
  • OpenStreetMap

US government

  • “The Application of the United States Constitution in the United States Administrative Territories” (PDF). November 1997.
  • “Puerto Rico State Directory”. LOCATION.

United Nations (U.N.) Declaration of Puerto Rico

  • “The Special Committee on Decolonization urges the United States to accelerate Puerto Rico’s self-determination process.” Special Committee on Decolonization. Press release. United Nations General Assembly. 14 June 2007. Originally archived 26 December 2007.

portal:

Porto Rico

United States of America

Caribbean

archipelago

Coordinates: 18°13′20″N 66°25′49″S / 18.2223°N 66.4303°S / 18.2223; -66.4303 (Commonwealth of Puerto Rico)

Video tutorials about united states map puerto rico

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United States Map to learn names of the states of the USA and US Geography. Subscribe to Kiddopedia channel for more educational videos →

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Kiddopedia team brings you the states of the USA with a fun cartoon animation. Learning the names of US states and the geography of the United States of America is an important part of your education for kindergarten and elementary students. It is recommended to use the flags of the US states together with the USA map while teaching the names of these states. Students are interested in flags as well as locating states on a map. We have created a nice map animation of the United States of America, where a plane is travelling from one state to another. At each stop, you are going to hear the pronunciation of the state name in American English pronunciation together with the state flag. This is an easy way to learn the 50 states of USA.

Kiddopedia channel is the right place to find educational videos about animals, objects and English vocabulary.

The 50 US States in alphabetical order: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands

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keywords:

keywords: #lidar, #puertorico, #forestcanopy, #G-LiHT, #airborneimager

Researchers who compared before and after LiDAR measurements of Puerto Rico’s tropical forests found that Hurricane Maria damaged or uprooted 40-60% of the tallest trees.

Visit:

3D Map of Puerto Rico’s Forest Shows How Hurricane Maria Reduced Tree Height

-https://www.geolounge.com/3d-map-of-puerto-ricos-forest-shows-how-hurricane-maria-reduced-tree-height/

Visualizations from

NASA’s Scientific Visualization Studio, public domain

-https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12590

-https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4621

Music:

Drums of the Deep by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (

-https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Source:

-http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1400021

Artist:

-http://incompetech.com/

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