Best 16 the constitutional conventions in the former confederate states

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The Membership of the Virginia Constitutional Convention of …

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  • Summary: Articles about The Membership of the Virginia Constitutional Convention of … “The ‘Black and Tan’ Constitutional Conventions of 1867-1869 in Ten Former Confederate. States: A Study of Their Membership,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation …

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Convention of 1865 | NCpedia

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  • Summary: Articles about Convention of 1865 | NCpedia The proclamation did not cover 14 classes of former Confederates, who had to … convene a state convention, composed of those “loyal to the United States, …

  • Match the search results: The convention achieved little else. It appointed a committee to receive an address from the state’s Freedmen’s Convention, which recommended the creation of a commission to prepare a code of laws for former slaves. The constitutional convention also resolved to seek the removal of all black troops …

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Reuniting the Union: A Chronology – Digital History

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  • Summary: Articles about Reuniting the Union: A Chronology – Digital History His plan to readmit the former Confederate states requires them to convene conventions to disavow their acts of secession, abolish slavery, and repudiate their …

  • Match the search results: Congressional Republicans outline their plan for reconstructing
    the union. The Wade-Davis Bill requires each state to abolish
    slavery, repudiate their acts of secession, and refuse to honor
    wartime debts. It also stipulates that a majority, rather than
    10 percent, of voters in 18…

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The Southern “Black Codes” of 1865–66 – Constitutional …

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  • Summary: Articles about The Southern “Black Codes” of 1865–66 – Constitutional … Not surprisingly, none of the state conventions considered extending the right … Often, ex-Confederate leaders won elections for state government offices …

  • Match the search results: White Southerners resented being ruled by Union military governors and Freedmen’s Bureau officials. They sought to restore self-rule. During the summer and fall of 1865, most of the old Confederate states held constitutional conventions. President Johnson’s reconstruction plan permitted only white p…

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Repudiation of the Right of Secession– The Mississippi …

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  • Summary: Articles about Repudiation of the Right of Secession– The Mississippi … Mississippi Convention Repudiate the Right of; Convention; the Right of Secession … and an oath to support the Constitution of the United States.

  • Match the search results: "We all now regret the step was taken, and sincerely desire to retrace it, and, as soon as possible, repair the mischiefs which have flowed from it. This, it is believed, can be best accomplished by a simple repeal of the original 'ordinance,' which puts it at rest in a manner which m…

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The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 | Facing History and Ourselves

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  • Summary: Articles about The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 | Facing History and Ourselves … but excluding former Confederate leaders, were permitted to participate in the constitutional conventions that formed the new governments in each state.

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    In 1866, many Americans felt that the Union had not been adequately reconstructed, that the way freedom had been defined for black Americans was not adequate, and that Presidential Reconstruction had led to neither healing nor justice. As a result, a majority Republican Congress was elected and pu…

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Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1868 – Wikipedia

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  • Summary: Articles about Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1868 – Wikipedia Conservatives wanted to ensure white control of the state (although crippled by former Confederates who urged a boycott of the nominating convention, …

  • Match the search results: The delegates to the Virginia Convention of 1867-1868 were elected on October 22, 1867 and are set out below. (One hundred and five members, from constitutional convention districts drawn by General Schofield)[22]

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Constitutional Convention · Remaking Virginia

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  • Summary: Articles about Constitutional Convention · Remaking Virginia Constitutional Convention. The State Convention at Richmond, Va., in Session … they rejected the clauses disfranchising former Confederates.

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The Civil War: The Senate’s Story

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  • Summary: Articles about The Civil War: The Senate’s Story When the 39th Congress convened on December 4, 1865, some of the newly elected legislators from former Confederate states presented credentials, …

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The South Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1868

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  • Summary: Articles about The South Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1868 In fact, the provisional governments of all of the former Confederate States (except Tennessee) rejected the proposed 14th Amendment.

  • Match the search results: The South Carolina Constitution of 1868 was not a perfect document, but it was the most democratic and equitable of the seven constitutions in the history of this state. The men who labored for fifty-three days to frame that document were fueled by generations of prayers and fervent hopes for a soci…

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United States – Reconstruction and the New South, 1865–1900

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  • Summary: Articles about United States – Reconstruction and the New South, 1865–1900 Shortly afterward he issued similar proclamations for the other former Confederate states. In each case a state constitutional convention was to be chosen …

  • Match the search results: Such Radical trust in Johnson proved misplaced. The new president was, first of all, himself a Southerner. He was a Democrat who looked for the restoration of his old party partly as a step toward his own reelection to the presidency in 1868. Most important of all, Johnson shared the white Southerne…

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Constitutional Convention of 1866 – Texas State Historical …

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  • Summary: Articles about Constitutional Convention of 1866 – Texas State Historical … Few former secessionists were barred from voting for … but had fought as a Confederate soldier, was elected president of the convention by …

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    Claude Elliott,

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Reconstruction and Rights – Library of Congress

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  • Summary: Articles about Reconstruction and Rights – Library of Congress The Reconstruction Acts established military rule over Southern states until new governments could be formed. They also limited some former Confederate …

  • Match the search results: In the latter half of the 1860s, Congress passed a series of acts designed to address the question of rights, as well as how the Southern states would be governed. These acts included the act creating the Freedmen’s Bureau, the Civil Rights Act of 1866, and several Reconstruction Acts. The Reconstru…

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Reconstruction: A State Divided – Louisiana Department of …

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  • Summary: Articles about Reconstruction: A State Divided – Louisiana Department of … After much debate, delegates to the constitutional convention agreed to abolish … Writers of the constitution also disfranchised former Confederates.

  • Match the search results: Louisiana was the only region deep within the Confederacy where Union authorities implemented experimental Reconstruction policies during the Civil War. The Crescent City served as a prime testing ground for race relations under the new order. Within occupied south Louisiana citizens were torn in th…

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Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1864)

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  • Summary: Articles about Constitutional Convention, Virginia (1864) The Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1864, called by the loyal … office or served in the pro-Confederate state legislature meeting in Richmond or in …

  • Match the search results: West Virginia’s impending statehood on June 20, 1863, forced Governor Francis Harrison Pierpont to move the seat of the Unionist government from Wheeling to Alexandria effective August 26, 1863. When the General Assembly convened on December 7, Pierpont requested that it call a constitutional…

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US Constitution and the Civil War Amendments

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  • Summary: Articles about US Constitution and the Civil War Amendments Photos of three black delegates to the Constitutional Convention. … When it appeared that the governments of the former Confederate states were seeking to …

  • Match the search results: Texas did not formally ratify the 13th Amendment until February 18, 1870. Until then the official position in Texas was that this amendment already had been implicitly adopted. This position was adopted by the Constitutional Convention of 1866. As the Handbook of Texas explains, “[T]he members …

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Multi-read content the constitutional conventions in the former confederate states

Like the other southern states, not subordinated until the end of the Confederacycivil war(1861-65) Georgia had to adopt a new constitution based on the rules ofreconstruction. In fact, the state went through this process twice, as efforts to unify the Confederacy during and after the Civil War became a protracted process that divided executive branch and governmentlegislativebranches of the federal government. President Andrew Johnson’s policy, known as Presidential Reconstruction, prevailed until Congressional Reconstruction began in 1867executiveand made much tougher terms for the return of the former Confederate states to the Union, as well as for the military occupation of the South.

Presidential ReconstructionReconstruction of the President of Harper’s Weekly

Aconstitutional associationin Georgia took place during both phases of Reconstruction, as heads of state attempted to accommodate various federal government requests for a return to the Union. Both conventions were only assembled under the guise of local governments as the Union government ordered their action. However, these meetings follow protocols established by Georgians in previous years and allow for a common level of participation, albeit somewhat constrained by federal guidelines.

US President Abraham Lincoln proposed a reconstruction plan as early as December 1863. Lincoln’s early death made restoration of the Union more difficult for states determined to fight to the end. Georgia surrendered too late to qualify for Lincoln’s reunification provisions and was therefore a subject of Johnson’s policy.

One of the differences between the Lincoln and Johnson plans was the State Convention requirement. In October 1865, 294 delegates metMilledgevillepursue the Johnson plan. Qualifications for delegates are more limited than at previous conventions due to federal requirements. Although all delegates must meet the same criteria required forGeorgia Secession Convention of 1861, they must also take an oath of allegiance to the United States Constitution, all federal laws, andDeclaration of Exemption. From the outset, every citizen who held an office or high office in the Confederation was excluded. Therefore, most of the prominent political leaders of Georgia at that time could not attend. A big exception isHerschel Johnsonwho initially disagreedsecession1861, but succumbed to pressure from the majority. Johnson actually became President of the 1865 Convention.

Delegates rallied and began work on Union reentry in accordance with Johnson’s plan. They abolishedslaveryby ratifying the Thirteenth Amendment, repealing (instead of voiding as Johnson’s plan technically required) the state secession ordinance, writing off Georgia’s war debt, and writing aorganization. (Choosing “repeal” rather than “nullify” posed a challenge to the state’s right to secession, although many participants in 1865-1861 opposed secession.) Under the convention, Johnson considers Georgia to be rebuilt. By engaging in all mandatory activities except constitution-making, the convention does not follow the strict definition of a constituent convention. In this it does not differ from previous Georgian conventions, such as the 1850 Convention and the Secession Convention, in which other measures were discussed or adopted.

Andrew JohnsonAndrew Johnson From Harper’s Weekly

By 1867 tensions between Johnson and the Republicans in Congress had turned into a power struggle on the national stage. Congress wrested control of Reconstruction from the President and set a tougher path for the Southern states, where white supremacy maintained a slave-like system. In much of the South, including Georgia, state and local politicians turned down their freedmen.civil rights, especially their access to political participation. Congress reports on the South’s flagrant hostilities against itunion memberand Northerners generally encouraged Republican efforts to devise a military plan to regenerate unrepentant Southerners.

Georgia, now under solid federal military control, prepared another congress in 1867 to carry out the directives of the Reconstruction Congress. The convening of this meeting was unusual for the state in several respects. First, the military ran a large voter registration process to accept qualified black men as white men. Any white person who has ever been disfellowshipped for disloyalty to the United States cannot register. Once this process is complete, eligible voters, black and white, go to the polls to decide whether they want to hold the convention and, if so, to elect delegates to the convention. With many conservative white voters boycotting the election, black voters largely determined the outcome for the first time. Blacks voted overwhelmingly for a congress and elected several delegates. White conservatives, unhappy with the results, convened their own congress in early December to try to counter the Republican dynamic. Their efforts failed because Congress was unable to gather enough conservative interest and was therefore unrepresentative of the state, with only about half of the districts sending delegates.

Voter RegistrationSign up to vote from Harper’s Weekly

In December 1867 the officially recognized Congress met in Atlanta and remained in session until March 1868. Of the 169 delegates, 37 were Negroes. Republicans, moderate and progressive, have dominated the convention of more than a dozen traditionally white conservatives. As required by the Congressional Reconstruction Act, Congress proposed a new constitution consisting ofSuffrage for black men. The document is also subject to the rules of Congress and requires universal ratification before it can be implemented as the state’s constitution. In April 1868, Georgia’s voters passed a new constitution and elected a new government.

The Georgia Reconstruction Conventions demonstrate great flexibility in using conventions to address issues that go beyond constitutionalism. The federal tasks imposed on them also raise questions about the boundaries between national and state sovereignty. Almost a decade later, in GeorgiaConstitutional Convention of 1877, the state re-delegates its powers to implement and control both the process and the content of its own conventions.

Video tutorials about the constitutional conventions in the former confederate states

keywords: #CivicsEducation, #History, #constitutionalconvention, #constitutionalconvention1787, #constitutionalconventioncompromises

The Constitutional Convention was a meeting of delegates from 12 out of the 13 states that was held in Philadelphia from May to September 1787. George Washington was elected president of the Convention, and other delegates included James Madison, Ben Franklin, and Alexander Hamilton.

**Find a transcript, lesson plans, worksheets, and more at:

-https://academy4sc.org/topic/constitutional-convention-the-birth-of-the-constitution/

**Think Further Questions

1. Do you think the Connecticut Compromise was a good halfway point between the Virginia and New Jersey Plans? Are there any other possible compromises that could have been made?

2. What are some examples of checks and balances in the federal government other than the ones mentioned?

3. If another Constitutional Convention were held today to make major amendments to the Constitution, what do you think the major debates would be about? Would states be split along North / South and large / small lines, or would new divisions be more important?

**Contents

00:00 – Background

00:33 – The Solution

1:00 – Constitutional Convention

01:16 – The History

04:58 – Why Care?

#academy4sc #civicseducation #history

keywords:

keywords: #USNationalArchives, #NARA

Why did the framers of the U.S. Constitution include several protections for slavery in one of our cherished founding documents? Using clips from the documentary series Confounding Father: A Contrarian View of the U.S. Constitution, scholars will discuss the 1787 debates, compromises that led to the protections, and present-day controversies over how we teach this subject.

Moderator: Richard Hall is the Director and Co-Producer of the four-part series, Confounding Father: A Contrarian View of the U.S. Constitution (2020). Recently retired after a thirty year career with C-SPAN, he spent the final eleven years working as a video journalist with American History TV where he conceived and produced the weekly archival film series Reel America, and created over 200 episodes of the documentary series American Artifacts. He is now an independent filmmaker living in Silver Spring, Maryland, and is also the director and co-producer of American Feud: A History of Conservatives \u0026 Liberals (2017).

Panelists: Paul Finkelman is the president of Gratz College in greater Philadelphia. He is the author of Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson, and Supreme Injustice: Slavery in the Nation’s Highest Court, and more than 200 scholarly articles—including three for the National Archives magazine Prologue. He is the author or editor of more than 50 books in a wide variety of areas including American legal history, U.S. Constitutional law, American slavery, the First Amendment, the history of the Second Amendment, American Jewish history, civil rights, and legal issues surrounding American sports. His work has been cited in four decisions by the United States Supreme Court, numerous other courts, and in many appellate briefs.

Gloria Browne-Marshall is a Professor of Constitutional Law at John Jay College of Criminal Justice (CUNY). She is a civil rights attorney who litigated cases for Southern Poverty Law Center in Alabama, Community Legal Services in Philadelphia, and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Inc.. Professor Browne-Marshall is the author of many articles and books including She Took Justice: The Black Woman, Law, and Power, The Voting Rights War: The NAACP and the Ongoing Struggle for Justice, The Constitution: Major Cases and Conflicts and Race, Law, and American Society: 1607 to Present

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Subscribe to HipHughes History, it’s stupid easy and free

-https://www.youtube.com/user/hughesdv?sub_confirmation=1\u0026src_vid=hDjLSfWvNlQ\u0026feature=iv\u0026annotation_id=annotation_3651517591

A heaping helpful of Constitutional history as HipHughes dips and dives through the Constitutional Convention. A seasoned high school teacher of 15 years, this lesson is practical for any aged learner and entertaining for ages 1-99. (although your going to have translate for the babies)

https://vault.georgiaarchives.org/digital/collection/adhoc/id/1820/

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