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Portugal – Wikipedia

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  • Summary: Articles about Portugal – Wikipedia Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic is a country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and whose territory …

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Political Map of Portugal – Nations Online Project

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Map of Portugal – GIS Geography

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Portugal Map | Infoplease

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Where Is Portugal? – Live and Invest Overseas Countries

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  • Summary: Articles about Where Is Portugal? – Live and Invest Overseas Countries Where is Portugal? Find out here through our real time map, complete with bordering countries of Portugal. View our map of Portugal.

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Portugal on world map: surrounding countries and location on …

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  • Summary: Articles about Portugal on world map: surrounding countries and location on … Portugal is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East as its mentioned in the map of Portugal and surrounding …

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Portugal Maps – Perry-Castañeda Map Collection – UT Library …

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Atlas of Portugal – Wikimedia Commons

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Where is Portugal – – World Map

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Map of Portugal | PlanetWare

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Portugal Road Map –

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Portugal Map of Vineyards Wine Regions

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Portugal Planning Map – Lonely Planet Online Shop

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Portugal Maps | Portugal Visitor – Travel Guide To Portugal

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  • Summary: Articles about Portugal Maps | Portugal Visitor – Travel Guide To Portugal Portugal maps: see maps of Portugal including street maps of Lisbon, Faro, Porto, Evora, Coimbra and Sintra plus a map of the Azores.

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Portugal (disambiguation)

Portuguese RepublicRepública Portuguesa (in Portuguese)

coat of arms

Motto: Esta é a ditosa Pátria minha amada (“This is my happy, beloved homeland”)
Anthem: A Portuguesa (“The Portuguese”)
Show world show map of European Union Portugal location (dark green) – In Europe (green)
Capital and largest city Lisbon 38° 46’N 9° 9’W / 38.767° N 9.150° W / 38.767; -9,150
Official language Portuguese
Recognized Regional Languages Mirandese [note 1]
Ethnic groups (2021) [footnote 2] [3] 88.5% Portuguese 11.5% Other
Religion (2011) 84.3% Christian — 81.0% Roman Catholic — 3.3% Other Christian 6.8% No religion 0.6% Other 8.3% Not reported
Satan Portuguese
State Semi-presidential unitary republic [4]
• Minister Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
• Prime Minister Antonio Costa
legislature Council of the Republic
To create
• First Region 868
• Second Zone 1095
• Sovereignty 24 June 1128
• Kingdom 25 July 1139
• Treaty of Zamora 5 October 1143
• Rehabilitation December 1, 1640
• First Constitution September 23, 1822
• Republic October 5, 1910
• Democratization April 25, 1974
• Current Constitution April 25, 1976 [note 3]
• Join the EEC January 1, 1986
• Total 92,212 square kilometers (35,603 sq mi) [5] (109)
• Country (%) 1.2 (2015) [6]
• Census 2021 10.344.802 [7]
• Intensity 112.2 [8]/km2 (290.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) Estimated 2022
• Total $419.7 billion [9] (52nd)
• Per person $40,805 [9] (45th)
GDP (nominal) Estimated 2022
• Total $251.9 billion [9] (51st)
• Per person $24,495 [9] (45th)
Genie (2020) 33.0 [10] average
HDI (2019) 0.864 [11] very high 38.
Currency unit Euro (€) (EUR)
Time Zone UTC (WET) UTC – 1 (Atlantic / Azores)
• Summer (DST) UTC 1 (WEST) UTC (Atlantic / Azores)
Note: Mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, Azores 1 hour behind.
Date format dd / mm / yyyy
side driver this is true
dialing code 351
ISO code 3166 PT
Internet TLD .PT
^ Mirandese, spoken in various villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n. ° 7/99 de Janeiro 29), [1] official usage rights were granted. . [2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized. ^ By country of birth ^ The Portuguese constitution was adopted in 1976 with some minor changes from 1982 to 2005.

Portugal, officiallyPortuguese Republic(Portuguese:Portuguese Republic [ʁɛpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 4]is onepeopleWho owns the land?Iberian PeninsulabetweenSouthwest Europeand its territory also includes the Atlantic Ocean.archipelagoLater onAzoresandMadeira. propertieswesternmost pointinContinent of EuropeThe Iberian part is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the west and south, and the Atlantic Ocean in the north and east.Spainthe only country that hasland border with Portugal. Two archipelagos form two teamsautonomous Regionwith themselvesregional government. official and national language,Portuguese.Lisbonto becapitaland largest city.

Portugal is the oldest continuousnational stateOn the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its lands have been continually inhabited, occupied and disputed ever since.prehistoric. livedCeltic coinandCelticethnicity visited byPhoenicians-Carthaginians,ancient Greekand managed byRomans, followed by their invasionSuezandVisigoths Germanic people. after the invasionIberian Peninsulaequalmoorspart of most of its territoryAndalusia. Portugal as a country founded in early Christianityreconquest. Founded in 868,Portuguese Territorythen came forwardBattle of Sao Mamede(112). This Kingdom of Portugallater announcedBattle of Ourique(1139) and independentLeonrecognized byTreaty of Zamora(1143).[twelfth]

Portugal in the 15th and 16th centuries,The first global shipping and trading empirebecome one of the world’s greatest economic, political and military powers.strength.[13]During this period, what is now knownAge of DiscoveryPortuguese explorers who pioneered marine expeditions with the discovery of what would beBrazil(1500). During this time Portugal was monopolized.spice trade,Divide the world into dominant hemispheres with Castileand the empire expanded through military campaigns.Asia. However, events such as1755 Lisbon earthquakeoccupation of the countryNapoleonic War, andBrazilian independence (1822)largely deletedPortugal’s old luxury.[14] a civil warbetweengenerousConstitutionalists and conservative autocrats in Portugal on the royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834.

After that1910 Revolutionoverthrow the monarchy, democracy but unstablePortuguese First Republicestablished, later replacedEstado Novodictatorship. Then democracy was restoredcarnation revolution(1974), endingPortuguese Colonial War. Soon after, most of them were granted independence.its overseas territory. This handing Macau to China(1999) marked the end of what could be considered one of the longest-lived colonial empires in history.

Portugal left a deep cultural, architectural and linguistic impactsphericalhas a heritage of approximately 250 millionPortuguese speakers.This is adeveloped countrywith someoneadvanced economyand longstandard of living.[15][16][17]It also ranks high in the rankings.Peace,democracy,[18] freedom of the press,stability,social progress,welfareandgood at english. a memberUnited Nations,European Union,Schengen areaandCouncil of Europe(CoE), Portugal is also one of the founding members.NATO,eurozone,OECD, andgroup of portuguese-speaking countries.

  • 1 etymology
  • 2 History
  • 2.1 Prehistory
    2.2 Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia
    2.3 Germanic Kingdoms: Suebi and Visigoth
    2.4 Islamic Period and Reconquista
    2.5 Counties of Portugal
    2.6 Independence Period and Afonsin
    2.7 The Joanine Period and the Age of Discovery
    2.8 Iberian Confederation, Restoration and Beginning of the Brigantine Period
    2.9 The Pombaline Age and the Enlightenment
    2.10 The Napoleonic Era
    2.11 Constitutional Monarchy
    2.12 First Republic and Estado Novo
    2.13 Carnation revolution and European integration
  • 3 Geography
  • 3.1 Climate
    3.2 Biodiversity
  • 4 Government and politics
  • 4.1 Presidency
    4.2 Government
    4.3 National Assembly
    4.4 Foreign relations
    4.5 Military
    4.6 Law
    4.7 Law enforcement
    4.8 Corrective Services
    4.9 Administrative units
    4.10 Government Financing
  • 5 economies
  • 5.1 Main Area
    5.2 Secondary field
    5.3 Tertiary domain
    5.4 Fourth Area
    5.5 Shipping
    5.6 Energy
  • 6 Demographics
  • 6.1 Urbanization
    6.2 Urban areas
    6.3 Regions by HDI
    6.4 Immigration
    6.5 Religion
    6.6 Languages
    6.7 Education
    6.8 Health
  • 7 Culture
  • 7.1 Architecture
    7.2 Cinemas
    7.3 Literature
    7.4 Kitchen
    7.5 Music
    7.6 Visual Arts
    7.7 Sports
  • 8 See more
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 10.1 Power
  • 11 External Links


Anta da Arca

derived from the Portuguese wordRome-Celticplace namePortugal Cale;[19]a city todayportoandVilla Nova de Gaianow stop in your mouthDouro Rivernorth of present-day Portugal. The name of the city comes from Latin.Portor port,Portuguese, but the second elementPortugal Caleis less obvious. The main explanation for this name is that aEthnographicconvertedthe castros, also calledcallaeciGallaeci or Gallaecia, occupying the northwestern part of the Iberian peninsula.[20]NameCaleandKallaiçiorigin of todayGaiaandGalicia.[21][22]

Suggests another theoryCaleor callIt is a derivative of the Celtic word meaning port.the Irish kalador Scottish Gaelic remaining. These interpretations require the pre-Roman language of the region to be a branch of Q-Celtic; this is generally not accepted as the pre-Roman language of the region is Gallaecian Celtic, which is widely considered P-Celtic. However, scholars such as Jean Markale and Tranoy argue that all Celtic branches have a common origin and that Cale, Gal, Gaia,Calais, Galatia, Galicia,Welsh, Gal,Gauls,Wales, Cornwall,Walloniaand other languages ​​are derived from the same root.[21][23][24]

Another theory is that Cala was the name of a Celtic goddess.Welsh Cailleach, a supernatural witch). Some French scholars believe the name may come from “Portus Gallus”.[25]port of the Gauls or Celts.

around 200 BC,RomanstakenIberian Peninsulafrom the CarthaginiansSecond Punic War. In the process, they conquered Cale, renamed it Portus Cale (“Port Cale”), and incorporated it into the province.Gaulwith its capitalBracara Augusta(nowadaysBraga, Portugal). InMiddle Ages, known by the area around Portus CaleSuezandVisigothasPortuguese. NamePortuguesedevelopPortugalIn the 7th and 8th centuries, and in the 9th century, the term was widely used to refer to the area between rivers.douroandminho. In the 11th and 12th centuries,Portugal,Portugal,portvgalloor PortvgalliaecalledPortugal.

14th centuryMiddle Frenchname of country,portableadded the /n/ sound throughout the processgreat, spreadIntermediate English.[26]Includes Middle English variant spellingsportingall,portingale,[note 5] portyngaleandportingaill.[26][28]Spell outportyngalefound in Chaucer’s Epiloguenun’s story. These variations are availableTorrent of Portyngaleis a Sino-British romance composed around 1400 and “Old Robin of Portingale”, an English song for children.portableand variations are also usedPoint[26]and it’s incornflourname of country,portyngal.


Portuguese History


prehistoric Iberian

Prehistoric rock art sites in the Coa Valley

Portugal’s early history is shared with the rest of Portugal.Iberian PeninsulaIt is located in southwestern Europe.Portuguese Namederived from the combined Romano-Celtic namePortugal Cale. this areaingrainedbyCeltsand giving origin to peoples such as the CeltsGallean,Lusitanians,[29] CelticandNetwork(Also known ascone),[30]visited byPhoenicians-Carthaginiansandancient Greek, combinedRoman Republiclike the judgelusitaniaand a partgallaecia45 to 298 AD.

present-day Portugal,Neanderthalsand then byhomo sapiensroaming the boundless regions of the northern Iberian Peninsula.[thirtyfirst]These were subsistence societies, and although they did not establish prosperous settlements, they did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domesticating livestock, growing certain grain crops, and catching marine or silt fish.[thirtyfirst]

Megalithic ruins of Alcalar

At the beginning of the first millennium BC, some scientistsCeltsHe invaded Portugal from Central Europe and intermarried with the natives.different tribes.[32]Another theory is that the Celts lived in western Iberia/Portugal prior to any major Celtic migration.Middle Europe.[33]In addition, some ancient Celtic linguists,Tartesprefers Celtic, at least in structure, as was once said in parts of the Spanish SW and Portuguese SW.[34]

Archeology and modern research reveal Portuguese word origins.Celtsin Portugal and elsewhere.[35]During this period and until the Roman invasions, the Castro culture (a kind ofUrnfield CultureAlso known asUrnenfelderkultur) productive in modern Portugal and Galicia.[36][37][22]This culture, together with the remnants of the Atlantic megalithic culture[38]and contributions from more western Mediterranean cultures, the Cultura Castreja orCastro culture.[39][40]The name refers to characteristic Celtic populations known as ‘dùn’, ‘dùin’ or ‘don’.Welshand the Romans called it castrae in their chronicles.[41]

Castro cultureNorthern PortugalCitânia de BriteirosCividade de Teroso

It is based on Roman chronicles.callaecitogether with the peoplesLebor Gabala Erenn[42]By reporting and describing the rich archaeological remains in the northern half of Portugal and Galicia, it can be concluded that there was a matriarchal society with a military and religious aristocracy, probably of the feudal type.[citation needed]The figures with maximum power are the chief (chief tribe) who is of the military type and holds power within Castro or his clan, and the druid, who mainly express the medical and religious functions that may be common to some castros. . The Celtic universe remains homogeneous due to probability.druidsmet with physicians from other regions in councils to ensure the transmission of knowledge and the most important facts.[citation needed]The first references to Castro society are provided by chroniclers of Roman military campaigns.Strabo,HerodotusandPliny the Elderabout the social organization and definition of the inhabitants of these regions, among others,Northern Portuguese Galleanas:
“A group of barbarians who fight by day, eat at night and dance under the moon.”

There are other similar tribes, and the leader among them,Lusitanians; While the core area of ​​these people is in the interior of central Portugal, many other related tribes exist as well.Alentejo Celtic, andCynetes or Conii of the Algarve. Between tribes or subdivisionsbrakaria,coelerni,Stocks,grovi,interamici,leuni,Luanqui,Limici,Narbasi,nematode,paesur,Quaquerni,Seurbi,Tamagani,title deed,Turduli,Turduli Veterans,Turdulorum Oppida,Turodi, andsurname Zoelae. Some small, semi-permanent coastal commercial settlements (eg.Tavira) was also established inalgarveby fieldPhoenicians-Carthaginians.

Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia[Editor]


Roman Temple of ÉvoraalentejoRome

The Romans first invaded the Iberian peninsula in 219 BC. Carthaginians, opponents of RomePunic Warsexpelled from the coastal colonies. in his last daysJulius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula was annexedRoman Republic.

The conquest of Rome, now part of Portugal, took almost two hundred years and took the lives of many young soldiers and
The lives of those sentenced to death in the slave mines when not sold into slavery to other parts of the empire. He suffered a major defeat in 155 BC.rebelIt starts from the north. This Lusitaniansand other indigenous tribesViriathus,[43][44]took control of all western Iberia.

Centum CellasBeira district

villa rustic

Rome sent large numbers of legions and their best generals to Lusitania to suppress the rebellion, but to no avail – Lusitania continued to conquer the region. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus’ allies to kill him. Viriathus was killed in 139 BC.TautalusHe became the leader of the Lusitanians.

Rome established a colonial regime. The complete Romanization of Lusitania only took place in the 4th century BC.Visigothsage.

Lusitania in 27 BC.Roman Province. After that, a province was formed in the north of Lusitania.gallaecia, in its capital, Bracara Augusta, todayBraga.[45]The castle still has many ruins (hill castle) throughout modern Portugal and the restCastro culture.
Some of the urban ruins are quite large,conimbrigaandmirobriga. First, in addition to being one of the largestRomeSettlements in Portugal are further classified as:national heritage. Conímbriga is located 16 km (10 mi) away.Coimbra, which is oldaeminium. The site also hosts a museum displaying objects found by archaeologists during their excavations.

Various technical structures such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circuses, theaters and village houses are preserved throughout the country. Coins and pottery fragments, some of which were minted in Lusitanian territory, were also found. Contemporary historians include:Paulus Orosius(c. 375-418)[forty-six]andHydatius(c. 400-469), bishopWater Flaviaethe last years of the Roman regime andGerman tribes.

Germanic Kingdom: Suebi and Visigoths[Editor]

Kingdom of Suez

Visigothic Kingdom

At the beginning of the 5th century,German tribes, detailSuez[47]andDestroyer(Erasingandhasding) with its allies,SarmatiansandfieldsaggressionIberian Peninsulawhere they will establish their kingdom. This Kingdom of Suez[48]It was a post-Roman kingdom of Germany, previously founded in the Roman provinces.gallaecia-lusitania. 5th century ruinsdomainsettlements foundAlenquer(from the old Germanic languagefield kerk,temple of the fields),Coimbraand Lisbon.[49]

around 410 and in the 6th centuryKingdom of Suez,[48][47]where is the kinghermeticHe made a peace treaty with the Gallaecians before transferring his lands to the region.Rechila, his son. In 448, Rechila died and led to the expansion of the canton.Rechiar.
After the defeat of the Visigoths, the Suebian kingdom was divided, with Frantan and Aguiulfo ruling simultaneously. Both ruled from 456 to 457, when Maldras (457-459) united the kingdom. He was killed after a failed Roman-Visigothic conspiracy.
Although the plot did not achieve its true purpose, the Suebian Kingdom was once again divided between the two kings:frumar(Frumario 459–463) andreminding(Remismundo, his sonmaldras) (459-469) would reunite his father’s kingdom in 463.Aryan theoryIn 465, under the influence of the Visigoths.
in the year 500,Visigothic Kingdombased, based in IberiaToledoand head west. They became a threat to the Suebian administration.
After the death of Remismund in 469, a dark age began when almost all written texts and accounts were lost. This period lasted until 550. All that is known about this period istheodemund(Teodemundo) probably ruled mostly the Suebites.
The Dark Ages ended with the reign of Karriarico (550-559).Christianin 550TheodemarDuring the reign of (559-570), the First Council of Braga (561) was held.

First Council of Braga

Councils, in regional organization (paroeciam suevorum (suebian parish) andChristianizationpagan population (De Correctione rusticorum) under the auspicesSaint Martin of Braga(Sao Martinho de Braga).[50]

After Theodomiro’s death,miro(570-583) became his successor. During his reign, the 2nd Braga Council (572) was held.
The Visigothic Civil War began in 577. Miro intervened. He then launched an unsuccessful campaign to retake Seville in 583. On his return from this failed operation, Miro died.

Many internal struggles continued to take place in the Suebian Kingdom.ebonyDeposed by (Eurico, 583–584)Andeca(Audeca 584–585) failed to stop the Visigoth invasion led by Leovigildo. The Visigothic invasion, completed in 585, transformed the once rich and fertile Suebi kingdom into the sixth province of the Gothic kingdom.[51]
LeovigildGallaecia was crowned King of Hispania andGallia Narbonensis.

King SuebimiroMartin of Braga

For the next 300 years and up to 700, it was ruled by the entire Iberian peninsula.Visigoth.[52][53][54][55][56]During the Visigothic era, Gallaecia was a well-defined area ruled by a god in its own right. The dogs of this period were associated with the monarchy and acted like kings in all matters. Both ‘governor’wambaandWittiza(Vitiza) acted as a hegemon (later became king in Toledo). These two were known as the ‘vitizens’, stationed in the northwest and urging Arab invaders from the south to be their allies in a power struggle in 711.Roderic(Rodrigo) was killed while resisting this invasion, thus becoming the last Visigoth king of Iberia. from various Germanic groups settled in western Iberia,Suezcurrently the longest lasting cultural heritage on the western fringes of Portugal, Galicia and Asturias.[57][58][59]According to Dan Stanislawski, the Portuguese lifestyle in the northern areas of the Tagus was mainly inherited from the Suebi, where small farms dominated, unlike the large estates of southern Portugal.
The modern city of Bracara AugustaBragaand the old capitalgallaeciabecame the capital of the Suebi.[50]In addition to some cultural and linguistic traces, the Süeblers left behind the highest German genetic contributions in Portugal and the Iberian peninsula in Galicia.[60][self-published source?] OrosiusResidents of Hispania at the time were newcomers to work on their land, which showed a fairly peaceful early settlement.[sixty one]or serve as the protection of the natives.[62]Another German group that accompanied Suez and settled in Gallaecia,buri. They settled in the area between the rivers.cavadoandhousein the area calledTerras de Bouro(Land of Buri).[63]

Islamic Period and Reconquista[Editor]

Today, the Portuguese mainland, along with most of modern Spain,Andalusiabetween 726 and 1249, laterUmayyad CaliphateconquerIberian Peninsula. This rule lasts from a few decades in the North to five centuries in the South.[sixty-four]

after you beatVisigothIn just a few months, the Umayyad Caliphate began to spread rapidly across the peninsula. Beginning in 726, the area that is now Portugal became part of the great Umayyad Caliphate.Sam, stretchesIndustryThe river in the Indian subcontinent to southern France until its collapse in 750. That year, the western part of the empire gained its independence.Abd-ar-Rahman Iwith the establishmentEmirate of Cordoba. Nearly two centuries later, the EmirateCaliph of CordobaIn 929, until it was disbanded into no less than 23 small kingdoms a century later in 1031.Crewkingdoms.[sixty-four]

Ibn KasiMertola . Castlealentejo

The governors of the crews onceOrderestablished diplomatic relations with the states and the Christian kingdoms in the north. Currently most of PortugalTaifa of BadajozLater onAftasid dynastyand after a short moth periodLisbon’s TaifaIn 1022, under his ruleSeville’s TaifaLater onAbbasidspoets. The period of the crew ended with the conquestAlmoravidswho does it come from?MoroccoHe won a decisive victory in 1086.Battle of Sagrajas, then a century later in 1147, after the second Taifa period,Almohads, alsoMarrakech.[65]It is divided into different regions called Al-Andaluz.draw. The greatest Gharb Al-Andalus consists of ten lots,[66]each has its own capital and governor. The main cities of this period in Portugal were located in the southern half of the country:beige,silves,Alcaer do Sal,SantaremandLisbon.
The Muslim population in the region consists mainly of indigenous Iberians who are Muslims.Islam(so calledmuvallador muladi) and barbers. Arabs are basically aristocrats.SyriaandOman; and they made up the elite population, although their numbers were small. This Berbersoriginally cameriftandAtlas MountainNorth African regions and nomadic.[sixty-four]

Portuguese Territory[Editor]

Portuguese Territory

Vimara PeresCount of Portugal

A Visigoth Asturian noble namedPelagius of AsturiasElected leader in 718[sixtyseven]by many overturned peopleVisigothNoble. Pelagius urged the remnants of the Visigoth Christian army to rebel against the Moors and regroup in the northern Asturian highlands, also known today as the Moors.Cantabrian Mountainspresent-day small mountainous region in northwestern Spain, neighboringBay of Biscay.[68]

Pelagius’ plan was to use the Cantabrian mountains as shelter and protection from the invading Moors. He then aimed to regroup the Christian armies on the Iberian Peninsula and use the Cantabrian Mountains as a springboard to reclaim their lands. In the process, after defeating the MoorsBattle of CovadongaIn 722 Pelagius was proclaimed king and thus founded Christianity.Kingdom of Asturiasand started the known war of rediscovery of ChristianityPortugueseasReconquista Crista.[68]

In the late 9th century, the Portuguese territory between the Minho and Douro rivers was liberated from the Moors by a nobleman and a knight.Vimara Peresby order of the kingAlfonso III of Asturias. Note that the area used to have two major cities -Portugal Caleon the beach andBragaInland, with many towns now abandoned – he decided to resettle and rebuild them with Portuguese and Galician refugees, among other Christians.[69]Besides the Arabs from the south, the coastal areas in the north were also attacked by the Arabs.NormanandViking[70][71]Bandits larger than 844. Last Great Invasion, passedMinho (river)ending in defeatOlaf II Haraldsson1014 against the Galician nobility who also stopped advancing towards the Portuguese Territory.

Alfonso VI of LeonHenry, Count of Portugal

Count Vimara Peres[72]organize the area it collects and raise it to statusDistrict, You name itPortuguese Territoryafter the largest port city in the region -Portugal Caleor modernporto. One of the first cities that Vimara Peres founded during this period was Vimaranes, known today as Vimaranes.Guimaraes- “Birthplace of the Portuguese nation” or “cradle city” (Cidade Berço in Portuguese).[69]

After the Portuguese Territory merged into one of several countiesKingdom of Asturias, KingAlfonso III of AsturiasIn 868, he knighted Vímara Peres as the first Count of Portus Cale (Portugal). This area is calledPortuguese,Portugal, and at the same timePortugal-Portuguese Territory.[69]

Later, the Kingdom of Asturias was divided into several Christian Kingdoms in Northern Iberia due to the division of dynastic inheritance among the king’s descendants. with forced renunciationAlfonso III “The Great” of AsturiasIn 910, the Kingdom of Asturias was divided into three separate kingdoms by his sons. The three kingdoms were finally united under the imperial crown in 924.Leon.

in 1093Alfonso VI of Leongiven to the countyHenry of Burgundyand married him to his illegitimate daughter,Teresa of LeonFor his role in reclaiming lands from the Moors. Henry established his newly created county in Bracara Augusta (modernBraga), the capital of the ancient Roman province, as well as the previous capital of several kingdoms during the first millennium BC.

Age of Independence and Afonsine[Editor]

Portugal in the Middle AgesPortugal’s Burgundy House

Battle of Ourique

Siege of Lisbon

On June 24, 1128,Battle of Sao Mamedeit was closeGuimaraes.Afonso HenriquesCount of Portugal beat his motherCountess Teresaand her loverFernao Peres de Trava, thus establishing itself as the sole leader. Afonso then turned against the Moors in the south.

Afonso’s expeditions were successful, and he won a crushing victory on 25 July 1139.Battle of Ouriqueand later unanimously declaredKing of Portugalby his soldiers. This is traditionally considered a case when the County of Portugal, as a fief of the Kingdom of León, was transformed into independence.Kingdom of Portugal.

Afonso later founded the first of these.Portuguese CortesinLamegoAlthough the value of Cortes of Lamego is debated, he was crowned by the Archbishop of Braga and BC.Portuguese Restoration War. Afonso was recognized by the King in 1143.Alfonso VII, Leonand in 1179Pope Alexander III.

Afonso HenriquesCount of PortugalKing of PortugalBattle of Ourique

InreconquestDuring the period, Christians conquered the Iberian peninsula BC.Moorishsovereignty. Afonso Henriques and his successors backed by the militaryorders of the monastery, pushed south to drive out the Moors. At this time, Portugal covered about half of what it is today. It ended with the capture of the Reconquista in 1249.algarveand completely expelled the last Moorish settlements on the south coast and gave Portugal, with minor exceptions, its present borders.

in one of the conflict situations withKingdom of Castile,Portuguese Dinis Isigned with the kingCastile IV. Fernando(as a minor, his mother is represented by the queen)Maria de Molina)Treaty of Alcañices (1297)stipulating that Portugal terminate the treaties agreed against the kingdom of Castile for supporting the infants,Juan de Castilla. This agreement, among other things, marked the demarcation of the border between the Portuguese kingdom and the kingdom of Leon, where the disputed town was located.Olivenzincluding.

dynastiesreligious I(Denis I),Afonso IV(Alphons IV) andPedro I(Peter I) largely saw peace with the Christian kingdoms of Iberia.

In 1348 and 1349, Portugal, like the rest of Europe, was devastated.Black Death.[seventy three]Portugal in 1373,alliance with EnglandIt is the oldest union in the world. Over time, this went beyond geopolitical and military cooperation (protecting the interests of the two countries in Africa, the Americas, and Asia against rival France, Spain, and the Netherlands) and maintains strong commercial and cultural ties between the two former European allies. insideoportoespecially the region whose British influence is evident to this day.

The Joanine Period and the Age of Discovery[Editor]

Portuguese inventionRise of the Portuguese EmpireThe Portuguese discovered the sea route to IndiaPortuguese Empiresell spicesPortuguese Indian ArmorPortuguese Presence in Asia

John I of PortugalBattle of AljubarrotaChandelier House

Batalha Monastery1383-1385 Crisis

in 1383,John I of Castile, her husbandBeatrice of Portugaland son-in-lawKing Ferdinand I of Portugalclaims the Portuguese throne. A faction of petty nobles and commoners,Avizli John(later King John I of Portugal) and was commanded by General.Nuno Alvares Pereiradefeat the CastiliansBattle of Aljubarrota. With this warChandelier HouseHe became the ruler of Portugal.

The new monarchs would continue to make Portugal the center of attention of European politics and culture, creating and funding literary works such as the following.Crónicas d’el Rei D. João IthroughFernao Lopes, the first riding and hunting guideLivro da ensinança de bem cavalry toda selaandO Leal Conselheiroby bothKing Edward of Portugal[74][75][76]and Portuguese translationsby Cicero De OmissisandSeneca’s beneficiaryby traveling wellPrince Peter of Coimbraas well as his magnum opusTratado da Vertuosa Benfeytoria.[77]In order to consolidate and centralize royal power, the rulers of this estate also ordered the compilation, regulation and publication of the first three laws in Portugal:Ordenações d’el Rei D. Duarte,[78]which is never executed; mostOrdenações Afonsinas,whose implementation and enforcement is not the same worldwide; andOrdenações Manuelinas, took advantageprinterto reach every corner of the kingdom. Avis Dinasty also sponsors architectural works.Mosteiro da Batalha(literally,War Monastery) leads to its creation.manual architectural style, in the sixteenth century.

Portugal is also at the forefront of exploring the European world, andAge of Discovery. princeWanderer Henry, the king’s sonJohn I of Portugalbecame the main sponsor and patron of this effort. During this period, Portugal explored the Atlantic Ocean, discovered the Atlantic Islands.Azores,Madeira, andCape Verde Islands; discovered the African coast; selected colonial regions of Africa; exploring an eastroad to indiathroughCape of Good Hope;Discover Brazil, to discoverIndian Oceanby establishing trade routes in South Asia; and sent the first direct European maritime and diplomatic missions.ChineseandJapan.

In 1415, Portugal achieved its first overseas colony by conquest.CeutaThe first prosperous Muslim trading center in North Africa. The first expeditions in the Atlantic followed:MadeiraandAzores, the first to leadcolonizationmovement.

In 1422, by decree of King John I, Portugal officially abandoned the previous system of chronology,Caesar’s Era, and passedHUNGRYThe system thus becomes the last catholic site to do so.[79]

Wanderer Henry

in the 15th century,Portuguese explorersailing to African coasts, establishing trade centerssome common tradables at that time, fromyellowto arriveslavewhen they were looking for a route to India andspiceIt is envied in Europe.

This Treaty of Tordesillas, to resolve the dispute after the returnChristopher Columbus, madePope Alexander VIMediator between Portugal and Spain. It was signed on June 7, 1494, and divided the newly discovered territory outside of Europe between the two countries along the 370th meridian of the West.Cape Verde Islandsislands (on the west coast of Africa).

vasco da gama

in 1498,vasco da gamawhat to achievecolumbusHe set out and became the first European to reach India by sea.economic prosperity for Portugaland with a population of 1.7 million it helps you get startedPortuguese Renaissance. Portuguese explorer in 1500Gaspar Corte Realreached what is now Canada and founded the townPortugal Bay-St. Philip’s,Newfoundland and Labrador, long before French and English in the 17th century, and just one of manyPortuguese colony in America.[80][81][82]

in 1500,Pedro Alvares CabralDiscovered Brazil and laid claim to Portugal.[83]Ten years later,Afonso de Albuquerqueconquergoain india,MuscatandHormuzinsidePersian Strait, andMalacca, now onesituationin Malaysia. Thus, the Portuguese empire dominated trade.Indian Oceanand the South Atlantic. Portuguese sailors began to reach East Asia by heading east from Europe, landing in places such as Taiwan, Japan, and the islands.Timor, andMoluccas.

Although it was believed for a long timeDutchThere is also some evidence, though, that Europeans were the first to arrive in Australia.Portuguese may have discovered Australiain 1521.[84][85][eighty six]from 1519 to 1522,Ferdinand Magellan(Fernão de Magalhães) organized a Spanish expedition.East Indiesleading to the first conclusionsurroundspherical. Magellan never returned to Europe when he was killed by the natives.Philippinesin 1521.

This Treaty of ZaragozaDefining the anti-meridian line to the demarcation line specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed between Portugal and Spain on April 22, 1529.

All these factors made Portugal one of the world’s greatest economic, military and political powers from the 15th to the end of the 16th century.

Iberian Confederation, Restoration, and Early Brigantine[Editor]

Iberian UnionPortuguese Restoration WarHouse of Braganza

Portuguese Empire

Portugal voluntarily joined a dynastic union between 1580 and 1640. This happened because of the last two kings.Chandelier House- KingSebastian, who diedBattle of Alcaer QuibirinMoroccoand his uncle and successor King-pinkish Henry of Portugal- both died without heirs and as a result1580 Portuguese Succession Crisis.

Later on,Philip II of SpainHe claimed the throne and was recognized as King Philip I of Portugal. Portugal did not lose its official independence, which took shape in a short time.Unityyour kingdoms. During this period, Spain was ageographic area.[eighty seven]The accession of the two crowns deprived Portugal of an independent foreign policy and led to its entry into Portugal.Eighty Years’ Warbetween Spain and the Netherlands.

The war caused the deterioration of relations with Turkey.Britain, Portugal’s oldest allyand lostHormuza strategic trading point located betweenIranianandOman. from 1595 to 1663Dutch-Portuguese Warit mainly concerned the Dutch companies that occupied many Portugal.colonyand commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India, and the Far East caused the Portuguese Indians to lose their maritime monopoly.
in 1640John IV of PortugalHe started an uprising supported by disgruntled nobles and became king. This Portuguese Restoration Warafter sixty yearsIberian UnionUnderHouse of Habsburg. This is the beginningHouse of BraganzaHe ruled in Portugal until 1910.

John VPortuguese Sun King

Mafra’s Royal Palace ComplexUNESCO World Heritage Site

King IV. John’s eldest son ascends the throneAfonso VIHowever, his physical and mental disabilities caused him to become overpowered by it.Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor. During a palace coup organized by the king’s wife,Maria Francisca of Savoy, and his brother,Pedro, Duke of BejaKing Afonso VI was declared mentally disabled and exiled first to the Azores and then to exile.Sintra Royal Palace, outside of Lisbon. After Afonso’s death, Pedro was crowned King II. He ascended the throne as Pedro. Pedro’s reign saw the consolidation of national independence, the expansion of the empire, and investment in domestic production.

son of Pedro II,John Vsaw a dynasty largely characterized by the flow of gold into the royal coffers.royal thursday(precious metals tax)Portuguese ColonybetweenBrazilandMaranhao.

Disregarding Portugal’s traditional governing institutions, John V acted like an absolute monarch and nearly exhausted the tax revenue on the country’s full-fledged architecture.palace of mafra, and commissions and appendices for major literary and art collections.

Because of his desire for international diplomatic recognition, John spent large sums of money on embassies to European courts, most famously to which he sent.Paris1715 andRomein 1716.

Official estimates – and most estimates to date – give the number of Portuguese immigrants arriving.Brazilian ColonyIn the 18th century, gold rushed at 600,000.[88]This represents one of the largest migrations of Europeans to their colonies in the Americas during colonial times.

The Pombaline Period and the Enlightenment[Editor]

Portuguese History (1640-1777)

First Marquess of PombalEnlightenment fraudsterJoseph I

in 1738,sapling Sebastião José de Carvalho and Melo(later rated #1Marquess Pombal) began his diplomatic career in London and later in Vienna as Ambassador to Portugal. This queen consortPortuguese,Maria Anna, Duchess of Austria, like Carvalho e Melo; and after the death of his first wife, he arranged the second marriage of the widow Carvalho e Melo to the daughter of the Austrian Field Marshal.Leopold Josef, Count von Daun. KingJohn VHowever, he was dissatisfied and summoned Carvalho e Melo to Portugal in 1749. John V died the following year and his son,Joseph I, crowned. Unlike his father, Joseph I was very fond of Carvalho e Melo and appointed Carvalho e Melo with the Queen’s approval.minister, priestof the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

As the king’s confidence in Carvalho e Melo grew, the king gave him more control of the state. In 1755, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo became Prime Minister. Influenced by the British economic success he had witnessed since his tenure as ambassador, he successfully did the same.economicPolicies in Portugal Oabolish slaveryreorganization, reorganization of the army and navy in mainland Portugal and the Portuguese colonies in IndiaUniversity of Coimbraand end legal discrimination againstChristiandenominations in Portugal, removing the distinction betweenStaleandNew Christians.

Carvalho e Melo’s biggest reform was economic and financial, with the creation of a number of companies and associations to regulate all business activities. created one of thesenaming systemin the world by determining the production areasPortto ensure the quality of the wine; and this was the first attempt at quality control and wine production in Europe. He strictly governed all classes of Portuguese society, from the upper aristocracy to the poorest working class, by imposing strict laws and country taxes with a thorough examination of the system. These reforms made him an enemy among the upper classes, especially the upper aristocracy, who despised him as a social startup.

1755 Lisbon earthquake

Disaster struck Portugal on the morning of November 1, 1755.Lisbonbe hit bystrong earthquakewith a guesstime magnitude8.5–9. The city was destroyed by the earthquake and tsunami that followed, and the fires that followed.[89]Carvalho e Melo survived by chance and then began rebuilding the city with his famous quote: “What now? We bury the dead and look after the living. “

Despite natural disasters and the huge death toll, Lisbon was spared the epidemic and was rebuilt in less than a year. Lisbon’s new city center is designed to withstand the next earthquake. Architectural models were built for testing, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by moving troops around the models. Buildings and great squaresDowntown PombalineIt remains one of the tourist attractions of Lisbon. Carvalho e Melo also contributed significantly to the study.seismologyby designing a detailed study of earthquake effects,The Parochial Memoirs of 1758sent to every congregation in the country; This rich amount of information provides today’s historians with a huge amount of information, while allowing modern scientists to reconstruct events with a certain amount of scientific accuracy.demographic,topographicandgeographic advantageInformation about the rest of the kingdom as well as information about its urban and rural areas.

After the earthquake,Joseph IHe gave even more power to his prime minister and Carvalho de Meloprogressive dictator. As his power grew, the number of his enemies increased, and violent conflicts with the upper nobility became frequent. In 1758, Joseph I was wounded in a targeted assassination attempt. This Tavora familyandDuke of Aveirowas involved anddone quickly after a quick test. next yearJesuitsto bepersecuted and expelled from the countryand their property was confiscated by the king. Carvalho e Melo, women and children (especially 8-year-olds)Leonor de Almeida Portugalwas imprisoned in a monastery for nineteen years). This was the final blow to crush all opposition, openly protesting that even the aristocracy was powerless against the King’s loyal general. Joseph honors Carvalho e Melo as Countoeirasin 1759.

in 1762Spain invaded Portuguese territoryas part ofSeven Years’ War, but until 1763Current statusIt was restored between Spain and Portugal before the war.

After the Távora incident, the new Count of Oeiras had no objections. In 1770, under another name “Marquês de Pombal”, he effectively ruled Portugal until the death of Joseph I in 1777.

New Ruler, QueenMaria I of PortugalThe Marquês de Pombal did not like him for his power, and the Távora never forgave him for the cruelty he sent his family, and when he ascended the throne, he withdrew his entire political position. The Marquês de Pombal was exiled to his estate.pombalHe died here in 1782.

However, historians also argue that Pombal’s “enlightenment”, although far-reaching, was primarily a mechanism for the promotion of autocracy at the expense of individual freedom, and specifically a device for suppressing opposition, suppressing criticism, and promoting economic exploitation. colony as well as fortifying the book. censorship and personal control and consolidate profit.[90]

Napoleonic era[Editor]

Portuguese History (1777-1834)Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves

Departure from the Portuguese Royal Court to Brazil

virtue parablePrince regent John

D. Sequeira

With Napoleon’s invasion, Portugal began a slow but steady decline that lasted well into the 20th century.Brazilian independencehad the country’s largest colony.

in the autumn of 1807,NapoleonHe sent French troops to Spain to invade Portugal. From 1807 to 1811, Anglo-Portuguese forces would successfully fight the French invasion of Portugal.Peninsular Warthe royal family and the PortugueseNobleincluding Maria I,Portugal Brazil Region, then a colonyPortuguese Empire, in South America. This section is calledTransfer of Portuguese Court to Brazil.

In 1807, when Napoleon’s army entered Lisbon,Joao VI Portugal,regent, moved and established his court in BrazilRio de JaneiroIt was the capital of the Portuguese Empire. In 1815, Brazil was declared a Kingdom, and the Kingdom of Portugal merged with it to form a multicontinental country.Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.

Pedro IVII. Maria

Administratively, due to the change of status and the emergence of the Portuguese royal family, citizens of Brazil,save, army,Education, andscientificThe device has been considerably expanded and modernized. Fought against the Portuguese and their ally British armies.French invasion of Portugaland by 1815 the situation in Europe had cooled enough for João VI to return safely to Lisbon. However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until that date.1820 Liberal Revolution, starting hereportoIn 1821 he asked her to return to Lisbon.

So he returned to Portugal but abandoned his son.PedroResponsible for Brazil. When the Portuguese Government tried to restore the Kingdom of Brazil to second-class status the following year, his son Pedro, with the ardent support of the Brazilian elite,Brazil’s Independencefrom Portugal.cisplatin(today’s sovereign state Uruguay) was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazil, in the south, under Portuguese rule.

Brazil’s independence was recognized in 1825, thanks to which Emperor Pedro I conferred official honors on his father.Emperor of Brazil. John VI’s death in 1826 raised serious questions about his successor. Pedro is his heir and briefly IV. Despite reigning as Pedro, his status as king of Brazil was seen as an obstacle to Portugal holding the throne of both countries. Pedro abdicates in favor of his daughter,II. Maria(Mary II). But Pedro’s brother,Prince Miguelascended the throne in protest. After an unsuccessful marriage proposal to Miguel and Maria, Miguel came to power in 1828 as King Miguel I. To defend his daughter’s right to the throne, Pedro made his debut.Independence Warreestablish his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal. The war included the defeat of Miguel in 1834, the proclamation of the constitution and Queen Elizabeth II. It ended with the reinstatement of Maria.

Constitutional monarchy[Editor]

Portuguese History (1834–1910)

Lisbon RegicideManual IIDeclaration of the Republic

Queen Maria (Mary II) and the KingFerdinand IIking’s sonPedro(Peter V) modernized the country during his short reign (1853-1861). During his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were built, and public health was increasingly improved. Its popularity has grown over timecholera diseaseWhen it broke out in 1853-1856, he visited the hospital to console the sick and give gifts. Pedro’s reign was short, as he died of cholera in 1861 after a series of deaths in the royal family, including his two brothers.Infante FernandoandPrince João, Duke of Beja, and his wife,Stephanie from Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Pedro has no children, his brother,King Louis I of Portugal(Louis I) came to the throne and continued his modernization.

At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.Luanda,benguela,Bissau,Lourenco Brands,Porto AmboimandMozambique IslandIt is one of the oldest port cities established by Portugal on African lands. Portuguese colonialism during this period focused on the expansion of outposts in Africa on a national scale to compete with other European powers there.

WithBerlin ConferenceIn 1884, Portuguese territory with official borders was established in Africa, at Portugal’s request, to protect Portugal’s centuries-old interests in the continent from rivals.Fight for Africa. Portuguese towns and cities in AfricaNova Lisbon,bandeira sandals,Silva Porto,malange,tete,Villa Junqueiro,Villa PerryandVilla CabralIt was established or redeveloped in the inner regions during and after this period. new coastal towns such asBeira,Mochamedes,lobby,Joao Belo,nacalaandPorto Ameliawas also established. Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway linesBenguela Railwayin Angola andBeira RailwayIn Mozambique, construction has begun to connect selected coastal and inland areas.

Other episodes of this period of Portuguese presence in Africa include:An ultimatum in England, 1890. This forced the Portuguese army to withdraw from the lands between the Portuguese colonies.MozambiqueandAngola(most todayZimbabweandZambia), requested by Portugal and “pink map’, which is contrary to the English will.Cape Railroad to Cairo.

Portuguese territories in AfricaCape Verde Islands,Sao Tome and Principe,Portugal Guinea,Angola, andMozambique. small castleSao Joao Baptista de Ajudaon the coastdahomey, also under Portuguese rule. In addition, Portugal still dominated the Asian parts of Asia.Portugal India,Portuguese TimorandPortuguese Macau.

King Dom on February 1, 1908.Carlos I of Portugaland herobvious heirand eldest son,Prince Royal Dom Luis Filipe,Duke of Bragança,Assassinated in LisboninsideTerreiro do Pachoby two Portuguese republican activists,Alfredo Luis da CostaandManual Buica. Under his rule, Portugal was claimedbankruptTwice, on 14 June 1892 and 10 May 1902, it caused social unrest, economic turmoil, angry demonstrations, riots and criticism of the regime. Second and youngest son,Portuguese Manual II, became the new king, but was eventually deposed.5 October 1910 Portuguese republican revolution, abolished and established the monarchyrepublicThe government in Portugal caused him and his royal family to fleeexileinLondon, Britain.

First Republic and Estado Novo[Editor]

Bernardino MachadoTeophilo BragaAntónio Jose de AlmeidaAfonso CostaFirst Portuguese RepublicEstado Novo (Portugal)

The new republic had many problems. Portugal has had 45 different governments in just 15 years. TransparentWorld War 1(1914-1918), helped PortugalAlliedto fight withcentral power. But the war took its toll on its weak economy. Political instability and economic weakness are fertile ground for chaos and instability in times of political instability.First Portuguese Republic. These conditions will lead to failure.Monarchy of the North,28 May 1926 coupand the birth of the National Dictatorship (Ditadura National).
This led to the establishment of a right-wing dictatorship.Estado NovoBelowAntonio de Oliveira Salazarin 1933.

Portugal remained neutralWorld War II.
From the 1940s to the 1960s, Portugal was a founding member of the European Union.NATO,OECDandEuropean Free Trade Association(EFTA). Gradually, new economic development projects and resettlement of mainland Portuguese citizens to overseas provinces in Africa were initiated.AngolaandMozambique, as the largest and richest overseas territory, is the primary target of such ventures. These actions were used to assert Portugal’s status.cross countrynation rather than a colonial empire.

After India gained independence in 1947, the IndiansDadra and Nagar HaveliWith the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organizations, the Dadra and Nagar Haveli districts were separated from Portuguese rule in 1954.[91]in 1961Fort Sao João Baptista de AjudaannexationRepublic of DahomeyIt was the beginning of a process that led to the eventual disintegration of the centuries-old Portuguese Empire.

Antonio de Oliveira SalazarEstado Novo

According to the 1921 census, São João Baptista de Ajudá had 5 inhabitants, and according to an ultimatum issued by the Dahomey Government, it had only 2 inhabitants, representing the Portuguese Sovereignty.

Another forced withdrawal from overseas territories occurred in December 1961 when Portugal refused to give up its territory.goa,Daman and Diuin india. As a result, the Portuguese army and navy became involved in armed conflicts in the colony.Portugal IndiaagainstIndian Armed Forces.

This operation leads to failureand the surrender of the limited defensive Portuguese garrisons forced to surrender to a much larger military force. The result was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territory.Indian Subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize India’s sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in the Portuguese Parliament until the military coup in 2016. 1974.

Again in the early 1960s, independence movements began in Portugal’s overseas provinces.Angola,MozambiqueandGuineain Africa, leadingPortuguese Colonial War(1961-1974).

During the colonial wars, Portugal had to deal with growing opposition, arms embargoes and other criminal sanctions imposed by much of the international community. But authoritarians and conservativesEstado Novofounded and managed byAntonio de Oliveira Salazarand since 1968Marcelo Caetano, managed to preserve a vast transcontinental empire spanning centuries, with a total area of ​​2,168,071 km2.2nd.[92]

Carnation Revolution and European Integration[Editor]

carnation revolutionPortugal’s transition to democracy

African Portuguese

Portuguese government and army resisteddecolonizationoverseas territory until April 1974.coupin Lisbon calledcarnation revolutionpaved the way for the restoration of democracy after a two-year transition period known as the PREC, as well as the independence of overseas territories in Africa and Asia (Processo Revolucionario Em Curso). This period was characterized by social chaos and power struggles between left and right political forces. In the summer of 1975, tensions between the two sides were so high that the country came to the brink of civil war. Forces linked to the far left launched morecoupBut the Group of Nine, a moderate military group, immediately launched a counter-coup. The main part of this confrontation was the successful attack on the barracks of the dominant left.Military Police RegimentWith the moderate force of the Ranger Regiment, it resulted in three soldierskilled in action. The group of nine was victorious and prevented the formation.communist stateThe period of political instability in Portugal and the country is over. The acceptance of the terms of independence by the president of Portugal on behalf of the country for withdrawal from overseas territories and negotiations abroad that would create independent states in 1975 led to a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portuguese Africa. regions (especially PortugueseAngolaandMozambique).[ninety-three][ninety four]

more than a millionPortuguese RefugeeWhite settlers often fled the former Portuguese provinces as they were not considered part of the new identity of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.Mario RisingandAntónio de Almeida SantosHe was accused of organizing the independence of Portugal’s overseas territories. By 1975, all Portuguese African territories were independent, and Portugal,first democratic electionin 50 years.

It continues to be ruled by Portugal.Junta de Salvacao Nationaluntil1976 Portuguese legislative election. won byPortuguese Socialist Party(PS) and its leader Mário Soares became Prime Minister of Constitutional Government No. 1 on 23 July. Mário Soares would be Prime Minister from 1976 to 1978 and again from 1983 to 1985. record of economic growth and development achieved in the last decade of the previous regime, before the Carnation Revolution. Started the membership processEuropean Economic CommunityBy starting the (EEC) membership negotiations as early as 1977.

Mario Rising

Portugal passed after the transition to democracysocialismand reformandnationalizeexecuted; mostPortuguese Constitution(approved in 1976) has been rewritten to conform to socialist and communist principles. Until the constitutional amendments of 1982 and 1989, the constitution was predominantly a document that dealt with socialism, workers’ rights and the aspirations of the individual.socialist economy. Portugal’s economic situation after the revolution, its governmentInternational Monetary Fund(IMF) Controlled stabilization programs in 1977-78 and 1983-85.

In 1986 Portugal joined together with Spain.European Economic Community(EEC) later became the European Union (EU). In the following years, the Portuguese economy advanced significantly thanks to the EEC/EU.structuring and association fundsand Portuguese companies gain easier access to foreign markets.

Portugal’s last overseas and Asian colonial territory,Macaudelivered peacefullyPeople’s Republic of China (People’s Republic of China)On December 20, 1999, according to the 1987 joint declaration setting out the terms of the handover of Macau from Portugal to the PRC. independence in 2002.East Timor(Asia) was officially recognized by Portugal after an incomplete process of decolonization that began with the Carnation Revolution in 1975 but was interrupted by an uprising.Indonesianarmed occupation andTask.

Treaty of LisbonCouncil of Europe

On March 26, 1995, Portugal began implementing it.Schengen areawhile eliminating border controls with other Schengen members, it strengthens border controls with non-member states. In 1996, the country co-founded the of portuguese-speaking countries(CPLP) is headquartered in Lisbon. in 1996Jorge Sampaiobe president. He wonre-electionin January 2001.Expo ’98It took place in Portugal and became one of the founding countries in 1999.euroandeurozone. On July 5, 2004,José Manuel Barroso, Later onPrime Minister of Portugal, nominatedPresident of the European CommissionThe most powerful office in the European Union. On December 1, 2009,Treaty of LisbonIt was signed by the member states of the European Union on 13 December 2007 and entered into force.Jeronimos MonasteryTo increase the effectiveness and democratic legitimacy of the Union in Lisbon and to improve the consistency of its actions. Ireland is the only EU country to put the Lisbon Treaty to a referendum. It was initially rejected by voters in 2008.

Economic disruption and unsustainable growthgovernment debtduring that timefinancial crisis 2007-2008In 2011, he led the country in negotiations with the IMF and the European Union.European Financial Stability Mechanism(EFSM) andEuropean financial stability base(EFSF) is a loan that will help stabilize the country financially.


Portugal Geography

Portuguese territory occupies an area.Iberian Peninsula(calledcontinentmostly by Portuguese) and two islands in the Atlantic:MadeiraandAzores. Located between latitudes30°and42° Nand longitude32°and6°B.

Mainland Portugalbisected by its main river,tagus, flows through Spain and causes discontent in the country.mouth of the Tagus River, in Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic Ocean. The landscape in the north is rugged inland with some plateaus indented by river valleys, and in the southalgarveandalentejoregions characterized by rolling plains.[95]

Portugal’s highest peak is similarly namedMount Picoon the islandpicoin the Azores. At 2,351 m (7,713 ft) high, this ancient volcano is an iconic symbol of the Azores.Serra da EstrelaOn land (with the highest elevation of 1,991 m (6,532 ft) above sea level) it is a major seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts.

Madeira and the Azores islands are scattered in the Atlantic Ocean: it lies between the Azores archipelago.ocean midland mountain rangeat a tectonic junction and along a strip formed by Madeiraon disk hot spotgeology. Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events. The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in 1957-58 (Capelinhos) and small earthquakes occur rarely, usually at low intensity.

Portugal’s special economic zoneA sea in which the Portuguese have exclusive rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, 1,727,408 km2nd. This is the 3rd largestexclusive economic zoneEuropean Union and the 20th largest in the world.[96]


climate of Portugal

Portugal is mainly characterized by:Mediterranean climate(CSAin the south, in the inner center anddouroriver valley;CSBin the North, West Central andVincentian Beach),[97] marine temperate climate(Cfb) in the mountains and plateaus of the northwest of the mainland and in some high-altitude areas of the Azores; onesemi-arid climatein some partsBeja Districtfar south (BSk) andPorto Santo Island(BSh), ahot desert climate(BWh) inSelvagens Islandsand onehumid subtropical climatein the western landsAzores(Cfa), TheoKöppen-Geiger climate classification. It is one of the warmest countries in Europe: average annual temperatureMainland Portugalranges from 10–12 °C (50.0–53.6 °F) in the mountainous hinterland in the north to 16–18 °C (60.8–64.4 °F) in the south and aboveguadiana river basin. However, there are differences from plateaus to plains: Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents Portugal with several distinct bioclimatic zones.[98]This algarve, separatedalentejoArea with mountains as high as 900 meters (3,000 ft)Alto da Foiahas a climate similar to the southern coastal areas of Spain or southwestern Australia.

Average annual precipitation varies inland at just over 3,200 mm (126.0 inches) per capita.Peneda-Gerês National Parkless than 500 mm (19.7 in) in the southern partsalentejo.Mount PicoConsidered to receive the largest annual precipitation (more than 6,250 mm (246.1 inches) per year) in Portugal, according toInstituto Português do Mar e da Konsera.

In some areas, such as the Guadiana basin, average annual daytime temperatures can be as high as 26°C (79°F), with summer peaks often above 40°C (104°F). Record breaking record with 47.4°C (117.3°F)Amareleja, though not the hottest spot this summer according to satellite results.[99][one hundred]

Marina BeachLagoaalgarveMichelin Guide

Snowfall usually occurs in the northern and central parts of the country during the winter months.Guardian,Bragança,ImageandVilla Realespecially in the mountains. In winter, temperatures can drop below −10.0 °C (14.0 °F), especiallySerra da Estrela,Serra do Gerês,Serra do MaraoandSerra de Montesinho. Snow can fall any time from October to May in these places. In the southern part of the country, snowfall is rare but occurs at the highest altitudes. The absolute minimum is officially equalIPMAwithin -16.0°C (3.2°F)Penhas da SaudeandMiranda do DouroLower temperatures, such as -17.5°C (0.5°F), were recorded as:BragançaPolytechnic Institute in Serra da Estrela on the outskirts of the city and below -20.0°C (-4.0°F) in 1983.

Mainland Portugal has about 2300 to 3200 hours of sunshine per year, with an average of 4-6 hours in winter and 10-12 hours in summer, with higher values ​​in the southeast, southwest and Algarve coasts and lower in the Northwest. Insulation values ​​are lower in the archipelago, with about 1600 hours in wet conditions.Flores Islandand about 2300 hours on the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo. insulationselvagensit is said to be higher because it is weakerorographic elevatorand their relative distancesSahara Desert.

Portugal’s midwest and southwestern coasts have oceans.seasonally lateThe sea water temperature is warmer in October than in July and the coldest in March.
Middlesea ​​surface temperatureOn the west coast of the Portuguese mainland it ranges from 14–16 °C (57.2–60.8 °F) in January-March to 19-21 °C (66.2–69.8 °C) in August-October, while on the south coast, in January It changes to 16°C (60.8°F) in March and rises to about 22–23°C (71.6–73.4°F) in summer, sometimes reaching 26°C (78.8°F).[101]In the Azores, it is around 16°C (60.8°F) in February-April and around 22–24°C (71.6–75.2°F) in July-September.[102]and in Madeira, around 18°C ​​(64.4°F) in February-April to 23–24°C (73.4-75.2°F) in August-October.[103]

Both the Azores and the Madeira archipelago have subtropical climates that make weather forecasting very difficult (due to the rugged terrain), despite the differences between the islands. Madeira and the Azores have a narrower temperature range, with annual average temperatures exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) in parts of the coast (according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute). Some islands in the Azores have drier summers. Thus, the Azores islands were found to be possessed.Mediterranean climate(bothCSAandCSBtype), some islands (e.g.Floresor Corvo) are classified ashumid subtropical(CFA), convert to aoceanic climate(cfb) at higher altitudes according to the Köppen-Geiger classification.

Porto Santo IslandMadeira has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). This Wild Islandsis part of the Madeira regional region and is a special nature reserve classified as a desert climate (BWh) average annual precipitation is about 150 mm (5.9 inches). Sea surface temperatures on these islands range from 18.5°C (65.3°F) in winter to 23–24°C (73.4–75.2°F) in summer, sometimes reaching 25°C (77.0°F).[citation needed]


Peneda-Gerês National Park

is located in PortugalMediterranean basin, the third hotspot of flora diversity in the world.[104]Due to its geographical and climatic background – between the Mediterranean and Atlantic Oceans – Portugal has a high degree of biodiversity on land and in the sea. It is home to six terrestrial eco-regions:Azores . temperate mixed forest,Cantabrian mixed forest,Madeira Evergreen Forest,Iberian sclera and semi-deciduous forest,Northwest Iberian Mountains, andSouthwest Iberian Mediterranean mixed and mixed forests.[105]More than 22% of the land area,natural 2000Network of 62 specially protected areas and 88 species of landscape protected natural habitats.[106][104]

Eucalyptus,Oak-treeandmaritime trafficTogether they make up 71% of mainland Portugal’s total forest area, followed byholm oak tree,pine stone, other oak (S. robur,S. fagineaandS. pyreneica) andChestnut Dessert, corresponding.[107]in Madeira,laurisilva(known asWorld Heritage) dominates the landscape, especially on the northern slopes. Major species in this forest include:Laurus novocanariensis,Apollonias barbujana,Leaves of Octotea foetensandPersea indicator. Before human occupation, the Azores also had dense laurisilva forests, today these native forests have been destroyed by immigrants.Pittosporum undulatumandcryptomeria japonica.[108][109]There are several projects aiming to restore Laurisilva’s presence in the Azores.[110]Remnants of these laurisilva forests also exist on the Portuguese mainland with little living evidence.laurus nobilis,Prunus lusitanica,husband and wife,mirica fayaandrhododendron ponticum.[111]

These geographical and climatic conditions facilitate the introduction of alien species that are then invasive and damage their natural habitats. More than 20% of the total existing species in mainland Portugalforeign.[112]In Madeira, about 36%[113]and about 70% odd in the Azores.[114][115]As a result, Portugal ranks 168th out of 172 countries worldwide.Forest Landscape Integrity Indexin 2019.[116]


Portugal has the second most threatened species in Europe (488 species as of 2020).[117][118]

Portugal is often an important stopover for migratory birds:swampof the eastalgarve(Ria Formosa,Castro Marim) and the Lisbon Region (mouth of the Tagus River,Sado River Estuary) to host a variety of waterfowl,Bonelli’s Eagleandegyptian vultureover the valleysDouro International,black storkandGriffon vultureaboveTagus International,seagullholy placeWild IslandsandBerlengasand its highlandsMadeiraandSao Miguelall, not only migrant but also endemic (eg:pigeon,Frog Azores) or strange (crest myna,Whydah has a tail).[119][120]

large mammals of Portugal (Checkers,Red deer,sika deer,Iberian ibex,pig,red fox,iberian wolfandIberian lynx) were once common throughout the country, but intense hunting, habitat degradation, and increasing pressure from agriculture and livestock drastically reduced their population numbers in the 19th and early 20th centuries.mountain goat Portugueseeven led to its extinction. Today, these animals are again expanding their range.[121][122]Smaller mammal species include:red squirrel,european badger,Eurasian otter,Egyptian pharaoh,Granada Rabbit,european rabbit,common genes,european wildcat, among others.[122]

Because of their isolated location, volcanic islandsAzores,MadeiraandWage, Part of itmacaroniThere are many endemic species that have evolved independently from their European, African, and sometimes American relatives.

Portugal’s west coast is part of its four main eastern borders.riseSystems of the oceans. Common during the summer months, this seasonal uplift system brings cooler, nutrient-rich water to the surface.phytoplanktonevolution,zooplanktonnext rich development and diversityfloating fishand the othermarine invertebrates.[123]

Portugal’s exclusive economic zone

This further increasesMEBIt makes Portugal one of the world’s largest fish consumers per capita.[124] pilchard(Sardine pilchardus) andhorse mackerel(trachurus trachurus) are collected in thousands each year.[125]durationblue,lionfish,Atlantic cod,cephalopods,ice skatingor any other formsea ​​productsto betraditional fishingin local coastal villages.[126]This upgrade alsoMoss Forestotherwise very rare or absent in the Mediterranean.[127]

73% offishto be inIberian PeninsulaIt is endemic, the largest of any region in Europe.[128]Many endemic species are concentrated in the waters of the Midwest (just an endemic species), this and other bodies of water on the Peninsula are mostly temporary and prone to annual droughts that inundate many of these species.threateningsituation.[129]

about 24[130]up to 28[131]typesmarine mammalIt roams the Azores, making it one of only four places in the world to have most species of this substrate.[130]Beginning in the mid-19th century and ending in 1984,whaling(specialsperm) benefited greatly from this diversity. From the early 90’s,whale watchingIt quickly became famous and is now one of the main economic activities in the Portuguese archipelago.[132][133]

Someprotected areas in PortugalApart from those previously mentioned, it includes:Serras de Aire and Candeeiroswith its limestone formations, paleontological history and great diversity.batandOrchid,[134]mostSouthwest Alentejo and Vicentine Coast Nature ParkIt has a well preserved unspoiled coastline.[135]mostMontesinho Nature Parkwhere some unique populationsiberian wolfand one last lookIberian brown bear,[136]considered extinct in the country; among others.

government and policy[Editor]

Portuguese GovernmentPortuguese Politics

Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa

President of Portugal
since 2016

Antonio Costa

Prime Minister of Portugal
since 2015

Portugal is alreadysell the president representative democracy republicsince its approval1976 Constitution, withLisbon, the largest city in the country, is the capital.[137]The Constitution allows for the division or separation of powers between four bodies known as the “Agency of the Sovereign”:president,State,Council of the RepublicandCourt.[138]

The President, elected for a 5-year term, holds the executive office: Current PresidentMarcelo Rebelo de Sousa. The National Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral parliament consisting of 230 deputies elected for 4 years. If the leading governmentPrime minister(to presentAntonio Costa) and include Ministers and the Minister of State. This CourtIt is organized at various levels across judicial, administrative and financial branches. This Supreme Courtinstitutions of last resort/appeal. thirteen membersConstitutional Courtchecks the constitutionality of the law.

Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive local legislative/administrative bodies at the national, regional and local levels. The General Assembly of the Republic, the Regional Assembly and local municipalities and districts are governed by two political parties,Socialist PartyandSocial Democratic Party, besideUnited Democratic Union(Portuguese Communist PartyandEcological Party “The Greens”),left blockandCenter for Democracy and Social Affairs – People’s Party, regularly receives 5% to 15% of the vote.


President of PortugalList of Presidents of Portugal


head of state of portugalpresident, directly elected for 5 years,universal suffrage. The President’s powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and other members of the Government (where the President considers the results of legislative elections); to dismiss the prime minister; dissolution of the National Assembly of the Republic (called early elections);vetolaw (may be subject to the Board); and declare a state of war or siege. The President also supervises andreserve forcesand oneformalCommander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.

The President advises on important matters.State CouncilIt consists of six senior civil servants, any former President elected under the 1976 Constitution, five members elected by Congress, and five members elected by the president.


Portuguese GovernmentPrime Minister of PortugalList of Prime Ministers of Portugal

Praça do ComercioPortuguese Government

The government is led by an appointed presidentPrime minister, also includes one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Ministers of State, and Ministers of State.

The government is both the sovereign body that manages the general politics of the country and the supreme body of the state administration.

Basically, it has Executive power but also limited legislative power. The government may legislate on its own organization, on the areas of legislative power recognized by the National Assembly of the Republic, and on special provisions of general laws promulgated by the National Assembly.

This Council of Ministers- chaired by the Prime Minister (or, at the request of the Prime Minister, the President of Portugal) and Ministers (which may include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers).room. Each government was required to summarize its policies in a program and present it to Congress for a mandatory period of debate. The fact that the majority of the delegates of the National Assembly did not reject the government program certainly confirms that the cabinet is in power.


Council of the RepublicSao Bento PalaceParliament of the Republic (Portugal)List of political parties in Portugal

This Council of the Republic, country in LisbonParliamentPortugal. Although the government has limited legislative power, it is the main legislative body.

The National Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body consisting of no more than 230 delegates. To be elected by universal suffrage under a systemClose the door proportional representation party listThe delegates serve four-year terms unless the President dissolves the Council and calls for new elections.

Currently the Government (note) and the parties supporting ittrust and supply agreement(TO BE,PCP,PEV) controls the parliament with the most seats. This PSDandCDS-PPwith the opposition partiesPAN, Chega, Iniciativa Liberal and Partido Livre.

Foreign regulations[Editor]

Portugal’s foreign relations

Nreeidades PalaceMinistry of Foreign Affairs

United Nations Secretary GeneralAntonio Guterres

a member stateUnited NationsSince 1955, Portugal has also been a founding member.NATO(1949),OECD(1961) andEFTA(in 1960); left the last one to join in 1986European Economic Communitybecame the European Union in 1993.

Co-founder of Portugal in 1996group of portuguese-speaking countries(CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Community, is an international organization and political union.lusophonecountries on four continents, wherePortugueseIt is an official language. CPLP’s global headquartersPenafiel Palace, inLisbon.

Antonio GuterresHe served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995-2002 andUnited Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesFrom 2005 to 2015,UN Secretary GeneralOn 1 January 2017; It has since made him the first Secretary-General of Western Europe.Kurt WaldheimAustria (1972–1981), first former head of government to become Secretary-General and the first Secretary-General born after the founding of the United Nations on 26 June 1945.

Also, Portugal is a full member.Latin Union(1983) andOrganization of Ibero-American States(in 1949). He has a friendly alliance anddual nationalitymade a deal with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and the United Kingdom share the world’s oldest active military agreement.Anglo-Portuguese Union(Treaty of Windsor), signed in 1373.

There are two international territorial disputes, both with Spain:

  • Olivenz
  • . Under Portuguese rule since 1297, the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain.
  • Treaty of Badajoz
  • in 1801, after
  • battle of the oranges
  • . Portugal demanded it in 1815.
  • Treaty of Vienna
  • . But since the 19th century it has been consistently ruled by Spain, which considers its territory more than its own.
  • actually
  • Moreover
  • legally
  • .
  • [139]
  • Ilhas Selvagens (
  • Wild Islands
  • ). The archipelago was under Portuguese rule, but was closer geographically.
  • Canary Island
  • (165 km) vs.
  • Madeira
  • (280km). Discovered by Italian sailors in 1364, the islands were privately owned until 1971, when the Portuguese government bought them and established an all-encompassing nature reserve. The islands have been claimed by Spain since 1911, and the dispute has caused political tensions between the two countries for some periods. The real problem is that they expand more than their intrinsic value.
  • exclusive economic zone
  • Significantly south of Portugal.
  • [140]


Portuguese Armed Forces

Portuguese Armyleopard 2A6

Portuguese NavyMEKO-200PN

Portuguese Air ForceF-16 Fighting Falcons

There are three branches of the armed forces:Navy,ArmyandAir forces. They serve primarily as a self-defense force tasked with maintaining the country’s territorial integrity and providing humanitarian and security assistance at home and abroad. As of 2008[Update]There are 39,200 active employees, 7,500 of whom are women, in three branches.Portuguese military spending5 billion US dollars in 2009,[141]It accounts for 2.1% of GDP. Conscription was abolished in 2004. The minimum age to recruit volunteers is 18.

The army (21,000 men) consisted of three brigades and other small units. oneinfantry brigade(mainly equippedPandar II APC), onemechanized brigade(mainly equippedLeopard 2 A6tanks andM113APC) and aRapid Response Brigade(includesflying soldier,commander soldiersand guards). Navy (10,700 personnel, 1,580 of themsailors), the world’s oldest surviving naval power, consisting of 5 frigates, 7 corvettes, 2 submarines and 28 patrol and auxiliary ships. Air Force (7500 personnel)Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falconas the main warrior.

In addition to the three branches of the armed forces,National Republican Guarda law-abiding security force and military organization (Gendarme) Including 25,000 employees. This force belongs to both the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of the Interior. It provided detachments involved in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.

The US maintains its military presence with 770 soldiersLajes Air BaseinTerceira Island, in the Azores. This Allied Command Lisbon(JFC Lisbon) – one of the three main subdivisionsNATO’SAllied Command Activities- withstandsoeiras, near Lisbon.

In the 20th century, Portugal was involved in two major conflicts:World War IandPortuguese Colonial War(1961-1974). After the endPortuguese EmpireIn 1975 he took part in peacekeeping missions in the Portuguese Armed Forces, East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq (Nasiriyah), Lebanon,Financial[142]andCentral African Republic.[143]Portugal also conducts a number of independent unilateral military operations abroad, such as the interventions of the Portuguese Armed Forces in Angola in 1992 and Guinea-Bissau in 1998: the main purpose was to protect and withdraw Portuguese and threatened foreign nationals. . by the local civilian population. conflicts


Portuguese Judicial AuthorityPortuguese LawPortugal’s drug policyLGBT rights in Portugal

The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law system, also known as the continental family law system. The main laws include the Constitution (as amended in 1976),Portuguese Civil Code(1966, revised) andPortuguese Penal Code(1982, revised). Other relevant lawstrade code(1888, modified) andCode of Civil Procedure(1961, revised).

Supreme National Court,Supreme Judicial CourtandConstitutional Court. This equipmentIt establishes an independent prosecutors’ council under the chairmanship of the Attorney General.

Portuguese law applied beforecolonies and territoriesand continue to be influential countries.

Portugal became the first country in the world to abolish the law.imprisonment(in 1884) and was one of the first nationsabolish the death penalty. The maximum prison sentence is limited to 25 years.

Portugal is also known for banning all common drugs in 2001, the first country in the world to do so. Effectively invalidates possession of all drugs that are still illegal in other developed countries, including Portugal.marijuana,cocaine,heroin, andLSD. While ownership is legal, trading and possession of “personal use for more than 10 days” is still punishable by jail time and fines. Those caught in small amounts of any drug of their choice are sent to a rehabilitation facility and may refuse treatment with no consequences. Despite criticism from other European countries claiming that Portugal’s drug consumption will rise a lot, the overall number of drug use has fallen with it.HIVinfections fell 50% in 2009. Drug use among 16- to 18-year-olds also decreased, but cannabis use increased only slightly in this age group.[144][145][146]

LGBTI Rightshas increased significantly in recent years. On August 27, 2003, Portugal added an employment law against discrimination based on sexual orientation.[147]On July 24, 2004, sexual orientation was added to the Constitution as part of the features protected against discrimination.[148]On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth legally recognized country in the world.same sex marriageat the national level. The law went into effect on June 5, 2010.[149] gay adoptionAllowed since March 1, 2016[150]Same-sex couples with access to medically assisted reproduction as of May 13, 2016.[151]This bill passed the Parliament and was signed by the President.Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.[152][153][154]As of January 2017Gender Identity Law,[155]simplify the legal processsexand renametransgenderguys, make it easy for minors to changegender signin legal documents.[156]In August 2018, rightgender identityandgender expressionthe right to self-determination is preserved,intersexminors are protected by law from unnecessary thingsmedical procedure“until the identity of the child is revealed” and the right to be protected from discriminationgender characteristicsis also protected by the same law.[157]

law enforcement[Editor]

National Republican Guardlaw enforcement in Portugal

Portugal’s main police forces are:Guarda National Republican – GNR(National Republican Guard), oneGendarme; mostPolicia de Seguranca Publica – PSP(Halkın Public Security), the civil defense police force in urban areas; andPolicia Judiciaria – PJ(Forensic Police) is a highly specialized criminal investigation police overseen by the Ministry of Public Security.

Corrective Services[Editor]

Portugal has a total of 49 correctional institutions operated by the Ministry of Justice. These include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons and 1 ‘Cadeia de Apoio’ (Support Detention Centre).[158]As of January 1, 2021[Update]The current prison population is about 11,234 inmates, about 0.11% of their entire population.[159]Incarceration rates have been increasing since 2010, with a 15% increase over the past eight years.[159]

Administrative units[Editor]

Administrative divisions of Portugal

Administratively, Portugal is divided into 308.autonomous city(Portuguese:municépios or concelhos), after the reformtwo thousand thirteenIt is divided into 3,092 civil quarters (Portuguese:freguesia). In operational terms, the municipal and civil parish governments are the only legal entities, along with the national government.local government unitDefined by the Portuguese government (e.g. cities, towns or villages do not have legal status but can be used as watersheds for defined services). For statistical purposes, the Portuguese government alsoNaming regional units for statistics(NUTS), interurban communities, and the informal, county system were used (and phased out by national governments) until European integration.[original research?]Mainland Portugal is divided into 18 counties, while the Azores and Madeira Islandsautonomous Region; The largest unit established since 1976,Mainland Portugal(Portuguese:Mainland Portugal) andautonomous regions of Portugal(AzoresandMadeira).

The 18 counties of the Portuguese mainland are:aveiro,beige,Braga,Bragança,Castelo Branco,Coimbra,Evora,faro,Guardian,Leiria,Lisbon,portalegre,porto,Santarem,Setúbal,Viana do Castelo,Villa RealandImage- Each county is named after the county seat.

In the NUTS system of the European Union, Portugal is divided into seven regions:Azores,alentejo,algarve,centre,Lisbon,MadeiraandNorteand NUTS regions, with the exception of the Azores and Madeira, are divided into 28 subregions.

Fields [160]
Black Capital city Domain Population
first northern region porto 21,284 square kilometers (8,218 sq mi) 3,587,074
2nd Lisbon District Lisbon 3,001 square kilometers (1,159 square miles) 2,870,770
3 Central District Coimbra 28,200 square kilometers (10,888 sq mi) 2,227,567
4 Alentejo region Evora 31,603 km2 (12,202 sq mi) 704,707
5 Algarve region faro 4,960 square kilometers (1,915 sq mi) 467,475
6 Autonomous Region of Madeira funchal 801 km2 (309 sq mi) 250,769
7 Azores Autonomous Region Ponta Delgada 2,333 square kilometers (901 sq mi) 236,440
County [160]
District Domain Population District Domain Population
first Lisbon 2,761 km2 (1,066 sq mi) 2,275.591 front Guardian 5,518 square kilometers (2,131 square miles) 143.019
2nd Leiria 3,517 square kilometers (1,358 square miles) 458,679 11th Coimbra 3,947 km2 (1,524 sq mi) 408,631
3 Santarem 6,747 km2 (2,605 sq mi) 425,431 twelfth aveiro 2,808 square kilometers (1,084 sq mi) 700,964
4 Setúbal 5,064 square kilometers (1,955 square miles) 875,656 13 Image 5,007 km2 (1,933 sq mi) 351.592
5 beige 10,225 km2 (3,948 sq mi) 144.410 14 Bragança 6,608 km2 (2,551 sq mi) 122,833
6 faro 4,960 square kilometers (1,915 sq mi) 467,495 15 Villa Real 4,328 square kilometers (1,671 square miles) 185,878
7 Evora 7,393 square kilometers (2,854 square miles) 152,436 16 porto 2,395 square kilometers (925 sq mi) 1,786.656
8 portalegre 6,065 square kilometers (2,342 sq mi) 104,989 17 Braga 2,673 square kilometers (1,032 sq mi) 846,515
9 Castelo Branco 6,675 square kilometers (2,577 sq mi) 177,912 18 Viana do Castelo 2,255 square kilometers (871 sq mi) 231.488

Government Financing[Editor]

Portuguese financial crisis 2010–2014

Portuguese debt compared to Eurozone average

Portuguese economy

The Portuguese government is heavily indebted and has received a 78 billion euro bailout.European UnionandInternational Monetary Fundin May 2011.[161]Portugal’s overall economy debt ratio was 107% when the country received the bailout.[161]As part of the agreement, the country agreed to reduce the budget deficit from 9.8% of GDP in 2010 to 5.9% in 2011, 4.5% in 2012 and 3% in 2013.[162]

After the rescue package was announced, the Portuguese government-ledPedro Passos Coelho’s photo.In addition to cutting government spending, it succeeded in taking measures to improve the state’s finances, including raising taxes, freezing low civil servant salaries and cutting 14.3% of high salaries. The Portuguese government also agreed to abolish it.share goldinTelecommunications Portugalveto power over important decisions.[163][164]In 2012, all civil servants’ salaries were cut by an average of 20% compared to 2010, and up to 25% for those earning more than €1,500 per month.[165]

IMF,European Commission(EC) andEuropean Central Bank(ECB) said in September 2012 that Portugal’s debt would reach 124% of gross domestic product in 2014.[166]The IMF had previously said in July 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak at around 118.5% of GDP in 2013.[166]In September 2013, the Portuguese Government revised Portugal’s 2013 public debt to 127.8 percent, after a peak of 130.9% that month.[167]

A report was published in January 2011.Diario de Noticias[168]Published by in Portugal.Gradivaproven to be in the range betweencarnation revolutiondemocracy in 1974 and 2010Government of the Portuguese Republicencouraging overspending and investment bubbles through uncertaintyPublic-private partnershipand the funding of many ineffective and unnecessary external consultations and consultations by committees and businesses.
This allows significantlyslipin government administrationpublic constructionand increased bonuses and salaries of senior executives and executives. The permanent and long-term recruitment policy encouraged extra civil servants. RiskCredit,Public debtCreative and Europeanstructuring and association fundsIt has been mismanaged for nearly forty years.[169]

two Portuguese banks,Banco Português de Negocios(BPN) andBanco Privado Português(BPP) had accumulated losses for many years due to bad investments, embezzlement and accounting fraud. BPN’s situation is particularly dire due to its size, market share and political implications – then Portuguese President Cavaco Silva and several of his political allies maintained personal relationships and eventually did business with the bank and its managers. and was arrested for fraud and other crimes.[170][171][172]Under the pretext of avoiding a possible serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy, the Portuguese government decided to offer them a bailout package that would cause future damage to taxpayers and the Portuguese people in general.

very economical[Editor]

Portuguese economyeconomic history of portugal


Portugal is aadvancedand onehigh income countryWith GDP per capita of 77% of the EU28 average in 2017 (increased to 75% in 2012)[173]and oneHDIIt was 0.850 (40th highest) in 2018.[174]According to an OECD report, Portugal’s GDP (PPP) at the end of 2018 was $32,554 per capita.[175]Portugal’s national currencyeuro(€), changePortuguese Escudoand the country was one of the original member stateseurozone. Portuguese central bankBanco de Portugal, an integral partEuropean Central Bank System. Most industries, businesses and financial institutions are concentrated in:Lisbonandportourban areas -Setúbal,aveiro,Braga,Coimbra,Leiriaandfarocounties are the biggest economic centers apart from these two main regions.
According to the World Travel Awards, Portugal was named Europe’s Best Golf Destination in 2012 and 2013.[176][177]

Avenida da LiberdadeMarquess of Pombal SquareEurope’s most expensive shopping streets

Sincecarnation revolution1974, culminating in the end of onestages of economic expansion(starting from the 1960s),[178]A significant change has occurred in the country’s annual economic growth.[179]After the chaos of the 1974 revolution andPRECDuring this period, Portugal tried to adapt to change.modern global economyIt is an ongoing process in 2013. Portugal since the 1990spublic consumption-basedeconomic developmentmodel gradually evolves into a dedicated, export-oriented systeminvestmentand its developmenthigh technologyfields. As a result, business services have outstripped more traditional industries such as textiles, footwear and textiles.mushrooms(Portugal is the world’s leading mushroom producer),[180]wood products and beverages.[181]

In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its worst recession since the 1970s, resulting in the country’s bailout by the European Commission, the Central Bank and the European and International Monetary Fund (IMF). aid accepted in 2011,PortugalTo implement a series of austerity measures in return for financing support of 78,000,000,000 Euros. In May 2014, the country exited the bailout, but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining the reform momentum. Coming out of the bailout, the economy contracted by 0.7% in the first quarter of 2014; however, the unemployment rate declined to 15.3%, although still high.[182]

Council of the Republic

The average salary in Portugal is €910 per month, excluding self-employed.[183]andminimum wage, by law, €705 per month (paid 14 times a year) as of 2022.[184][185][186]

This Global Competitiveness Reportfor the year 2019 published byWorld Economic ForumIt put Portugal in 34th place in the economic index.

This Economist Intelligence UnitPortugal’s Quality of Life Index ranked Portugal as the 19th country with the world’s best quality of life in 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries such as France and Germany, ahead of the United Kingdom and South Korea, but nine places behind. Its only neighbor is Spain.[187]This comes despite the fact that Portugal remains one of the countries with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe.[188]

gold reserves

Biggovernment companyincludes:Aguas de Portugal(country),Caixa Geral de Depositos(bank),Comboios de Portugal(Railway),Companhia das Lezirias(agriculture) andRTP(media). Some state-owned units were previously administered by the state.Incorporated company parpublica, which oneshareholderconsists of many public and private companies.[citation needed]Formerly state-owned companies that have recently been privatized include:CTT(postal service) andMOTHER(airport).

Listed companiesEuronext Lisbon ExchangeasEDP,Galp,Jeronimo Martins,Mota-Engil,Novabaz,semapa,Portugal Soporcel,Telecommunications Portugalandto the endis one of the largest Portuguese companies by number of employees,net incomeor internationalmarket share. Euronext Lisbon is an important Portuguese stock exchange and is part of the stock market.NYSE Euronext, the first global stock market. This PSI-20Portugal’s choice and best knownstock index.

This International Monetary FundAt the end of June 2017, it published an updated report on the Portuguese economy, with a strong short-term outlook and investment and export growth over previous years. Due to the surplus in 2016, the country is no longer bound by the Surplus Procedure implemented during the previous financial crisis. The banking system is more stable, although there are still doubtful debts and corporate debt. The IMF recommends that Portugal try to resolve these issues so that it can attract more private investment. “Continuing strong growth, coupled with continued declines in public debt, will reduce the risks posed by high debt levels, particularly as foreign exchange capacity declines.”
This OECDEconomic reports since 2018 show a slow recovery; and Portugal’s growth outlook remains positive for 2020.[189][190][191]

main area[Editor]

Agriculture in PortugalFishing in PortugalMining in PortugalPortuguese wine


Agriculture in PortugalIt is based on distributed units belonging to small and medium-sized families. However, the field also includes a larger scale.intensive agricultureexport orientedagricultural businesssupported by companies (such asGroup RAR’SVitacress,sovena,lactogal,Valley de Rosa,Companhia das LeziriasandValouro). The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock, including:tomatoes,citrus,green vegetables,rice,wheat,barley,Sweetcorn,olive,oilseed,Hazelnut,Cherry,blueberries,table grapes,edible mushrooms,Dairy products,Poultryandsteak. based onFAO, is the leading manufacturer in PortugalmushroomsandcarobIt accounts for 50% and 30% of world production, respectively.[192]It is also the third largest exporter in the world.Chestnutand Europe’s third largest producer.pastry.[193]Portugal among the 10 largest countriesolive oilIt is the fourth largest exporter and producer in the world.[194]The country is also one of the world’s largest exporters.Alcohol, become famous for itwine.

forestryIt also played an important economic role among rural communities and industry (i.e.paper industryincludesPortucel Soporcel Group,design woodincludesSonae Industry, andfurnitureincluding various production facilities in and aroundPaços de Ferreiracore of Portugal’s major industrial activities.IKEA). In 2001, total agricultural produce accounted for 4% of the country’s GDP.

“Cup”alentejotypes of wine.

It has a strong tradition in Portugal, which has traditionally been a naval power.Portugal’s fishing industryand one of the countries with the highest per capita fish consumption.[195]The main landings in Portugal (including the Azores and Madeira), based on the total number of landings per year,Matosinhos,penis,olhao,Sesimbra,Figueira da Foz,sinuses,portimaoandMadeira. Processed fish products from Portugal are exported through a number of companies under a number of different trademarks and registered trademarks, such as:Ramirez, the world’s oldest operating fish canned producer.

Portugal is an important Europeanmineralbetween the manufacturer and.Copperproducer. The country is also an important producer.tin,tungstenanduranium. However, the country lacks executive potential.hydrocarbon explorationandaluminuma limitation that hinders the developmentminingandMetallurgicindustries. Despite the fact that the country has large iron and coal reserves after the 1974 revolution – especially in the north – and as a resulteconomic globalization, low competitiveness has resulted in a reduction in mining activities for these minerals. This panasqueiraandNeves-Corvo MineIt is one of Portugal’s most well-known mines still in operation.[196]

Rich Portugallithiumunderground land concentrated especially in districtsGuardian,Image,Villa RealandViana do CasteloMost of the country’s lithium comes from the Gonçalo aplite-pegmatite mine. the biggestlithiumThe European mine, operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region is estimated to have 30 years of production reserves. He has 5 more deposits.[197][198][199]In May 2018, Savannah Resources announced a 52% increase in estimated lithium resources at its Lithium Mina do Barroso Project in northern Portugal, saying the country could become Europe’s first supplier.spodumene, a mineral containing lithium.[200]The company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine are currently 14 million tons. Lithium prices soared due to rising demand for the mineral, which is used in electric vehicle batteries and to store electricity from the grid. Europe consumes more than 20% of the global lithium battery supply, but currently has to import its entire supply of this mineral.[201]

W Resources announced in 2018 that it has started a new drilling campaign in São Martinho.yellowProject in Portugal. The program, called the reverse circulation drilling program, consists of approximately 2,000 meters of drilling and 15 holes in total. The goal is to expand resources by integrating data from 2016 drilling results with the expected expansion with the ongoing campaign.[202][203][204]

secondary field[Editor]

Portugal SoporcelSetúbal

various industry,car (Volkswagen AutoeuropaandPeugeot Citroen) andbike,[205] aviation(embracingandOGMA),electronic deviceanddocument, to arriveplate,chemical,cementandwood flour. Volkswagen GroupAutoEuropemotor vehicle assembly plantpalmone of the biggestforeign direct investmentprojects in Portugal
Modern, non-traditional technology-based industries, such asaviation,biotechnologyandinformation Technologydeveloped in various locations across the country.alverca,Evora[206]andPonte de SorLed by Brazil-based Embraer and Portuguese OGMA, they are the main hubs of the Portuguese aviation industry. After entering the 21st century, many large biotechnology and information technology industries have been established and concentrated in the urban areas of China.Lisbon,porto,Braga,Coimbraandaveiro.[citation needed]

third level area[Editor]

Tourism in Portugal


The banking and insurance sectors have performed well to crisis 2007-2008, and this partially reflects the rapid expansion of the market in Portugal. While sensitive to various markets and insuranceriskAlthough the impact on individual insurers varies widely, in general, both the life and non-life sectors are expected to withstand some serious shocks.[207]

travel andtravelIt remains extremely important for Portugal. In order for the country to stay ahead of its competitors, it needs to focus on niche attractions such as health, nature and rural tourism.[208]

Portugal is among the 20 most visited countries in the world, hosting an average of 20,000,000 foreign tourists every year.[209]Portugal elected in 2014Best European CountrythroughAmerica Today.[210]

Portugal in 2017 both electedEurope’s Top Destinations[211]and in 2018 and 2019,World’s Best Destination[212]

Barcelos’ Rooster

Tourist spots in Portugal include:Lisbon,Cascais,Fatima,algarve,Madeira,portoandCoimbra. Lisbon is the sixteenth most visited tourist destination among European cities[213](with seven million tourists staying in the city’s hotels in 2006).[214]Among the major luxury destinationsPortuguese RivieraandComporta Beach.

In addition, approximately 5-6 million religious pilgrims visit it.FatimaIt is said that the place where the Virgin Mary appeared to the three shepherd children each year took place in 1917.Temple of Our Lady of FatimaIt is one of the largest Roman Catholic temples in the world. The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new attractions such as:Douro Valley, islandPorto Santo, andalentejo.

LegendBarcelos’ RoosterIt tells the story of the miraculous intervention of a dead rooster to prove the innocence of a man wrongfully accused and sentenced to death. Stories about the 17th centurycalvarIt is part of the collection of the Archaeological Museum, housed in Paço dos Condes, a Gothic palace.Barcelona, a city in northwestern Portugal.
This Barcelos’ Roosterbought by thousands of tourists as a countrymap.

On November 30, 2016, the United Nations added Portuguese.BisalhaesThe tradition of making black pottery on UNESCO’s heritage protection list.[215]On December 7, 2017,United NationsAdditionalBonecos de Estremoz-Estremoz’s toysas traditionalUNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritageof humanity.[216]

fourth area[Editor]

science and technology in Portugal

Scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly carried out in a network.CHEAPunit ofState Universitiesand government-run autonomous research institutions.INETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e InovaçaoandINRB – Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos. Funding and management of this research system is mainly carried out under the direction of:Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education(MCTES) and MCTESsFundacao coin for a Ciencia and Tecnologia(FCT).

Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa

biggest $biological scienceresearch institutions such asInstituto de Medicina Molecular,Neuroscience and Cell Biology Center,IPATIMUP,Instituto de Biologia Molecular e CelularandAbel Salazar Institute of Biomedical Sciences.

Among the largest non-governmental research institutions in Portugal are:Instituto Gulbenkian de CienciaandChampalimaud Foundation, a neuroscience and oncology research center that annually awards one of the highest monetary awards of any science award in the world. A number of domestic and multinational industrial and high-tech companies are also responsible for research and development projects. One of Portugal’s oldest knowledgeable societiesLisbon Academy of Scienceswas founded in 1779.

IberianState-sponsored bilateral research efforts include:International Iberian Nanotechnology LaboratoryandIbercivis computer distributionFoundation is a joint study program of Portugal and Spain. Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. These include:European Space Agency(ESA),European Laboratory for Particle Physics(CERN),STUDENT, andEuropean Southern Observatory(ESO).

Portugal is the biggestAquariumin Europe,Lisbon Oceanariumand the Portuguese have a number of other important institutions, such as government agencies, that focus on science-related exhibits and analysis.Ciencia VivaA program of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to promote the culture of science and technology among the Portuguese people,[217]mostUniversity of Coimbra Science Museum,National Museum of Natural Historyat the University of Lisbon andvisionary.
With the emergence and development of someScience ParkPortugal, which has helped create thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses around the world, has embarked on a series of developments.[218]Science parks around the country. These include:Taguspark(inoeiras),Coimbra iParque(inCoimbra),biological matter(inkantanhede),Madeira Tecnopolo[219](infunchal),Sinus Tecnopolo[220](insinuses), Tekmaia[221](inmaia) andparkourbis[222](inCovilha). Companies are in Portugal’s science parks to take advantage of a wide range of services, from financial and legal advice to marketing and technology support.

Egas Moniza Portuguese doctorbrain angiogramandalbino, taken in 1949Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine- he was the first Portuguese to receiveNobel Prizeand only in the sciences.

This European Innovation ScoreboardIn 2011, it placed Portugal-based innovation 15th, with an impressive increase in innovation spend and output.[223]Portugal ranked 31stGlobal Innovation IndexIt increased from 32 in 2019 to 2021.[224][225][226][227]


Transport within Portugal

Portugal in the early 1970srapid economic growthwith the increaseconsumptionand new car purchases prioritize improvements in transportation. Still after joining in the 1990sEuropean Economic CommunityThe country has built many new highways. Today, the country has a road network of 68,732 km (42,708 mi), of which about 3,000 km (1,864 mi) are part of 44 highway systems. The first highway (connecting Lisbon to the National Stadium), opened in 1944, was an innovative project that made Portugal one of the first countries in the world to build a highway (road). This road eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5. ).

Vasco da Gama Cầu BridgeEU

Although several other routes were created (circa 1960 and 1970), large-scale highway construction only took place after the early 1980s. in 1972Brisa, a highway franchise company was formed to take over the operation of many highways in the region. Tolls are required on many highways (see Fig.Via Verde).Vasco da Gama Cầu Bridgeis the longest bridgeEU(second longest in Europe) with 12,345 km.[228][229]

Mainland Portugal89,015 km2nd(34,369 sq mi) area is served by four international airports located near the country’s main cities.Lisbon,porto,faroandbeige. Lisbon’s geographic location makes it a stopover at many local airports for many foreign airlines. Primary educationstarboardTo beTAP Air Portugal, many other domestic airlines offer domestic and international flights. The government decided to build a new airport outside of Lisbon.Alcohol, changeLisbon Portela AirportThe plan was suspended due to austerity measures. Currently the most important airports in TurkeyLisbon,porto,faro,funchal(Madeira) andPonta Delgada(The Azores) is managed by the national airport authority groupANA – Aeroportos de Portugal. Another important airport is Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores. The airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands in the Azores. It also serves as a military airbase for the United States Air Force. The base is still used to this day.

A national railway system across the country and into Spain, supported and managed byComboios de Portugal(CP).rail transportPassenger and cargo are operated using 2,791 km (1,734 mi) of rail currently in service, with 1,430 km (889 mi) electrified and an allowable train speed of approximately 900 km (559 mi). shaft). It is managed by the railway network.Infrastructure services in Portugaland transportation of passengers and goods is the responsibility of CP, including publicly traded companies. In 2006 CP carried 133,000,000 passengers and 9,750,000 VNDton(9,600,000 VND)long tone; 10,700,000 wonshort tone) of your goods.

The main ports are located in:sinuses,Lisbon,Leixos,Setúbal,aveiro,Figueira da Foz, andfaro.

The two largest metropolitan areas have metro systems:Lisbon MetroandMetro Sul do TejoinsideLisbon metropolitan areaandPorto Metro StationinsidePorto urban area, each over 35 km (22 miles). O Bo Dao NhaLisbon Tram Serviceprovided byCompanhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa(carris), for more than a century. Inporto,tram networkwith only one line of tourists on the shoredourothe rest, construction began on September 12, 1895 (firstIberian Peninsula). All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport networks and taxi services.


Energy in Portugal

Portugal has a significant source of wind and river energy, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been a trend to develop the renewable resource industry and reduce the consumption and use of fossil fuels. largest in the world in 2006.Sunplanted that daymour photovoltaic power stationstarted working nearmoura, while in the South, the world’s first advertisementwater wave powerFarm,Aguçadoura song Wave Farm, openednorthern region(2008). As of the end of 2006, 66% of the country’s electricity production was obtained from coal and fuel oil power plants, and 29% from coal and fuel oil power plants.hydroelectricpounded and by 6%Wind power.[230]

In 2008, renewables still produced 43% of the country’s electricity, even though hydroelectric production fell due to severe drought.[231]As of June 2010, electricity exports surpassed imports. In the January-May 2010 period, 70% of the national energy production was provided from renewable resources.[232]

Portuguese National Energy Transmission Corporation,Redes Energéticas Nacionais(REN) uses sophisticated modeling to predict weather, particularly wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy from various renewable energy facilities.
Before the solar/wind revolution, Portugal had been generating electricity from hydroelectric power stations on its rivers for decades. New programs combining wind and water: wind-powered turbines pump water uphill at night, the windiest night; The water then flows downhill from day to day, generating electricity at peak consumer demand. Portugal’s distribution system is also now a two-way street. Rather than just providing electricity, it draws power from even the smallest generators, such as rooftop solar panels. The government actively encouraged such contributions by setting a high price for those who buy rooftop solar power.


Portugal Demographics


fadistasJeronimos Monastery

Statistics Portugal (Portuguese:INE – Instituto Nacional de Estatistica) estimates the population to be 10,344,802 (52% female, 48% male) according to the 2021 census.[7]This population was relatively homogeneous throughout most of its history: a single religion (Roman Catholic) and a single language contributed to this national and ethnic unity.[233]

The most important demographic influence in modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest; Current interpretationY chromosomeandmtDNAdata show that he is descended from the Portuguese.old stoneHumans began arriving on the European continent about 45,000 years ago. All subsequent migrations had a genetic and cultural influence, but the main source of Portugal’s population remains the Paleolithic. Genetic studies have shown that the Portuguese population is not significantly different from other European populations.[234]The Portuguese were superior in genetics (Iron Age)[235]It belongs to haplogroup R1b along withbrithonic,Alpanddivinegeneral signs. Southern Europe (Sardinia, Italy and the Balkans), generally North West (West Germany), and to a lesser extent Great Britain/Ireland (Brythonic/Gaelic) and France (Alps) are also expected but not very common. There are Scandinavian and Eastern European genetic markers, with low confidence.[235]Other sources will indicate a small presence.BerberIsrael will also be part of the low trust zone.[236]

a native PortugueseIberianethnic group and they make up 95% of the total population, have very similar ancestrySpanishand have a close relationship with colleaguesCountries on the arc of the Atlantic OceanIt dates back to the Bronze Age due to maritime trade with Ireland, the British Isles, France, and Belgium. These maritime contacts and the prevalence of haplogroup R1b as the main common sign of these nations point to a common ancestry and cultural affinity. Other maritime connections with the Mediterranean, particularly the Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans, and Moors, added some special phenotypes in southern Portugal and especially in southwestern Spain (Tartessosculture), making Portugal and northwestern Spain a bridge between northwestern Europe and the Mediterranean,Atlanticpersonality.

Despite good economic development over the past three decades, the Portuguese have been the shortest in Europe since 1890. This resulting height difference took place in the 1840s and has been growing ever since. Given the late industrialization and economic growth in Portugal compared to central Europe, modest real wage growth has been one of the driving factors. Another determining factor is latency.Human Resourcesis making progress.[237]

Total fertility rate (TFR) as of 2015[Update]estimated 1.52 births per woman, one of the lowest in the world, well below the 2.1 replacement rate,[238]It is still significantly lower than the highest level of 5.02 children born per woman in 1911.[239]In 2016, 52.8% of births were to unmarried women.[240]Like most Western countries, Portugal faces low fertility: the country,fertility rate below substitution levelsince the 1980s.[241]Portugal has the 17th oldest population in the world, with an average age of 43.7 years.[242]

The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by significant inequalities, in 2016 the country was ranked seventh lowest among them.Social Justice Indexfor the European Union.[243]

In 2018, the Portuguese Parliament approved a budget plan for 2019 that includes tax breaks for returning immigrants to attract those who left during this crisis 2007-2008. Budget 2019 expansion, powered byleft wingThe parliamentary majority aims to increase the purchasing power of households while cutting an already low deficit.immigration returnsthey will be allowed to declare only half of their five-year taxable income upon return, provided they have lived abroad for at least three years. The “return show” will run for two years. About 500,000 people left Portugal between 2010 and 2015.great depression. While some 350,000 have returned, Lisbon wants to draw the rest back home with a plan similar to that of the Irish.[244]Portugal approved a line of credit for Portuguese immigrants to invest in the country on their return. Also, immigrants returning in 2019 and 2020 will see their taxes cut in half as part of an stimulus measure to bring back native Portuguese and stimulate the population and stimulate growth.[245]- when Portugal struggles with a low birth rate andelderly population. According to the national statistics office, Portugal’s population will decrease from 10.3 million today to 7.7 million in 2080 and the population will continue to age.[246]


Largest cities or towns in Portugal
To grant Name Black Pop music. To grant Name Black Pop music.
LisbonPorto first Lisbon Lisbon 552,700 11th Queluz Lisbon 75,169 Vila Nova de Gaia Amadora
2nd porto Norte 237,591 twelfth Rio Tinto Norte 64,815
3 Villa Nova de Gaia Norte 186.502 13 barreiro Lisbon 63,353
4 amadora Lisbon 175,136 14 aveiro centre 60.058
5 Braga Norte 136,885 15 Image centre 57,975
6 funchal Madeira 111,541 16 Odivelas Lisbon 56,847
7 Coimbra centre 105.842 17 Leiria centre 50,533
8 Setúbal Lisbon 98,131 18 Matosinhos Norte 49,486
9 in Alma Lisbon 96.404 19 Guimaraes Norte 47,588
front Agualva-Cacem Lisbon 79,805 20 faro algarve 47,575

urban area[Editor]

urban areas of Portugal


There are two major metropolitan areas (THE GAME):Lisbonandporto.[248]The following is a list of people who own the mainland.functional urban area (FUA).

To grant City name Population [249]
first Lisbon 2,818,000 won
2nd porto 1,758,531
3 Coimbra 270,000 won
4 Braga 250,000 won
5 funchal 210,000 won
6 Guimaraes 180,000 won
7 aveiro 140,000 won
8 Ponta Delgada 120,000 won
9 Vila Franca de Xira 120,000 won
front faro 118,000 won
11th Image 110,000 won

Regions by HDI[Editor]


this is a listNUTS2 statistical regions of Portugalthroughhuman development indexsince 2019.[250]

To grant state HDI (2019) [251]
Human development is very high
first Lisbon metropolitan area 0.901
Portuguese (average) 0.864
2nd centre 0.856
3 Norte 0.851
4 algarve 0.847
5 alentejo 0.840
6 Madeira 0.818
7 Azores 0.807


Immigration to Portugal

In 2007, Portugal had a population of 10,617,575, of which approximately 332,137 are legal.immigrants.[252]In 2015, Portugal had a population of 10,341,330, of which approximately 383,759 were legal immigrants, representing 3.7% of the population.[253]In 2017, Portugal had 416,682 legal residents of foreign nationality, of whom 203,753 were men and 212,929 women.[254]As of 2020, 32,147 persons of foreign origin are Portuguese nationals, of which 17,021 are women and 15,126 men.[255]

Portugalcolonial historyIt has long been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographical location in the southwestern corner of Europe overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. It was one of the last Western European colonial powers to give up its overseas territories (among them).AngolaandMozambique1975), handed over managementMacauThe country came to the People’s Republic of China in late 1999. As a result, the country was both influenced and influenced by cultures from its former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former lands for economic and personal reasons. Long-time immigrant Portugal (the vast majorityBraziliansPortuguese origin),[256]has now become a net immigrant nation,[257]and not just the last wordIndian(in Portuguese until 1961),Africans(in Portuguese until 1975) andFar East Asia(Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories. An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal when the country’s African possessions gained independence in 1975.[256]

With explosions from the 1990sbuild, several new wavesUkrainians,Brazilians,african lusophoneand the otherAfricanssettled in the country.Romans,Moldovans,Kosovar Albanians,Russianandchinese peoplealso immigrated to the country. PortugalRomaniaThe population is estimated to be about 40,000 people.

NumberVenezuelans,PakistanandIndianImmigrants are also important. Seasonally, it is generally estimated at more than 30,000.illegal immigrantsstingAgriculturemostly in the South, where they are exploited by organized networks of seasonal workers. Workers are sometimes paid less than half the legal minimum wage. These immigrants, who often arrive without valid documents or employment contracts, make up more than 90% of agricultural labor in southern Portugal.
Mostly Indo-Asian, from India,Bangladesh,Nepal, Pakistan andThailand. inalentejothere are many African workers. Significant numbers also come from Eastern Europe, Moldova, Ukraine, Romania and Brazil.[258]

Additionally, someEuropean Union Citizen, many from the UK or other Scandinavian countries, have permanent residency in the country (the British diaspora is mostly retirees living in the Algarve and Madeira).[259]


Religion in Portugal

Religions in Portugal (Census 2011) [260]
Catholic Rome 81.0%
Other Christianity 3.3%
Other 0.6%
no religion 6.8%
do not declare 8.3%

According to the 2011 Census, 81.0% of the Portuguese populationRoman Catholicism.[261]There are little Protestants in the country,holy day by day,Islam,Hindus,Sikhism,Eastern Orthodox Church,Jehovah’s witnesses,Bahá’í,Buddhists,JewishandSpiritualistcommunity. effectTraditional African religionsand Traditional Chinese Religion is also widely felt, particularly in the fields related to Traditional Chinese Medicine and Traditional African Medicine. About 6.8% of the population declared themselves irreligious and 8.3% did not give any answer about their religion.[262]

Many Portuguese holidays, festivals, and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church have been generally peaceful and stable since the early years of the Portuguese nation, their relative strengths fluctuated. inside13th and 14th centuryThe church had authority and identification with the foundation of the Portuguese education system, including early Portuguese nationalism andfirst university.

DevelopingPortugal’s Overseas Empiredo thisevangelistimportant agentcolonizationwith important rolesEducationandMissionarypeople from all inhabited continents. Developinggenerousand youngrepublicmovements during the period that led to its formationFirst Portuguese Republic(1910–26) changed the role and importance of organized religion.

Portugal is asecular state:Church and state are officially separateDuring the First Portuguese Republic and this was repeated in 1976Portuguese Constitution. In addition to the Constitution, the two most important documents on the subjectfreedom of religionConcordata 1940 between Portugal and Portugal (later revised in 1971)Vaticanand the Religious Freedom Act 2001.


Portuguese LanguagePortuguese

Miranda languageMiranda do DouroTras-os-Montes

Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. This is aromance languageincomingGalician-Portuguesenow what has been saidGaliciaandNorthern Portugal. There are still strong similarities between them.GaliciaandPortuguesecultures. Galicia was a consultant observergroup of portuguese-speaking countries.

derived from the Portuguese languageLatintold byto latinase Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian peninsulaabout 2000 years ago – specificallyCelts,[21] cone,[263] Lusitanians[20]andTurduli.[264]In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread around the world when Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and 1999.[265]Portuguese is spoken as a native language on five different continents, and Brazil has the highest number of native Portuguese speakers of any country.
As of 2013, Portuguese is in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Principe, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea andEast Timor. These countries plusMacauPortuguese Co-official Special Administrative Region (People’s Republic of China)Chinese, to createluzospherean ancient termRoman Province”lusitania”, now matches the Portuguese territory in the southdouroRiver.[266]

Miranda languageIt is also recognized as a common official regional language in various autonomous cities of Northeast Portugal. a part ofAstur-Leonezlanguage group.[267]Portugal has an estimated 6,000 to 7,000 Mirandese speakers.[268]Also, a particular dialect is calledbarranquenho, saybarrancos, also officially recognized and protected in Portugal from 2021.[269] Minderico, onesocialPortuguese spoken by about 500 people in the townmind.[270]

According to thisInternational English Proficiency Indexhas a high English proficiency, which is higher than other Romance-speaking European countries such as Portugal, Italy, France or Spain.[271]


Education in Portugal

The education system is divided into early childhood education (for those under 6 years old), basic education (9 years, three cycles, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, compulsory from age 5 onwards) and higher education. divided into university andEncyclopediaEducation). Universities are usuallysections. Institutes and schools are also common names for their autonomous subdivisions.Portuguese higher education institutions.

University of Evora

The total adult literacy rate is 99.4%. Portugal’s primary school enrollment rate is 100%. According to thisInternational Student Assessment Program(PISA) 2018, Portugal scoresOECDaverage in reading, math, and science. In reading and math, the average performance in 2018 is close to that observed in 2009-2015; In terms of science, the average performance in 2018 is lower than in 2015 and close to the levels observed in 2009 and 2012.[272][273]

Approximately 46.9% of university-aged citizens (20 years old) attend one of Portugal’s higher education institutions.[274][275][276](compared to 50% in the USA and 35% in OECD countries). In addition to being a destinationInternational StudentPortugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both national and international, reached 380,937 in 2005.

Your King ReligionUniversity of Coimbra

Estudo Geral

Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis

Universities in Portugal have existed since 1290.Portugal’s oldest university[277]It was first established in Lisbon before it moved.Coimbra. Historically, within the Portuguese Empire, Portugal established the world’s oldest engineering school.America(Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e DesenhobetweenRio de Janeiro) in 1792, as well as being the oldest medical school in Asia (Escola Medico-Cirúrgicabetweengoa) in 1842. Currently, the largest university in PortugalUniversity of Lisbon.

This Bologna ProcessIt was accepted by Portuguese universities and polytechnics in 2006. Higher education in state-run institutions is offered on a competitive basis, on a system.number claususadministered through the national admissions database. However, every higher education institution also offers some additional vacancies to athletes, adult applicants (over the age of 23), through other unusual admissions processes.International Student, foreign studentsluzosphere, diploma holders from other institutions, students from other institutions (transfer learning), former students (admission) and course changes are subject to certain standards and regulations set by each educational institution or course division.

Most student expenses are supported by public money. However, with the increasing tuition fees students have to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the appeal of new types of students such as employees (most international and part-time students or evening classes), entrepreneurs, parents, retirees and immigrants (most notably) aspectBrazil,[278]a Portuguese-speaking country), many departments, a college or university’s total tuition income and charitable[citation needed]loss of education quality (teacher per student, computer per student, class size per student, etc.).

Portugal joinedPartnership agreements with Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutionsTo further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.


Health in Portugal


According to thisHuman Development Report, Middlelong lifeIn Portugal he reached the age of 82 in 2017;[279]The year 2020 is estimated at 82.11 years.[280]According to United Nations projections, when we come to 2100, the life expectancy of the Portuguese population will be over 90 years old.[281]The trajectory of Portuguese life expectancy is illustrated using historical data from 1950 and future projections to 2100, as can be seen in the graph on the left.

Portugal ranks 12th in the world’s top public health systems, ahead of other countries such as the UK, Germany or Sweden.[282][283]

The Portuguese healthcare system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (Servico Nacional de Saude, SNS), private social health insurance schemes for certain occupations (medical subsystem) and voluntary private health insurance. SNS provides global coverage. In addition, approximately 25% of the population is insured by medical subsystems, 10% by private insurance plans and another 7% by mutual funds.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for SNS management as well as health policy development. The five regional health authorities are responsible for implementing national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and procedures, and overseeing health care delivery. Decentralized efforts to shift administrative and fiscal responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, regional health authorities’ autonomy in budgeting and spending has been limited to primary health care.

SNS is mainly funded through general taxation. Employers (including government) and employee contributions represent the main sources of funding for the health subsystem. In addition, the source of financing is paid directly by the patient and there are largely voluntary health insurance accounts.

NOVA University Lisbon

Similar to other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese diednon-communicable disease. death fromheart related diseases(CVD) highereurozonehowever, its two main components, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, showed an opposite trend compared to Eur-A.cerebrovascular diseaseIt is the leading killer in Portugal (17%). Portuguese die from cancer 12% less than in Eur-A, but the mortality rate is not falling as fast as in Eur-A. Cancer is more common in women under the age of 44, as well as in children. Lung cancer (slow growing in women) and breast cancer (fast growing) are rarer, but cervical cancer and prostate cancer are more common.
Portugal has the highest diabetes death rate in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the 1980s.

Portugalinfant mortality rateAbout 2 deaths per 1000 live births, 2.4 deaths per 1000 live births.

People are generally well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of behaviors on their health, and their use of health services. However, their perceptions of their health may differ from what administrative and regulatory data suggest about disease levels in the population. The survey results are therefore based on household-level self-reports that complement other data on health status and use of services.

In Portugal, only one third of adults rate their health as good or very good (Kasmel et al., 2004). This is the lowest among the Eur-A reporting countries, reflecting the country’s relatively unfavorable situation in terms of selected mortality and morbidity rates.[284] Santa Maria HospitalIt is the largest university hospital in Portugal.[285]


Portuguese Culture

Jeronimos MonasteryBelem Toweropera magnaManual’s styleCasa da Musica

Portugal developed a particular culture while being influenced by various civilizations that crossed the Mediterranean and Continental Europe or was introduced when it played an active role in Europe.Age of Discovery. During the 1990s and 2000s (decades), Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities.Calouste Gulbenkian FoundationIt was founded in 1956 in Lisbon.

These include:Belém Cultural Centerin Lisbon,Serralves OrganizationandCasa da Musica, both inportoNew public cultural facilities such as city libraries and concert halls have been built or renovated in many cities across the country.
Portugal is his hometown17UNESCOWorld Heritage, vote9th in Europe and 18th in the world.

architecture industry[Editor]

Portuguese ArchitectureInheritance classification established in Portugal

Traditional architecture is distinctive and inclusivemanualAlso known as late PortugueseGothicThe splendid, Portuguese architectural decoration of the first decades of the 16th century, followed bypombalin style20th century interpretation of the traditional architecture of the 18th century,Soft Portuguese style, appeared widely in major cities, especially Lisbon. World-renowned architects such as modern Portugal gaveEduardo Souto de Moura,Alvaro Siza Vieira(bothPritzker Prizewinner) andGoncalo Byrne. O Bo Dao NhaThomas TaveiraIn addition, the stadium design is particularly striking.[286][287][288]


Portuguese cinema

Portuguese CinemasIt has a long tradition dating back to the advent of the media in the late 19th century.Antonio Lopes Ribeiro,Antonio Reis,Pedro Costa,Manoel de Oliveira,Joao Cesar Monteiro,Edgar Pera,António-Pedro Vasconcelos,Fernando Lopes,Joao Botelho,Joao Mario GriloandLeonel Vieiraare among those who have achieved fame. Notable Portuguese film actors includeJoaquim de Almeida,Nuno Lopes,Daniela Ruah,Maria de Medeiros,Diogo Infante,Soraia Chaves,Ribeirinho,Lucia Moniz, andDiogo Morgado.


Portuguese Literature

Luis Vaz de CamõesPortuguese Renaissance

Fernando PessoaPortuguese

Portuguese literature, one of the oldest Western literatures, flourished through song as well as writing. until 1350,Portugal-Galicia street singerthey spread their literary influence over most of the Iberian peninsula,[289]like a kingD. Religious(1261-1325) is known for his poems. Other kings would write and finance literary works in Portuguese history, for exampleD. Fernando(1367-1383) who helped Pêro Menino in writingLivro da Falcoaria[75].Another important name in Portuguese literatureGil Vicente(c. 1465 – c. 1536) He was one of the founders of the Portuguese dramatic tradition.

Explorers and poetsLuis de Camões(c. 1524-1580) wrote epic poetryOs Luciadas(lusiads), withVirgil’Saeneidis its main effect.[290]Modern Portuguese poetry has its roots in neoclassical and contemporary styles.bocage(1765-1805),Antero de Quental(1842-1891) andFernando Pessoa(1888–1935). Modern Portuguese literature is represented by the following authors:Almeida Garrett,Camilo Castelo Branco,Eça de Queiros,Fernando Pessoa,Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen,António Lobo Antunes,Miguel TorgaandAgustina Bessa Luis. Especially popular and distinguishedJosé Saramago, buyer 1998Nobel Prize in Literature.


Portuguese cuisinePortuguese wine

Portuguese cuisine is very diverse. Portuguese eat a lot of dry foodsnow fish(bacalhauPortuguese), there are hundreds of themrecipe. Two other popular grilled fish recipessardineandin the calderaa kind of tomatoCasseroleIt can be made from various types of fish with a mixture of onions, garlic, bay leaves, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, parsley.Coriander. Typical Portuguese meat recipes with beef, pork, lamb, goat or chicken include:cozido à portuguese,feijoada,franco de churrasco,leitao(Barbecuesuckling pig),to your gloryandcarne de porco à alentejana. A very popular northern dishin the frankThe trio with boiled white beans and carrots is usually served with steamed white rice.fairy nympha spicy charcoal chicken dish served with chicken, rice and vegetables, a favorite all over Portugal, but the most popularalgarveblack.

Typical fast foods include:Francesinha(in French) From Porto”Tripas à moda do Porto”it’s also a traditional Porto dish andbifans(grilled pork) orpreviously(grilled steak)sandwich, well known all over the country. About Portuguese artCakederived from manymedieval timesCatholic monasteries spread throughout the country. These monasteries were built using very few materials (mostly almonds,vanilla,Cinnamon, flour, eggs and some alcohol) has managed to create an amazing array of different pastries.pastéis de Belém(orpastéis de nata) originally from Lisbon andegg moleExamples from Aveiro. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse and different regions have their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a good food culture and there are countless delicious restaurants and eateries across the country.tasquinhas.

Portugal’s wines have been internationally recognized since the days of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their gods.Bacchus. Today the country is known to wine lovers, and its wines have won many international awards. Some of Portugal’s best wines include:Vinho Verde,Vinho Alvarinho,Vinho do Douro,Vinho do Alentejo,Vinho do Dao,Vinho da Bayramand sweetWine,Madeira wine, andMoscowfromSetúbalandFavorite. Port and Madeira are particularly valuable in many parts of the world.


Portuguese Music

fadoJosé Malhoa

Portuguese Musiccovers many genres. The traditional genre is Portuguese folk music, which as a musical instrument has deep roots in local traditions.bagpipe(stool), drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and ukuleles (kavaquinho). It is a famous genre in Portuguese folk music.fadoan ingrained melancholic urban musicLisbon19th century, probably in bohemian settings, oftenportuguese guitarandsaudade, or longing.Coimbra fado, A kind of “street singerThe serenade “fado” is also notable. Among notable international artistsAmalia Rodrigues,carlos paredes,Jose Afonso,Mariza,do Carlos Carmo,Antonio Chainho,Misia,Dulce Pontesandmadredeus.

In the field of classical music, Portugal is represented by the names of pianists.Arthur Pizarro,Maria Joao Pires,Sequeira Costa, violinist Carlos Damas,Gerardo Ribeiroand by the great cellist in the pastGuilhermina Suggia. Notable composers includePortuguese Marcos,José Vianna da Motta,Carlos Seixas,Joao Domingos Bomtempo,Joao de Sousa Carvalho,Luis de Freitas Brancoand his studentsCheerful Braga Santos,Fernando Lopes Graca,Emmanuel NunesandSergio Azevedo. Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel d’Oliveira have had some international success.

Amalia Rodrigues


OutsidePeopleOther genres such as , Fado and Classical music, pop and other modern music in Portugal, especially from North America and England, as well as a wide variety of Portuguese artists and bands are present in Portugal, the Caribbean, African Lusophone and Brazil. Among internationally known artistsDulce Pontes,moon magic,Buraka Som System,Blowing mechanism,David CarreiraandGifts, three people were later nominatedMTV Europe Music Awards.

Portugal has several summer music festivals, for exampleSudoeste FestivalinZambujeira do Mar,Festival de Paredes de CourainParedes de Coura,Vilar de Mouros Festivalbesidecaminha,exploding festivalinIdanha-a-Nova City,NOS Live,Summer Festival SumolinEriceira,Rock in Rio LisbonandSuper Bock Super RockinGreater Lisbon. Outside of the summer months, Portugal has a number of festivals designed for more urban audiences, such as Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto. Also, agoa tranceHeld every two years in central Portugal, the festival Boom Festival is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: European Festival Awards 2010 – Green Festival’ n’Clean of the Year and Green Festival Excellence Award in 2008 and 2010. There are also student festivals.Queima das FitasThey are major events in many cities across Portugal. Portugal in 2005.MTV Europe Music Awards, inPavillion Atlântico,Lisbon. Also Portugal wonEurovision Song Contest 2017inKyivwith the songamar pelos dois”offered bysalvador sobraland then organizedCompetition 2018inAltice ArenainLisbon.[291][292]

Visual arts[Editor]

Portuguese Art

Domingo Sequeiraneoclassical

adoration of the Eucharist; 1828

there is Portugalrich history in painting. The history of the first famous painters dates back to the 15th century.Nuno GoncalvesandVasco Fernandes- It was part of the late Gothic period. During the Renaissance, Portuguese painting was heavily influenced by Scandinavian painting. in the baroque periodJosefa de ObidosandVieira Lusitanoare the most prolific painters.José Malhoaknown for his workfado, andColumbano Bordalo Pinheiro(who drew his portraitTeophilo BragaandAntero de Quental) all referencesnature painting.

The 20th century saw the emergencemodernism, and with it the most prominent Portuguese painters:Amadeo de Souza CardosoHeavily influenced by French painters, especially the Delaunays (Robertandsonia). Among his most famous worksPost a Russa e o Fígaro in Canção. Another great modernist painter/writerCarlos BotelhoandAlmada Negreirosfriends with poetsFernando Pessoa, who painted the portrait of Pessoa. deeply affected by bothCubismandFuturistflow.

Today, painters are among the leading international figures in the visual arts.Vieira da Silva,Julio Pomar, Helena Almeida,Joana Vasconcelos,Julian SarmentoandPaula Rego.


Sports in Portugal

Cristiano Ronaldo


FootballIt is the most popular sport in Portugal. There are many football leagues, from local amateurs to top-notch professionals. LegendaryEusebiostill an important symbolPortuguese footballDate.FIFA World’s Best PlayerwinningLuis Figo’s photo.andCristiano RonaldoWho won?FIFA Golden Ball, two world-class Portuguese football players. Portuguese football managers are also notable.Jose Mourinhois one of the most famous.

This Portugal national football team-Seleçao National- won oneUEFA European Championshiptitle:UEFA Europe 2016with a 1-0 winendendFrance, organize the tournament. Portugal also came first.UEFA Nations League 2018–19with the first 1-0 winHollandinsideendsecond (organized in Portugal)Euro 2004(also made in Portugal), third1966 FIFA World CupandConfederations Cup 2017and fourth2006 World Cup. At youth level, Portugal had two wins.FIFA World Youth Championship(in1989and1991) and someUEFAEuropean Youth Championship.

S.L. Benfica,Sports SPandFC PortoThe biggest onesport Clubby popularity and the number of titles won, usually “os tres grandes”(“three adults”). Won eight championships in EuropeUEFAclub tournaments, featured in 21 finals and is a regular contender in the final stages almost every season. In addition to football, Portugal’s many sports clubs, including the “big three”, compete in a number of other sporting events with varying degrees of success and popularity.roller hockey,Basketball,futsal,Handball, andvolleyball.
This Portuguese Football Federation(FIRE EXTINGUISHING) -Federacao Portuguesa de Futebol- arranged annuallyAlgarve Cup, respectablewomen’s footballThe tournament was held in the Portuguese region.algarve.

This Portugal national rugby teamqualifiedRugby World Cup 2007andPortugal national rugby teamplayedWorld Rugby Sevens Series.

Nelson Evora

Patricia Mamona

InOlympicThe Portuguese have won many gold, silver and bronze medals at the European, World and Olympic Games.road bike, withVolta and PortugalThe most important race is also a popular sporting event and includes professional cycling teams such as:Sports SP,boavista,Clube de Ciclismo de TaviraandUniao Ciclista da Maia. At the international level, Portuguese cyclists have achieved good results.Joaquim AgostinhoCompleted on the podium in 1978 and 1979Tour de Franceand 1974Vuelta and Spain.Rui Costawonworld titlemen’s road race.

The country has also achieved significant success in sports.fencing,judo,To fly a kite,Shovel, sailboat,windsurf, take a shot,Tae-kwon-do,triathlonandwindsurfholds a number of European and world titles. This Paralympic GamesAthletes have also won many medals in sports.swimming,boccia,Olympic,mixed martial artsandwrestle.

Miguel Oliveira

In motorsport, Portugal is internationally recognized.Portugal Meeting, andEstorilandCircuit Algarveas well as the resurrectionPorto race trackEvery two years it organizes a stage for some world-renowned pilots and racers as well as the WTCC.Miguel Oliveira,Tiago Monteiro,Antonio Felix da Costa,Filipe Albuquerque,Pedro Lamyand various otherssports car racing.

In equestrian sports, Portugal won its only Horseball-Pato world championship in 2006 and placed third in the First shadowWon several victories in the World Cup and EuropeWorking methodschampionship.

In water sports, Portugal has three main sports:swimming,water balloonsandwindsurf. Recently, Portugal has succeededShovelWith a number of world and European champions such as Olympic medalists. The country alsoWorld Surfing Federationman and womanchampionship,MEO Rip Curl Pro Portugalinsuper tubesinpenis.

Northern Portugal has its own originalMartial arts,Jogo do PauWhere boxers use a wand to face one or more opponents. With thousands of enthusiasts nationwide, other popular sports-related outdoor activities include:air softnessfishing,golfhiking, hunting andorientation.

Portugal is one of the best countries in the worldgolfdestinations.[294]He has received several World Golf Awards.[295]

The famous spirit of sportsmanship and successful competition in Portugal can be traced back to the times.ancient rome.Gaius Appuleius Diocles(104 – after 146 AD) something remarkableCoachmanbe bornLamegobecoming one of the most famous athletesAncient History. It is generally accepted ashighest paid athlete of all time.[296][297]

see more[Editor]

  • Portal Portugal
  • Directory of articles on Portugal
  • About Portugal


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  • Happiness, Christopher; Macedo, in Jorge Braga (1990). Unity in Diversity in the European Economy: The Southern Frontier of the Community. London, United Kingdom: Center for Economic Policy Research. ISBN 978-0-521-39520-5.
  • Juang, Richard M.; Morrissette, Noelle Anne (2008). Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics and History: A Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. Volume 2. ISBN 978-1-85109-441-7.
  • Trang, Melvin Eugene; Sonnenburg, Penny M. (2003). Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural and Political Encyclopedia. Volume 2. ISBN 978-1-57607-335-3.
  • Brokey, Liam Matthew (2008). Portuguese colonial cities in the early modern world. ISBN 978-0-7546-6313-3.
  • Ribeiro, Angelo; Jose Hermano (2004). História de Portugal I – A Formação do Território [Portuguese History: The Formation of the Territory] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-106-6.
  • Ribeiro, Angelo; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de Portugal II – A Afirmação do País [History of Portugal II: National Declaration] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-107-4.
  • de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de Portugal III – A Epopeia dos Descobrimentos [History of Portugal III: Age of Discovery] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-108-2.
  • de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de Portugal IV – Glória e Declínio do Império [History of Portugal IV: The Glory and Fall of the Empire] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-109-0.
  • de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de Portugal V – Aosystemração da Indepêndencia [History of Portugal IV: Restoration of Independence] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-110-4.
  • Saraiva, José Hermano (2004). História de Portugal X – A Terceira República [History of Portugal X: Third Republic] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-115-5.
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  • Muñoz, Mauricio Pasto (2003). Viriato, A Luta pela Liberdade [Viriato: The Struggle for Freedom] (in Portuguese) (3rd ed.). esquilo ISBN 972-8605-23-4.
  • Grande Encyclopedia Universal. Durclub Club. 2004.
  • Constituição da República Portuguesa [Constitution of the Portuguese Republic] (in Portuguese) (VI Revisão Constitucional ed.). 2004.

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Video tutorials about where is portugal on the map

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Learn about the 18 Districts and 2 autonomous regions of the country of Portugal and it’s geography, with this fun educational music video and parents. Brought to you by Kids LearningTube! Don’t forget to sing along!


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We make up Portugal

With 18 continental districts

And 2 Autonomous Regions

In Europe our beauty is bliss

We make up Portugal

We have a capital named Lisbon

We touch the country of Spain

And the North Atlantic Ocean

I’m Aveiro District

In the central coastal region

In Portugal

touching the North Atlantic Ocean

This is Beja District

In Southern Portugal

I span from the Atlantic Ocean

To Spain now you know

Braga District is what

you are seeing right now

in the northwest of Portugal

Touching the North Atlantic, Wow

Bragança District

In the Northeast corner

Of the country of Portugal

Of this is am sure

Castelo Branco

Is also a District

Located in central Portugal

Touching Spain like this


Is a District as well

In central Portugal

My coastline is really swell

Évora District

Does border Spain

I’m. In southern Portugal

Now you know my name

I’m Faro

A District also

You can come to visit me

I’m as south as you can go

I’m Guarda

A District you can see

I do border Spain

Thanks for learning about me

The District of Leiria

IU has a long coastline

Touching the Atlantic

You’re now a friend of mine

We make up Portugal

With 18 continental districts

And 2 Autonomous Regions

In Europe our beauty is bliss

We make up Portugal

We have a capital named Lisbon

We touch the country of Spain

And the North Atlantic Ocean

I am the Lisbon District

I have the capital

Of this beautiful country

Of this land of Portugal


In central Portugal you see

I’m also a district

I hope you remember me

The District of Porto

I’ on the northwest coast

My coastline is plentiful

You may love me the most

I’m Santarém

And I’m mostly landlocked

Also touching the TAGUS river

I’m glad we talked

The District of Setúbal

Has a defining shape

In the southwest part of Portugal

South of Lisbon I drape

Viana do Castelo

The most Northern district

The southern part of me

touches Portugal like this

The District of Vila Real

Is located in the north

I do border Spain

For what that is worth

The District of Viseu

Is landlocked inside Portugal

Coming up are 2 Autonomous Regions

You will know

The Azores

An Autonomous Region

And Madeira

An Autonomous Region that is fun

I am Portugal

Touching North Atlantic Ocean

I have a capital

Its name is Lisbon

We make up Portugal

With 18 continental districts

And 2 Autonomous Regions

In Europe our beauty is bliss

We make up Portugal

We have a capital named Lisbon

We touch the country of Spain

And the North Atlantic Ocean

keywords: #mapofportugal, #oneminuteportugal, #portugal, #lisbontravel, #portuguesehistory, #portugalmap, #algarve, #algarveportugal, #portugalalgarve, #lisbon, #lisbonportugal, #portugalhistory, #lisboa, #travel, #lisbontravelguide, #portuguesehistoryfacts, #regionsofportugal, #divisionsportugal, #annatrond

A bit of geography lesson – map of Portugal. Did you know about it?

In One Minute PortugalI`m telling the stories about Portuguese dates, traditions and history just in 1 munute.

Let`s put on our timer and start!



keywords: #Portugalia, #Historia, #history, #historyofportugal, #historiaportugalii, #1492, #1139, #1975, #macau, #easttimor, #brazil, #historyofbrazil, #thehistoryofportugal, #thehistoryofbrazil, #portugueseempire, #angola, #mozambique, #portugueseindia, #colonialempire, #colonies, #colony, #1910

Music :

-Kevin MacLeod ~ Angevin B

-Kingdom of Portugal (1826–1910) National Anthem “Hino da Carta”

-National Anthem of Portugal – A Portuguesa

history of portugal

portugal history

portuguese empire

danzig hd mapper


portugal every year

portugal map

angevin b

history of portugal every year

the history of portugal

portugal anthem

history portugal

portugal empire

history of spain

portuguese history

portuguese anthem

portugal national anthem

danzig mapper

history of spain every year

hino da carta

history of

spain every year


anthem of portugal

kingdom of portugal anthem

portuguese empire anthem

every year

kevin macleod angevin b

spain history


portuguese national anthem

timeline of the rulers of portugal

history every year

evolution of portuguese

national anthem of portugal

anthem portugal

kingdom of portugal

the history of spain

rulers of portugal

map of portugal

ottoman empire every year

spanish empire

history spain


history of netherlands


the portuguese empire


history of japan every year

kevin macleod angevin

keywords: #zoominginonportugal, #travelandgeography, #geographynow, #geographynowportugal, #karaandnateportugal, #drewbinskyportugal, #lisbon, #travellisbon, #travelportugal, #geographyportugal, #porto

In this series I’m zooming in on countries with Google Earth, and it’s time to take a look at Portugal! Google Earth gives information about cities, bordering countries, coordinates, distances, and I can use street view! Thank you, Google Earth, for showing us our beautiful earth!


Stressful travel to Portugal:


Stay in Portugal and travel to Brazil:


Traveling back to Lisbon after forgetting laptop:


A day in Lisbon:


Watch all geography videos here:





Camera: GoPro Hero 7 Black

Microphone: Zoom H5 Handy Recorder

Music from Epidemic Sound (

Made with:

Google Earth Studio

Adobe Premiere Pro


Nations Encyclopedia


Google Maps

Our World in Data


World Bank

Creative Common Licenses:

11cavesCliffsTunnels_benagil, by Bethany Ciullo

-[email protected]/29930847296

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