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Continental Portugal – Wikipedia

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  • Summary: Articles about Continental Portugal – Wikipedia Mainland Portugal is therefore commonly called by residents of the Portuguese archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira the continent (Portuguese: o …

  • Match the search results: The designation mainland Portugal is used to differentiate the continental territory of Portugal from its insular territory. The latter comprises the archipelagos of Madeira and Azores in the Atlantic Ocean. The Azores and Madeira are also commonly referred to as the autonomous regions (Portuguese: …

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Portugal | History, Flag, Population, Cities, Map, & Facts

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  • Summary: Articles about Portugal | History, Flag, Population, Cities, Map, & Facts Portugal, officially Portuguese Republic, Portuguese República Portuguesa, country lying along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula …

  • Match the search results: In constant battle and rivalry with Spain, its eastern neighbour, Portugal then turned to the sea and, after Henry the Navigator’s establishment of a school of navigation at Sagres, in time founded a vast overseas empire that would become Europe’s largest and richest. Much of that empire was quickly…

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what continent is portugal in –

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  • Summary: Articles about what continent is portugal in – Portugal is located in the westernmost portion of the mainland Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. The nation is officially called the Portuguese …

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About Portugal – UPT

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  • Summary: Articles about About Portugal – UPT The Continent is divided into 18 districts. Portugal’s total area is of 92.000 Km2 and there are around 10 million inhabitants. The Portuguese Republic …

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    After the accession to the EU in 1986, Portugal benefited from a significant economic growth and development throughout the 90s, largely thanks to the funds allocated by the European Union to improve the country’s infrastructures. Portugal is a modern economy where the service industry, particula…

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About Portugal – SiPN

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  • Summary: Articles about About Portugal – SiPN Portugal is located in Southeast Europe and bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. It is quick and easy to get from Portugal to all European capitals and to numerous …

  • Match the search results: For the first time in the history of the World Tourism Awards (Tourism’s “Oscars”), Portugal won the title of “World’s Leading Tourism Destination 2017”, a designation that was preceded by its award in October 2017 as “Best European Destination”. Ever since, and for three years in a row, Portugal ha…

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  • Summary: Articles about Where is Portugal? A Map of Portugal & Popular Area’s Portugal is located on the Iberian Peninsula, in the southwest corner of Europe. It shares that peninsula with its larger neighbor, Spain, which occupies about …

  • Match the search results: Romance, culture and adventure awaits in Portugal. Learn more about Portugal and other European countries in our daily postcard e-letter. Simply enter your email address below and we’ll send you a FREE REPORT – Explore the Old World in Laidback Portugal.

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What continent is Portugal on? – SidmartinBio

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  • Summary: Articles about What continent is Portugal on? – SidmartinBio Portugal is located in the westernmost portion of the mainland Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. The nation is officially called the …

  • Match the search results: Portugal is located in the westernmost portion of the mainland Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. The nation is officially called the Portuguese Republic. The country borders to the west and south the Atlantic Ocean and Spain to the north and east. Lisbon is the most significant city and capital of P…

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Which is the continent of Portugal? – SidmartinBio

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  • Summary: Articles about Which is the continent of Portugal? – SidmartinBio Which is the continent of Portugal? … It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic …

  • Match the search results: Continental Portugal. Continental Portugal (Portuguese: Portugal continental; Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈgaɫ kõtinẽˈtaɫ]) or mainland Portugal comprises the bulk of the Portuguese Republic, namely that part on the Iberian Peninsula and so in Continental Eu…

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Political Map of Portugal – Nations Online Project

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  • Summary: Articles about Political Map of Portugal – Nations Online Project The map shows Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa), a sovereign state in southwestern Europe.

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Portugal – A Country Profile – Nations Online Project

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  • Summary: Articles about Portugal – A Country Profile – Nations Online Project Portugal facts and figures: Official web sites of Portugal, links and information on Portugal’s art, culture, geography, history, travel and tourism, …

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All About Portugal – VisitPortugal

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  • Summary: Articles about All About Portugal – VisitPortugal The Madeira Archipelago has an area of 741 km2 and lies in the Atlantic Ocean about 500 km from the African coast and 1,000 km from the European continent (1½ …

  • Match the search results: With its mild climate, 3000 hours of sunshine per year and 850 kms of splendid beaches bathed by the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal is the perfect holiday destination all year round.This is a country that has the oldest borders in Europe, with an exceptional range of different landscapes just a short dist…

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Brief Description of Portugal – cespu

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  • Summary: Articles about Brief Description of Portugal – cespu Moreover, its location allows quick access not only to several European countries, but also to the east coast of the American and African continents. Portuguese …

  • Match the search results: Portugal lies along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula in south Western Europe. It shares a border with Spain in the east and north, while the Atlantic dominates the coastline in the west and south. Occupying about 16 percent of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal (including Madeira and Azores)…

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Portugal – The FEBS Congress

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  • Summary: Articles about Portugal – The FEBS Congress Portugal is located at the western end of the European continent, bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. It has more than 800 kilometers of coastline and a mild …

  • Match the search results: Portugal was a founder member of NATO in 1949 and is a member of the European Union since 1986. Portugal also co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), an international organization and political association of nations where Portuguese is an official language.Top image credit…

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Useful Information – Presidência Portuguesa do Conselho da …

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  • Summary: Articles about Useful Information – Presidência Portuguesa do Conselho da … Did you know that Portugal is the westernmost country of the european continent? Find out more about Portugal: · Portugal’s official name is República Portuguesa …

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571 What Continent Is Portugal In Premium High Res Photos

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About Portugal – Diplomatic Portal

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  • Summary: Articles about About Portugal – Diplomatic Portal Portugal, officially The Portuguese Republic, is a country in southern Europe, founded in 1143, occupying a total area of 92,212 km2. The mainland is located on …

  • Match the search results: Portugal was founded in 1143, year of the Zamora’s Treaty signing. The treaty, agreed upon by D. Afonso Henriques, the first King of Portugal, and Alphonse the VII of León and Castile, recognized Portugal as an independent kingdom. In 1179 that status was confirmed by Pope Alexander the III.

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Key information about Portugal –

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  • Summary: Articles about Key information about Portugal – Portugal is a European country, located in the extreme west of the continent, with a coastal coast bathed from north to south by the Atlantic Ocean, with air …

  • Match the search results: Portugal has a good road system, with highways running through the country from north to south, with connection to the main cities in the country. Also the railway line serves the main cities with ALFA PENDULAR fast train service, allowing you to travel from north to south of Portugal in 6h30m. Port…

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The Portuguese Role in Exploring and Mapping the New World

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  • Summary: Articles about The Portuguese Role in Exploring and Mapping the New World Portugal, the western-most European country, was one of the primary players in the … route to the Indies but inadvertently “discovered” a new continent.

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    Portugal during the Age of Discoveries

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Multi-read content what is the continent of portugal

Portugal (disambiguation)

Portuguese RepublicRepública Portuguesa (in Portuguese)

coat of arms

Motto: Esta é a ditosa Pátria minha amada (“This is my happy, beloved homeland”)
Anthem: A Portuguesa (“The Portuguese”)
Show globe Show map of European Union Location of Portugal (dark green) – in Europe (green
The capital and largest city Lisbon38°46’N 9°9’W / 38.767°N 9.150°W / 38.767; -9,150
Official language Portuguese
Recognized regional languages Mirandese [note 1]
Ethnic Groups (2021) [footnote 2] [3] 88.5% Portuguese 11.5% Other
Religion (2011) 84.3% Christian – 81.0% Roman Catholic – 3.3% other Christian 6.8% no religion 0.6% other 8.3% not reported
demonym Portuguese
government Semi-presidential unitary republic [4]
• Chairman Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
• Prime Minister Antonio Costa
legislative branch Council of the Republic
• First District 868
• Second District 1095
• Sovereignty June 24, 1128
• Kingdom July 25, 1139
• Treaty of Zamora October 5, 1143
• Rehabilitation December 1, 1640
• First Constitution September 23, 1822
• Republic October 5, 1910
• Democratization April 25, 1974
• Current constitution April 25, 1976 [note 3]
• Join the EWG January 1, 1986
• All in all 92,212 square kilometers (35,603 sq mi)[5] (109)
• Country (%) 1.2 (2015) [6]
• Census 2021 10,344,802 [7]
• Density 112.2 [8] / km2 (290.6 ​⁄ sq mi)
GDP (PPP) Probably 2022
• All in all $419.7 billion [9] (52nd)
• Per person $40,805 [9] (45th)
GDP (nominal) Probably 2022
• All in all $251.9 billion [9] (51st)
• Per person $24,495 [9] (45th)
Gini (2020) 33.0 [10] average
HDI (2019) 0.864[11] very high * 38
currency Euro (€) (EUR)
time zone UTC (WET) UTC − 1 (Atlantic / Azores)
• Summer (DST) UTC 1 (WEST) UTC (Atlantic / Azores)
Note: mainland Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, Azores is 1 hour behind.
date format DD / MM / YYYY
Lateral drive that’s right
call code 351
ISO code 3166 pt
Internet TLD .pt
^ Mirandese, spoken in several villages of the Miranda do Douro municipality, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n. ° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro), [1] which gave it official rights of use. . [2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized. ^ By Country of Birth ^ The Portuguese Constitution was adopted in 1976 with some minor changes from 1982 to 2005.

Portugal, officialPortuguese Republic(Portuguese:Republica Portuguese [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[Note 4]Is anationWhose country is it?Iberian PeninsulaofSouth West Europeand its territory also includes the Atlantic OceanarchipelagolaterAzoresandMadeira. It haswesternmost pointincontinental europe, and its Iberian part borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south, to the north and eastSpain, the only country withLand border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos form twoautonomous Regionwith their ownregional government. official and national languagePortuguese.Lisbonto becapital cityand the largest city.

Portugal is the oldest continuously existingnation stateon the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory has been continuously settled, raided and fought over ever since.Prehistoric. It is inhabited byCeltic moneyandCelticethnicity, visited byThe Phoenicians-The Carthaginians,ancient greekand ruled byRomanswho were pursued by the invasionsSuebiandVisigoth Germanic people. After the invasion ofIberian PeninsulasameMoors, most of its territory is part ofAl Andalus. Portugal as an early Christian founded countryrecapture. founded in 868,District of Portugalthen came to the foreBattle of Sao Mamede(1128). ThatKingdom of Portugalwas later announcedBattle of Ourique(1139) and independent ofleonwas recognized byTreaty of Zamora(1143).[Twelfth]

During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established itselfthe first global naval and trading empire, becoming one of the world’s most important economic, political and militaryenergy.[13]During this time what is known todayThe Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers who pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would becomeBrazil(1500). During this time Portugal was monopolizedspice trade,Divide the world with Castile into dominant hemispheresand the empire expanded with campaigns inAsia. But events such asThe 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the occupation of the country inNapoleonic War, andBrazilian Independence (1822)mostly deletedThe former luxury of Portugal.[14] A civil warbetweengenerouslyConstitutional and Conservative Autocrats in Portugal over the Royal Succession, which lasted from 1828 to 1834.

According toRevolution of 1910Fall of the monarchy, but democracy unstableFirst Republic of Portugalwas founded, then superseded byEstado Novothe dictatorship. After that, democracy was restoredCarnation Revolution(1974), conclusionPortuguese Colonial War. Independence was granted to most soon afterits overseas territories. ThatSurrender of Macau to China(1999) marked the end of what could be considered one of the longest-lived colonial empires in history.

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influenceglobal, with a legacy of about 250 millionPortuguese speakers.It is aIndustrialized countrywith aadvanced economyAnd bigstandard of living.[15][16][17]In addition, it ranks high inPeace,democracy,[18] freedom of the press,the stability,social progress,prosperityandgood in english. A member ofunited nation, thatEuropean Union, thatSchengen areaandEuropean Council(CoE), Portugal is also one of the founding members ofNato, thateuro zone, thatOECD, andCommunity of Portuguese Speaking Countries.

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 story
  • 2.1 History
    2.2 Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia
    2.3 Germanic kingdoms: Suebi and Visigoths
    2.4 The Islamic period and the Reconquista
    2.5 Counties of Portugal
    2.6 Era of Independence and Afonsine
    2.7 Johannine Era and Age of Discovery
    2.8 Iberian Confederation, Restoration and beginning of the Brigantine era
    2.9 The Pombaline Era and the Enlightenment
    2.10 Napoleonic Era
    2.11 Constitutional Monarchy
    2.12 First Republic and Estado Novo
    2.13 Carnation Revolution and European integration
  • 3 geography
  • 3.1 Climate
    3.2 Biodiversity
  • 4 Government and Politics
  • 4.1 Presidency of the Republic
    4.2 Government
    4.3 National Assembly
    4.4 Foreign Relations
    4.5 Military
    4.6 Law
    4.7 Law Enforcement
    4.8 Corrective Services
    4.9 Management Entities
    4.10 Public Finances
  • 5 economies
  • 5.1 Main Area
    5.2 Secondary Area
    5.3 Tertiary Education
    5.4 Fourth area
    5.5 Shipping
    5.6 Energy
  • 6 Demographics
  • 6.1 Urbanization
    6.2 Urban Areas
    6.3 Regions by HDI
    6.4 Immigration
    6.5 Religion
    6.6 Languages
    6.7 Education
    6.8 Health
  • 7 culture
  • 7.1 Architecture
    7.2 Cinemas
    7.3 Literature
    7.4 Kitchen
    7.5 Music
    7.6 Fine Arts
    7.7 Sports
  • 8 See more
  • 9 notes
  • 10 references
  • 10.1 Performance
  • 11 External links


Anta da Arca

Portuguese word derived fromRoman-Celticplace namePortus Kale;[19]a city todaypostageandVilla Nova de GaiaNow standing, at the mouth ofRiver Douronorth of present-day Portugal. The city’s name comes from the Latin forharboror port,harbor, but the second element ofPortus Kaleis less obvious. The main explanation for this name is that it is aEthnographicconverted fromThe Castros, also calledCallaeci, Gallaeci or Gallaecia, who occupied the northwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula.[20]SurnamecalandCallaiciis the origin of todayGaiaandGalicia.[21][22]

Another theory assumes thatcalorPhone callis a derivation of the Celtic word for port, asIrish caladorScottish Gaelic Cala. These interpretations require the region’s pre-Roman language to be a branch of Q-Celtic, which is not generally accepted since the region’s pre-Roman language was Gallaecian Celtic, which is generally considered to be P-Celtic. However, scholars such as Jean Markale and Tranoy suggest that all Celtic branches share a common origin and place names such as Cale, Gal, Gaia,Calais, Galatia, Galicia,Gaelic, gael,Gauls,Wales, cornwall,Walloniaand other languages ​​are derived from the same linguistic root.[21][23][24]

Another theory holds that Cala was the name of a Celtic goddess (cfGaelic Cailleach, a supernatural witch). Some French scholars believe that the name may come from “Portus Gallus”,[25]Port of the Gauls or Celts.

Around 200 BC BC,RomanstookIberian Peninsulaby the CarthaginiansSecond Punic War. They conquered Cale, renamed it Portus Cale (“Port Cale”) and incorporated it into the province.Galiciawith its capital inBracara Augusta(these daysbraga, Portugal). Inmiddle Ages, the area around Portus Cale is well knownSuebiandVisigothsasPortuguese. SurnamePortuguesedevelop toPortugaleDuring the 7th and 8th centuries and into the 9th century, this term was often used to refer to the area between the rivers.DouroandMinho. In the 11th and 12th centuriesPortugale,Portugal,PortvgalloorPortvgalliaewas calledPortugal.

14th CenturyMiddle Frenchname for countryportal, added the sound /n/ during the processExcellent, spread afterIntermediate English.[26]Contains medium English spelling variantsPortingall,portingale,[Note 5] portingaleandportingail.[26][28]curseportingalefound in Chaucer’s epilogue tooThe Story of the Priestess. These variations are inStream of Portingale, a Sino-English romance composed around 1400 and “Old Robin of Portingale’, an English ballad for children.portaland variations are also used inPoint[26]and consist in itmeal with cerealsname for countryPortingale.


History of Portugal


Prehistoric Iberian

Prehistoric rock art in the Coa Valley

Portugal’s early history is shared with the rest of the worldIberian Peninsulalocated in southwestern of Portugalderived from the combined Romano-Celtic namePortus Kale. This area isdonefrom preThe Celtsand the Celts, the peoples such asGallaeci,The Lusitans,[29] Celticiandnetwork(also known asConii),[30]visited byThe Phoenicians-The Carthaginiansandancient greek, was incorporatedRoman Republicdominate likeLusitaniaand part ofGallaecia, after 45 BC to 298 AD

The area of ​​today’s Portugal was populatedNeanderthalsand then overhomo sapiens, who roamed the boundless regions of the northern Iberian Peninsula.[thirty-one]These were subsistence societies and although they did not establish prosperous settlements, they formed organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domesticating herding animals, growing certain crops, and catching marine or alluvial fish.[thirty-one]

The megalithic ruins of Alcalar

Some scholars believe that at the beginning of the first millennium B.C. BC there were several wavesThe Celtsinvaded Portugal from central Europe and married the locals who formeddifferent tribes.[32]Another theory is that the Celts inhabited western Iberia/Portugal before a major Celtic migration occurredCentral Europe.[33]In addition, some ancient Celtic linguists have presented convincing evidence for thisTartessian language, once said in parts of SW Spanish and SW Portuguese, prefers Celtic, at least in structure.[34]

Archeology and modern research reveal the Portuguese word origin forThe Celtsin Portugal and elsewhere.[35]During this period and up until the Roman invasions, the Castro culture (a variant ofurn field culturealso known asurnfield culture) productive in modern Portugal and Galicia.[36][37][22]This culture together with remains of the Atlantean megalithic culture[38]and contributions originating from more western Mediterranean cultures ended up in the so-called Cultura Castreja orCastro culture.[39][40]The name refers to the distinctive Celtic populations known as “dùn”, “dùin” or “don” inGaelicand the Romans called castrae in their chronicles.[41]

Castro culturenorthern portugalCitânia de BriteirosCividade de Teroso

Based on Roman chronicles caCallaecifolks, along withLebor Gabala Erenn[42]From the reporting and explanation of the rich archaeological remains found in the northern half of Portugal and Galicia, it can be concluded that there was a matriarchal society with a military and religious aristocracy that was probably of the feudal type.[citation required]The characters with maximum power are the chief (chief tribe), who is of the military type and holds power within the Castro or his clan, and the druid, who mainly relates to the medical and religious functions that some castros may have in common . The Celtic universe remains homogeneous due to the possibility ofdruidsmet in councils with doctors from other regions to ensure the transfer of knowledge and key facts.[citation required]The first references to the Castro society are provided by chronicles of Roman campaigns, e.gStrabo,HerodotusandPliny the Elderamong other things about the social organization and description of the inhabitants of these territories,Gallaeci in northern Portugalas:
“A band of barbarians who fight by day and eat and dance under the moon by night.”

There are other similar tribes, and the chief among them isThe Lusitans; The heartland of these peoples is in the interior of central Portugal, while many other related tribes exist as wellCeltici of Alentejo, andCynetes or Conii of the Algarve. Among the tribes or subdivisions there areBracaria,Coelerni,Shares,grovii,Interamici,Leuni,Luanqui,Limici,Narbasi,Nemetati,Paesuri,Quaquerni,seurbi,Tamagani,Tapoli,Turduli,Turduli Veteres,Turdulorum oppida,Turodi, andSurname Zoela. Some small, semi-permanent trading settlements on the coast (such asTavira) was also founded inAlgarvearea throughThe Phoenicians-The Carthaginians.

Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia[Editor]


The Roman Temple of ÉvoraAlentejoRoman

The Romans fell in 219 BC. BC first entered the Iberian Peninsula. The Carthaginians, opponents of RomePunic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies. In the last days ofJulius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula was annexedRoman Republic.

The Roman conquest of present-day Portugal lasted almost two hundred years and cost the lives of many young soldiers and soldiers.
the lives of those sentenced to death in the slave mines if not sold as slaves to other parts of the empire. It suffered 155 BC. a severe defeat when arebellionstarting in the north. ThatThe Lusitansand other indigenous tribes, led byViriathus,[43][44]gained control of all of western Iberia.

Centum CellasBeira region

villa rustic

Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to put down the rebellion, but to no avail – the Lusitania continued to conquer the area. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus’ allies to kill him. 139 BC Viriathus was murdered andTautalosbecame the leader of the Lusitanians.

Rome installed a colonial regime. The full Romanization of Lusitania did not occur untilVisigothEpoch.

In the year 27 BC the Lusitania attained the status ofRoman province. Later a province was formed north of Lusitania, calledGallaecia, with the capital Bracara Augusta, todaybraga.[45]There are still many ruins of the castle (hill fort) throughout modern Portugal and the rest ofCastro culture.
Some of the urban ruins are quite large, such asConimbrigaandMirobriga. The former is not just one of the biggestRomanSettlements in Portugal, also classified asnational heritage. Conimbriga is 16 km away.coimbra, which in turn is ancientaeminium. The site also houses a museum displaying objects found by archaeologists during their excavations.

Numerous technical structures such as bathhouses, temples, bridges, roads, circuses, theaters and lay houses have been preserved throughout the country. Coins, some minted in the Lusitanian lands, and pieces of pottery have also been found. contemporary historians belongPaul Orosius(c. 375–418)[forty six]andHydate(c. 400–469), Bishop ofAqua Flaviae, which reported on the last years of the Roman regime and the arrival ofGermanic tribes.

Germanic Kingdom: Suevi and Visigoths[Editor]

Kingdom of Suebi

Visigoth Kingdom

At the beginning of the 5th century,Germanic tribes, DetailSuebi[47]anddestroyer(SilingiandHasdingi) with their allies,SarmatiansandAlansaggressionIberian Peninsulawhere they will establish their kingdom. ThatKingdom of Suebi[48]was the post-Roman kingdom of Germany, formerly established in the Roman provincesGallaecia-Lusitania. Remains from the 5th centuryAlanSettlements were found inAlenquer(from Old GermanicAlan Kerk,Temple of the Alans),coimbraand Lisbon.[49]

Around 410 and in the 6th century it became aKingdom of Suebi,[48][47]where is the kingHermerianmade a peace treaty with the Gallaecians before transferring his domains thereRechila, His son. In 448, Rechila died, leaving the canton to be expandedrechiar.
After the defeat by the Visigoths, the Suebian Empire was divided, with Frantan and Aguiulfo ruling together. Both ruled from 456 to 457, the year Maldras (457–459) unified the kingdom. He was assassinated after a failed Roman-Visigoth conspiracy.
Although the conspiracy failed in its intended purpose, the Suebian kingdom was again divided between the two kings:Frumar(Frumario 459-463) anddraw mouth(Remismundo, son ofmaldras) (459–469), who would reunite his father’s kingdom in 463. He would be forced into adoptionArian theory465 by the influence of the Visigoths.
in the year 500,Visigoth Kingdominstalled in Iberia, its registered office is inToledoand go west. They became a threat to Suebian rule.
After Remismund’s death in 469, a dark age began in which almost all written texts and reports disappeared. This period lasted until 550. All that is known about this period is thisTheodemund(Teodemundo) probably ruled most over the Suevi.
The Middle Ages ended with the rule of Karriarico (550–559), who reinstalledChristianin the year 550. He was followedTheodemar(559–570) During his reign the First Council of Braga (561) was held.

First Council of Braga

The councils represented a further development of the territorial organization (paroeciam suevorum (Swabian municipality) andChristianizationpagan population (De Correctione rusticorum) under the auspices ofSaint Martin of Braga(Sao Martinho de Braga).[50]

After Teodomiro’s deathMiro(570–583) was his successor. During his reign the 2nd Council of Braga (572) was held.
The Visigoth Civil War began in 577. Miro intervened. Later in 583 he also organized an unsuccessful expedition to retake Seville. Upon returning from this failed operation, Miro died.

Many internal struggles continued to take place in the kingdom of Suevi.Eborico(Eurico, 583–584) dethroned byAndeca(Audeca 584–585), who failed to stop the Visigoth invasion led by Leovigildo. The Visigoth invasion, which concluded in 585, transformed the once rich and fertile Suebi kingdom into the sixth province of the Gothic kingdom.[51]
Leovigildcrowned king of Gallaecia, Hispania andGallia Narbonensis.

King SuebiMiroMartin of Braga

For the next 300 years and up to 700, the entire Iberian Peninsula was ruled byVisigoths.[52][53][54][55][56]Under the Visigoths, Gallaecia was a well-defined area ruled by a god of its own. Dogs of this era were associated with the monarchy and acted as kings in all matters. Both ‘Governor’WambaandWittiza(Vitiza) acted as hegemons (they later became kings in Toledo). These two were known as the “Vizians” who were stationed in the northwest and called upon the Arab invaders from the south to be their allies in the power struggle in 711.Roderic(Rodrigo) was killed while resisting this invasion, thus becoming the last Visigoth king of Iberia. From various Germanic groups settled in western Iberia,Suebithe longest-lasting cultural heritage in present-day Portugal, Galicia and the western reaches of Asturias.[57][58][59]According to Dan Stanislawski, the Portuguese way of life in the northern regions of the Tagus was mainly inherited from the Suevi, where small farms, distinct from the large estates of southern Portugal, predominate.
Bracara Augusta, the modern city ofbragaand the ancient capital ofGallaecia, became the capital of Suebi.[50]In addition to some cultural and linguistic traces, the Suevi left the highest German heritage on the Iberian Peninsula in Portugal and Galicia.[60][self-published source?] Orosius, at the time the inhabitants of Hispania, who showed a fairly peaceful early settlement, newcomers to work on their lands[sixty one]or serve as bodyguards for the locals.[62]Another group of Germans who accompanied Suebi and settled in Gallaecia wereburi. They settled in the area between the riversCavadoandhome, called in the areaTerras de Bouro(Country of Buri).[63]

The Islamic Era and the Reconquista[Editor]

Today’s mainland Portugal was part of it, along with most of modern Spainal Andalusbetween 726 and 1249, afterUmayyad CaliphateconquerIberian Peninsula. This reign lasts from several decades in the north to five centuries in the south.[sixty-four]

After defeatingVisigothsIn just a few months, the Umayyad Caliphate began to expand rapidly across the peninsula. From 726, present-day Portugal became part of the vast Umayyad CaliphateDamascus, extends fromindustryRiver in the Indian subcontinent to southern France, until its collapse in 750. In that year, the west of the empire gained independenceAbd-ar-Rahman Iwith the facilityEmirate of Cordoba. After almost two centuries, the emirate has becomeCordoba Caliphin 929 until dissolution a century later in 1031 into no fewer than 23 petty kingdoms known asTaifakingdoms.[sixty-four]

Ibn QasiMertola CastleAlentejo

The governors of the taifas once proclaimed themselvesemirprovinces and established diplomatic relations with the Christian kingdoms in the north. Much of what is now Portugal is in the hands ofTaifa of BadajozlaterAftasid dynasty, and after a short time a mothLisbon’s Taifain 1022 under the reign ofSeville’s TaifalaterAbbadidsPoet. The Taifa period ended with the conquestAlmoravidsby whom?Moroccoin 1086 won a decisive victoryBattle of Sagrajas, then a century later in 1147, after the second Taifa period, fromAlmohads, fromMarrakech.[65]Al-Andaluz is divided into different districts calledKura. Its largest Gharb Al-Andalus consists of ten kuras,[66]each has a separate capital and governor. The most important cities of this period in Portugal were located in the southern half of the country:yeah,Silves,Alcaer do Sal,SantarémandLisbon.
The Muslim population in the area consists mostly of native Iberians who have convertedIslam(the so-calledMuwalladorMuladi) and Berbers. Arabs are basically made up of aristocratsSyriaandOman; and although small in number, they formed the elite population. ThatBerberoriginally comes fromrefandMountain Atlasregions of North Africa and are nomadic.[sixty-four]

District of Portugal[Editor]

District of Portugal

Vimara PeresCount of Portugal

A Visigoth Asturian noble namedPelagius of AsturiasIn 718 he was elected leader[sixty-seven]of many fallen peopleVisigothsNoble. Pelagius called on the remnants of the Visigoth Christian army to rebel against the Moors and regroup in the northern Asturian highlands, now also known as the Moors.Cantabrian Mountains, today’s small mountainous region in northwestern Spain, bordering onBay of Biscay.[68]

Pelagius’ plan was to use the Cantabrian Mountains as a place of refuge and protection from the invading Moors. He then wanted to regroup the Christian armies in the Iberian Peninsula and use the Cantabrian Mountains as a stepping stone to reclaim their lands. Thereby after the victory over the Moors inBattle of CovadongaIn 722 Pelagius was proclaimed king and thus founded ChristianityKingdom of Asturiasand began the war of rediscovery of Christianity known inPortugueseasReconquista Crista.[68]

In the late 9th century, the region of Portugal between the Minho and Douro rivers was reconquered from the Moors by a nobleman and knight.Vimara Pereson behalf of the kingAlfonso III of Asturias. Note that the area used to include two major cities -Portus Kaleon the beach andbragainland, where many towns were now deserted, he decided to resettle and rebuild them with Portuguese and Galician refugees and other Christians.[69]In addition to the Arabs from the south, the coastal regions in the north were also attackedNormanandviking[70][71]Great Bandits of 844. The last great invasion, goneMinho (river), ends with the defeat ofOlaf II Haraldsson1014 against the Galician nobility, who also stopped advancing further into the Portuguese district.

Alfonso VI by LeonHenry, Count of Portugal

Count Vimara Peres[72]Organize the territory he collected and elevate it to statusCircle, name itDistrict of Portugalto the major port city of the region -Portus Kaleor modernpostage. One of the first cities founded by Vimara Peres at this time was Vimaranes, now known asGuimaraes- “Birthplace of the Portuguese nation” or “cradle city” (Cidade Berço in Portuguese).[69]

After the merger of the Portuguese District into one of several counties that make upKingdom of Asturias, kingAlfonso III of Asturiasknighted Vímara Peres in 868 as the first Count of Portus Cale (Portugal). This area is calledPortuguese,Portugale, and at the same timePortugalia- thatDistrict of Portugal.[69]

Later, due to the dynastic division of inheritance among the king’s descendants, the kingdom of Asturias was divided into several Christian kingdoms in northern Iberia. With forced abdicationAlfonso III “The Great” of AsturiasIn 910 the kingdom of Asturias was divided into three separate kingdoms by his sons. The three kingdoms were finally united under the crown of 924leon.

1093,Alfonso VI by Leonawarded to the districtHenry of Burgundyand gave him to his illegitimate daughter in marriage,Teresa of Leon, for his role in recapturing the country from the Moors. Henry located his newly created county at Bracara Augusta (modernbraga), the capital of the ancient Roman province, and also the previous capital of several kingdoms during the first millennium.

The Age of Independence and Afonsine[Editor]

Portugal in the Middle AgesPortugal’s Burgundy house

Battle of Ourique

Siege of Lisbon

On June 24, 1128,Battle of Sao Mamedehappened nearbyGuimaraes.Afonso HenriquesCount of Portugal, defeated his motherCountess Teresaand her loverFernao Peres de Travaand thus established itself as the sole market leader. Afonso then turned south against the Moors.

Afonso’s campaigns were successful and on July 25, 1139 he won an overwhelming victory inBattle of Ouriqueand was subsequently declared unanimouslyKing of Portugalfrom his soldiers. This is traditionally considered to be the occasion when the Portuguese district was converted to independence as a fief of the Kingdom of León.Kingdom of Portugal.

Afonso then founded the first of thesePortuguese CortesinLamego, where he was crowned by the Archbishop of Braga, although the value of the Cortes of Lamego is disputed and said to be a mythPortuguese Restoration War. Afonso was recognized by the king in 1143Alfonso VII of Leon, and 1179 ofPope Alexander III.

Afonso HenriquesCount of PortugalKing of PortugalBattle of Ourique

Inrecapturethe Christians recaptured the Iberian PeninsulaMoorishdomination. Afonso Henriques and his successors, supported by the armyOrder of the Monastery, was pushed south to drive out the Moors. At that time, Portugal covered about half of what it is today. In 1249 the Reconquista ended with the conquestAlgarveand completely expelled the last Moorish settlements on the south coast, giving Portugal its current borders with minor exceptions.

In one of the conflict situations withKingdom of Castile,Dinis I of Portugalsigned with the kingFernando IV of Castile(who, as a minor, is represented by his mother, the QueenMary of Molina) thatTreaty of Alcañices (1297), which provides for Portugal to annul the infant support treaties concluded against the Kingdom of CastileJuan de Castile. Among other things, this treaty established the border between the Kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Leon, where the disputed city was located.olive zincluded.

dynasties ofDinis I(Denis I.),Afonso IV(Alphonso IV) andPedro I(Peter I) largely saw peace with the Christian kingdoms of Iberia.

In 1348 and 1349, Portugal, like the rest of Europe, was devastated byBlack Death.[seventy-three]In 1373 Portugal made aalliance with England, is the oldest trade union in the world. Over time, this went beyond geopolitical and military cooperation (protecting the interests of both countries in Africa, America and Asia against rivals France, Spain and the Netherlands) and maintained strong economic and cultural ties between the two former European allies. Insidepostageespecially the region, whose English influence is unmistakable to this day.

The Joanine Era and the Age of Discovery[Editor]

Portuguese inventionThe rise of the Portuguese EmpireThe Portuguese discovered the sea route to IndiaPortuguese Empiresell spicesPortuguese Indian armorThe Portuguese presence in Asia

John I of PortugalThe Battle of AljubarrotaHouse Aviz

Batalha Monastery1383–1385 Crisis

1383,John I of Castile, husband ofBeatrice of Portugaland son-in-law ofFerdinand I of Portugal, claim to the throne of Portugal. A faction of petty nobles and commoners, doJohn of Aviz(later King John I of Portugal) and commanded by the GeneralNuno Alvares Pereiradefeat the Castilians inThe Battle of Aljubarrota. With this fightHouse Avizbecame the ruler of Portugal.

The new rulers would continue to put Portugal in the spotlight of European politics and culture, creating and funding literary works such asCrónicas d’el Rei D. João IaboutFernao Lopes, the first riding and hunting guideLivro da ensinança de bem cavalgar toda selaandO Leal Conselheiroboth ofKing Edward of Portugal[74][75][76]and Portuguese translations ofBy Cicero De OmissisandSenecas beneficiaryhave a nice tripPrince Peter of Coimbra, as well as his magnum opusTratado da Vertuosa Benfeytoria.[77]In an effort to consolidate and centralize royal power, the monarchs of this estate also ordered the compilation, organization and publication of the first three laws in Portugal:Ordenações d’el Rei D. Duarte,[78]which is never executed; thatOrdenações Afonsinas,the application and enforcement of which is not uniform around the world; andOrdenações Manuelinas, usedPrinterto reach every corner of the kingdom. Avis Dinasty also sponsors architectural works such asMosteiro da Batalha(literally,Monastery of Battle) and leads to the creation ofThe Manueline style of architecture, in the sixteenth century.

Portugal is also at the forefront of European exploration andThe Age of Discovery. princeHenry the Navigator, the king’s sonJohn I of Portugal, became the main sponsor and patron of this effort. During this period, Portugal explored the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the Atlantic IslandsAzores,Madeira, andCape Verde; explored the coast of Africa; Selected colonial areas of Africa; discover an eastway to Indiathrough theCape of Good Hope;Discover Brazil, discoverIndian Ocean, establishment of trade routes through South Asia; and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missionsChinaandJapan.

In 1415, Portugal received its first overseas colony by conquestCeuta, the first prosperous Muslim trading center in North Africa. Followed by the first discoveries in the Atlantic:MadeiraandAzores, leads to the firstcolonizationMovement.

In 1422, by decree of King John I, Portugal officially abandoned the previous chronological system.The Caesar Era, and passedalternating currentsystem, becoming the last Catholic field to do so.[79]

Henry the Navigator

During the 15th centuryPortuguese explorerSail to the shores of Africa, set up trading posts fora common commodity at the time, out ofyellowarriveslave, when they were looking for a route to India andSpice up, is popular in Europe.

ThatTreaty of Tordesillasto resolve the dispute that arose after the returnChristoph Columbus, Prepared byPope Alexander VI, intermediary between Portugal and Spain. Signed on June 7, 1494, it divided the newly discovered lands outside of Europe between the two countries along the 370th meridian west ofCape VerdeIslands (off the west coast of Africa).

Vasco da Gama

1498,Vasco da Gamawhat to achieveColumbusset out and became the first European to reach and bring India by seaEconomic prosperity for Portugaland its 1.7 million inhabitants and help you get startedPortuguese Renaissance. In the year 1500 the Portuguese explorerGaspar Corte Realreached what is now Canada and founded the cityPortugal Cove-St. Phillips,Newfoundland and Labrador, long before French and English in the 17th century, and just one of manyPortuguese colony in America.[80][81][82]

in the year 1500,Pedro Alvares Cabraldiscovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal.[83]ten years laterAfonso de Albuquerqueconquergoain India,MuscatandormusInsidePersian street, andmalacca, now onestatusin Malaysia. Thus, the Portuguese Empire dominated trade in theIndian Oceanand the South Atlantic. Portuguese navigators arrived in East Asia by sailing east from Europe, landing in places like Taiwan, Japan, and islandsTimor, and inMoluccas.

Although it has been believed for a long timeDutchwere the first Europeans to arrive in Australia, there is also some evidence of thisThe Portuguese may have discovered Australiain 1521.[84][85][eighty-six]From 1519 to 1522,Ferdinand Magellan(Fernão de Magalhães) reorganized a Spanish expeditioneast indiesleads to the first resultcirculationof the global. Magellan never returned to Europe when he was killed by the nativesPhilippines1521.

ThatTreaty of Zaragoza, signed between Portugal and Spain on April 22, 1529, defines the anti-timeridian line to the line of demarcation laid down in the Treaty of Tordesillas.

All these factors made Portugal one of the greatest economic, military and political powers in the world from the 15th to the late 16th centuries.

Iberian Confederation, restoration and early brigantine[Editor]

Iberian UnionPortuguese Restoration WarBraganza’s house

Portuguese Empire

Portugal voluntarily joined a dynastic union between 1580 and 1640. This happened because of the last two kings of PortugalHouse Aviz- kingSebastian, who diedBattle of Alcaer QuibirinMorocco, and his uncle and successor, King-pinkie finger Henry of Portugal- both died without heirs, leading to thisThe Crisis of the Portuguese Succession of 1580.

Later,Philip II of Spainascended the throne and was accepted as Philip I of Portugal. Portugal did not lose its formal independence, which took shape in a short timeunionof kingdoms. At this point, Spain is ageographic area.[eighty seven]The accession of the two crowns deprived Portugal of an independent foreign policy and led to its entry into theEighty Years Warbetween Spain and the Netherlands.

The war led to a deterioration in the relationshipPortugal’s oldest ally, Great Britain, and lossHormuz, a strategic trading post located in betweenIranandOman. From 1595 to 1663Dutch-Portuguese Warmainly concerned about dutch companies invading many portuguesecolonyand commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese monopoly on Indian maritime trade.
1640,John IV of Portugalled a rebellion supported by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. ThatPortuguese Restoration Warthe end of the sixty-year period ofIberian UnionUnderHouse of Habsburg. This is the beginning ofBraganza’s house, ruled in Portugal until 1910.

john vPortuguese Sun King

Royal palace complex of MafraUNESCO World Heritage Site

King John IV’s eldest son ascends the throneAfonso VI, however, he was overwhelmed by his physical and mental disabilitiesLuís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor. During a palace coup organized by the king’s wifeMaria Frances of Savoy, and his brotherPedro, Duke of BejaKing Afonso VI was declared mentally retarded and exiled first to the Azores and then to the AzoresSintra Royal Palace, outside of Lisbon. After Afonso’s death, Pedro ascended the throne as King Pedro II. Pedro’s reign saw the consolidation of national independence, the expansion of the empire, and investment in domestic manufacturing.

son of Pedro II,john v, saw a dynasty marked by the influx of gold into the royal coffers, provided in large part byroyal thursday(precious metal tax) received fromPortuguese colonyofBrazilandMaranhao.

John V ignored Portugal’s traditional institutions of government and acted like an absolute monarch, almost consuming the country’s tax revenues on his full-fledged architectureMafra Palace, and commissions and additions to his large literary and art collections.

Due to his desire for international diplomatic recognition, John also spent large sums of money on messages he sent to the European courts, most famously for those to whom he sent.Paris1715 CERoman1716.

Official estimates – and most estimates made so far – give the number of arriving Portuguese migrantsBrazilian colonyat 600,000 during the gold rush in the 18th century.[88]This represents one of the largest migrations of Europeans to their colonies in the Americas during the colonial era.

The Pombaline Era and the Enlightenment[Editor]

History of Portugal (1640–1777)

First Marquis of Pombalreconnaissance forgerJoseph I

1738,fidalgo Sebastiao Jose de Carvalho and Melo(later rated as #1Marquis Pombal) began his diplomatic career as Portuguese ambassador in London and later in Vienna. ThatqueenPortuguese,Duchess Maria Anna of Austria, like Carvalho e Melo; and after the death of his first wife she arranged the second marriage of the widowed Carvalho e Melo to the daughter of the Marshal of Austria.Leopold Joseph, Count of Daun. kingjohn vwas not pleased, however, and called Carvalho e Melo to Portugal in 1749. John V died the following year and his son,Joseph I, was crowned. Unlike his father, Joseph I was very fond of Carvalho e Melo, and with the Queen’s consent he proclaimed Carvalho e Melo thealtar boy, pastorof the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

As the king’s confidence in Carvalho e Melo grew, the king gave him more control over the state. In 1755 Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo was appointed prime minister. Impressed by the British economic success he had experienced since his time as ambassador, he did the same.economicallyPolitics in Portugal. Heabolish slaveryin mainland Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India Army and Navy reorganization, restructuringUniversity of Coimbraand end legal discriminationChristianDenominations in Portugal by removing the distinction betweenOldandNew Christians.

Carvalho e Melo’s greatest reform was economic and financial, with the creation of a number of companies and associations to regulate all commercial activities. He created one of themnaming systemin the world by delimiting production areasharborto ensure the quality of the wine; and this was the first attempt at quality control and wine production in Europe. He ruled harshly, imposing harsh laws on all classes of Portuguese society, from the upper aristocracy to the poorest working class, along with a wide-ranging scrutiny of the system. These reforms made him an enemy of the upper class, especially the nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.

The 1755 Lisbon earthquake

Disaster struck Portugal on the morning of November 1, 1755, whenLisbonbeaten bya violent earthquakewith estimatetemporal magnitude8:5-9. The city was devastated by the earthquake and tsunami that followed, and the fires that followed.[89]Carvalho e Melo survived a stroke of luck and then set about rebuilding the city with his famous quote: “What now? We bury the dead and care for the living. “

Despite natural disasters and a large death toll, Lisbon was disease-free and rebuilt in less than a year. Lisbon’s new city center should withstand the next earthquake. Architectural models were built for testing, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by troops marching around the models. The buildings and large squares ofPombaline town centerremains one of the tourist attractions of Lisbon. Carvalho e Melo also made an important contribution to the studyseismologyby designing a detailed study of the effects of the earthquake,Memoirs of the pastor from 1758, sent to every parish in the country; This rich body of information allows modern scientists to reconstruct events with a degree of scientific accuracy, while at the same time providing current historians with a vast body of information.demographic,topographicalandgeographical advantageInformation about the rest of the kingdom as well as information about its urban and rural areas.

after the earthquake,Joseph Igave his prime minister even more power and Carvalho de Melo became aprogressive dictator. As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the upper aristocracy became frequent. In 1758, Joseph I was wounded in a deliberate assassination attempt. ThatThe Tavora familyandDuke of Aveirowas involved andquickly done after a short test. Next year,Jesuitto bepersecuted and expelled from the countryand their property was confiscated by the Crown. Carvalho e Melo spared no one, including women and children (especially the 8 year oldLeonor de Almeida Portugal, imprisoned in a monastery for nineteen years). This was the final blow to crush any opposition, openly protesting that even the aristocracy was powerless against the king’s loyal general. Joseph I honored Carvalho e Melo as Count ofOeiras1759.

1762,Spain invades Portuguese territoryas part ofSeven Years’ War, but until 1763Current statusbetween Spain and Portugal before war was restored.

After the Távora affair, the new Count of Oeiras had no objections. Using another name “Marquês de Pombal” in 1770, he effectively ruled Portugal until the death of Joseph I in 1777.

New ruler, queenMaria I of Portugal, disliked Marquês de Pombal for the power he had amassed and never forgave him for the cruelty with which he sent the Távora family, and when they ascended the throne she stripped him of all his political positions. Marquês de Pombal was banished to his estatepombal, where he died in 1782.

However, historians also argue that Pombal’s “Enlightenment”, while wide-ranging, was primarily a mechanism for the elevation of autocracy at the expense of individual liberty, and particularly an apparatus for suppressing opposition, suppressing criticism, and encouraging colonial economic exploitation and book improvement. Censorship and consolidation of personal control and profit.[90]

Napoleonic era[Editor]

History of Portugal (1777–1834)Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves

Departure from the Royal Court of Portugal to Brazil

The parable of the virtue ofPrince Regent John

D Sequeira

With the occupation of Napoleon, Portugal began a slow but unshakable decline that lasted into the 20th century and was accelerated by itBrazilian Independence, possessed the largest colony in the country.

In the autumn of 1807,Napoleonmoved French troops to Spain to invade Portugal. From 1807 to 1811, Anglo-Portuguese forces successfully fought the French invasion of PortugalPeninsular War, in which the royal family and the PortugueseNoble, including Maria I, followed suitBrazilian territory of Portugal, then a colony ofPortuguese Empire, in South America. This episode is calledRelocation of the Portuguese court to Brazil.

When Napoleon’s army entered Lisbon in 1807,João VI. from Portugal, thatking regent, moved his court to Brazil and established himselfRio de Janeirowas the capital of the Portuguese Empire. In 1815, Brazil was proclaimed a kingdom and the Kingdom of Portugal merged with it, creating a multicontinental country.Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.

Pedro IVMaria II

Due to his change of status and the emergence of the Portuguese Royal Family, administratively Brazilian citizens,to save, army,training, andscientificThe apparatus is greatly expanded and modernized. The Portuguese and their allied British armies fought backFrench invasion of Portugaland by 1815 the situation in Europe had cooled enough for João VI to return safely to Lisbon. However, the king of Portugal remained in Brazil until thenLiberal Revolution of 1820, starts atpostage, asked him to return to Lisbon in 1821.

So he returned to Portugal but left his son behindPedroresponsible for Brazil. When the Portuguese government tried to restore the Kingdom of Brazil to a subordinate status the following year, his son Pedro proclaimed with the fervent support of the Brazilian eliteBrazil’s Independencefrom Portugal.cisplatin(now sovereign state of Uruguay) to the south was one of the last approaches to Brazilian territory under Portuguese rule.

Brazil’s independence was recognized in 1825, with Emperor Pedro I conferring the official honor on his fatherEmperor of Brazil. The Death of John VI in 1826 raised serious questions about his succession. Although Pedro was his heir and briefly reigned as Pedro IV, his status as King of Brazil was seen as an obstacle to the Portuguese accession to the thrones of both countries. Pedro abdicates in favor of his daughter,Maria II(Mary II). But Pedro’s brotherPrince MiguelShe claimed the throne in protest. After a failed marriage proposal to Miguel and Maria, Miguel rose to power as King Miguel I in 1828. To protect his daughter’s right to the throne, Pedro made his debut.war of liberationreinstate her daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal. The war ended in 1834 with Miguel’s defeat, the promulgation of the Constitution and the reinstatement of Queen Maria II.

Constitutional monarchy[Editor]

History of Portugal (1834–1910)

Regicide of LisbonManuel IIDeclaration of the Republic

Queen Maria II (Mary II) and KingFerdinand IIking’s sonPedro(Peter V) modernized the country during his brief reign (1853–1861). During his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railroads were built, and public health increasingly improved. Its popularity increased over timecholera diseaseOutbreak 1853-1856 he visited the hospital to give gifts and comfort the sick. Pedro’s reign was short as he died of cholera in 1861 after a series of deaths in the royal family, including his two brothers.Infante FernandoandPrince João, Duke of Beja, and his wife,Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Pedro has no children, his brother,Luis I of Portugal(Louis I) ascended the throne and continued his modernization.

At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.Luanda,Benguela,Bisau,Lourenco brands,Porto AmboimandMozambique islandis one of the oldest port cities founded by Portugal in its African territories. During this period, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding from outposts in Africa into national-level territories to compete with other European powers.

WithBerlin conferenceIn 1884, at Portugal’s request, Portuguese territories in Africa were established with formal borders to protect Portugal’s centuries-old interests in the continent from adversariesBattle for Africa. Portuguese cities in Africa such asNova Lisbon,Bandeira sandal,Silva Porto,malanje,Tete,Vila Junqueiro,Vila PerryandVilla Cabralwas constructed or rehabilitated inland during this period and beyond. New coastal cities likeBeira,Moçâmedes,lobito,Joao Belo,NacalaandPorto Ameliewas also founded. Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway lines likeBenguela Railwayin Angola andBeira RailwayConstruction has started in Mozambique to connect selected coastal and inland regions.

Other episodes of this period include the Portuguese presence in Africa1890 An ultimatum in England. This forced the Portuguese army to withdraw from the lands between the Portuguese coloniesMozambicanandAngola(mostly todayZimbabweandZambia), was claimed by Portugal and in “pink card’, contrary to the British will to create oneCape Railway to Cairo.

Portuguese territories are in AfricaCape Verde,Sao Tome and Principe,Portuguese Guinea,Angola, andMozambican. Small fortress ofSao Joao Baptista de Ajudaon the coast ofDahomey, also under Portuguese rule. In addition, Portugal still dominates the Asian territoriesPortuguese India,Portuguese TimorandPortuguese Macau.

On February 1, 1908 Dom became kingCarlos I of Portugaland beobvious heirand his eldest sonPrince Royal Dom Luis Filipe,Duke Braganza,Murdered in LisbonInsideTerreiro do Pacoby two Portuguese republican activists,Alfredo Luis da CostaandManuel Buica. Under his rule, Portugal was claimedbroketwice – first on June 14, 1892 and then again on May 10, 1902 – it caused social unrest, economic unrest, angry demonstrations, riots and criticism of the regime. His second and youngest sonManuel II of Portugal, became the new king, but was eventually overthrown byOctober 5, 1910 Portuguese Republican Revolution, the monarchy abolished and installedrepublicgovernment in Portugal, causing him and his royal family to fleeexileinLondon, United Kingdom.

First Republic and Estado Novo[Editor]

Bernhardin MachadoTeofilo BragaAntonio Jose de AlmeidaAfonso CostaFirst Portuguese RepublicEstado Novo (Portugal)

The new republic had many problems. Portugal has had 45 different governments in just 15 years. Transparent1st World War(1914–1918) helped Portugalalliesfight withcentral power. But the war hurt its weak economy. Political instability and economic weakness are breeding grounds for chaos and instability in times ofFirst Portuguese Republic. These conditions lead to failuremonarchy of the north,May 28, 1926 Coup d’étatand the birth of the National Dictatorship (Ditadura National).
This led to the establishment of a right-wing dictatorshipEstado NovoUnderAntonio de Oliveira Salazarin 1933.

Portugal remains neutralSecond World War.
From the 1940s to the 1960s, Portugal was a founding member of theNato,OECDandEuropean Free Trade Association(EFTA). Gradually, new economic development projects and resettlement of mainland Portuguese nationals to overseas provinces in Africa were initiatedAngolaandMozambican, as the largest and most prosperous overseas territory, is the primary goal of such initiatives. These actions were used to assert Portugal’s status as thecross countrynation instead of a colonial empire.

After India gained independence in 1947, the pro-Indians ofDadra and Nagar HaveliWith the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organizations, the Dadra and Nagar Haveli areas broke from Portuguese rule in 1954.[91]1961,Fort Sao Joao Baptista de Ajudaannexation ofRepublic of Dahomeywas the beginning of a process that eventually led to the disintegration of the centuries-long Portuguese Empire.

Antonio de Oliveira SalazarEstado Novo

According to the 1921 census, São João Baptista de Ajudá had 5 inhabitants and according to an ultimatum from the Dahomey government, only 2 inhabitants representing Portuguese sovereignty.

Another forced withdrawal from overseas territories occurred in December 1961 when Portugal refused to give up its territories.goa,Daman and Diuin India. As a result, the Portuguese Army and Navy were involved in armed conflicts in their colonyPortuguese IndiaagainstIndian Armed Forces.

ThatOperation leads to failureand the surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrisons, forced to surrender to a much larger force. The consequence was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories inIndian subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize India’s sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to have representation in the Portuguese Parliament until the 2016 military coup. 1974

In the early 1960s there were also independence movements in the overseas provinces of PortugalAngola,MozambicanandGuineain Africa, leads toPortuguese Colonial War(1961-1974).

During the colonial wars, Portugal had to deal with growing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by much of the international community. However, authoritarians and conservativesEstado Novo, first installed and managed byAntonio de Oliveira Salazarand from 1968 because ofMarcelo Caetanomanaged to preserve a vast intercontinental empire covering a total area of ​​2,168,071 km, spanning centuries2.[92]

Carnation Revolution and European integration[Editor]

Carnation RevolutionPortugal’s transition to democracy

African Portuguese

The Portuguese government and army resisteddecolonizationits overseas territories until April 1974, as a left armycoupin Lisbon, calledCarnation Revolution, pioneering the independence of overseas territories in Africa and Asia and the restoration of democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC (Processo Revolucionário Em Curso). This period was marked by social chaos and power struggles between left and right political forces. In the summer of 1975, tensions between the two sides were so high that the country was on the brink of civil war. Forces linked to the extreme left have launched otherscoupOn November 25, however, the Group of Nine, a moderate military faction, immediately launched a counter-coup. The main episode of this confrontation was the successful attack on the barracks of the dominant leftMilitary Police Regimentby the moderate force of the Ranger Regiment, resulting in three soldiersto like. The group of nine emerged victorious, preventing formationcommunist statein Portugal and ended a period of political instability in the country. The withdrawal from the overseas territories and the acceptance by the Portuguese head of independence terms on behalf of the head of the country for negotiations abroad that would create independent states in 1975 led to a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portuguese African territories (mainly PortugueseAngolaandMozambican).[ninety three][ninety four]

More than a millionPortuguese refugeefled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were generally not seen as part of the new identity of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.Mario SoaresandAntonio de Almeida Santosaccused of organizing the independence of Portugal’s overseas territories. Until 1975 all Portuguese African territories were independent and held by Portugalhis first democratic electionin 50 years.

Portugal continues to be run by aJunta de Salvacao NationaluntilPortuguese general elections of 1976. It was won byPortuguese Socialist Party(PS) and Mário Soares, its leader, became Prime Minister of the No. 1 Constitutional Government on July 23. Mário Soares was Prime Minister from 1976 to 1978 and again from 1983 to 1985, recording the economic growth and development that preceded the Carnation Revolution in the last decade of the previous regime were achieved. He initiated the accession processEuropean Economic Community(EEC) by starting accession negotiations as early as 1977.

Mario Soares

After the transition to democracy, Portugal has passedsocialismand reformandnationalizewas executed; thatPortuguese Constitution(approved 1976) was rewritten to conform to socialist and communist principles. Until the constitutional amendments of 1982 and 1989, the constitution was a document heavily concerned with socialism, workers’ rights, and individual desires.socialist economy. The economic situation of Portugal after the revolution forced the government to carry onIMF(IMF) controlled stabilization programs in 1977–78 and 1983–85.

In 1986, Portugal joined along with SpainEuropean Economic Community(EEC), which later became the European Union (EU). In the years that followed, Portugal’s economy developed significantly thanks to the EEC/EUStructuring and association fundsand Portuguese companies easier access to foreign markets.

Portugal’s last overseas and Asian colonial territory,Macao, was handed over peacefullyPeople’s Republic of China (People’s Republic of China)on December 20, 1999, in accordance with the 1987 Joint Declaration that set out the terms of the handover of Macau from Portugal to the PRC. In 2002 the independence ofEast Timor(Asia) officially recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process started by the Carnation Revolution in 1975 but interrupted by aIndonesianarmed invasion andwork.

Treaty of LisbonEuropean Council

On March 26, 1995, Portugal began implementationSchengen areaRules, abolition of border controls with other Schengen members and strengthening of border controls with third countries. In 1996, the country was a co-founder ofCommunity of Portuguese Speaking Countries(CPLP) is headquartered in Lisbon. in 1996,Jorg Sampaiobecome president. He wonre-electionin January 2001.Exhibition ’98took place in Portugal and was one of the founding countries in 1999Euroandeuro zone. On July 5, 2004,Jose Manuel Barroso, LaterPrime Minister of Portugal, was nominatedPresident of the European Commission, the most powerful office in the European Union. On December 1, 2009,Treaty of Lisbonentered into force on December 13, 2007 after being signed by the member states of the European UnionJerónimos Monastery, in Lisbon, to increase the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and to improve the coherence of its actions. Ireland is the only EU country holding a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty. It was initially rejected by voters in 2008.

Economic crisis and unsustainable growth innational debtDuring this time2007-2008 financial crisisled the country to adopt it in negotiations with the IMF and the European Union in 2011The European Financial Stabilization Mechanism(EFSM) andEuropean financial stability base(EFSF), a loan to financially stabilize the country.


Geography of Portugal

The national territory of Portugal covers an areaIberian Peninsula(Is calledcontinentby most Portuguese) and two islands in the Atlantic: the archipelago ofMadeiraandAzores. It is between latitudes30°and42°Nand longitude32°and6°W.

Mainland Portugalbisected by its main river,Tejo, comes from Spain and causes resentmentThe mouth of the river Tagus, in Lisbon before fleeing to the Atlantic. The landscape to the north is hilly inland with some plateaus indented by river valleys while the south consists ofAlgarveandAlentejoRegions characterized by hilly plains.[95]

Portugal’s highest peak bears a similar nameMount Picoon the islandpicoin the Azores. This ancient volcano with a height of 2,351 m (7,713 ft) is an iconic symbol of the AzoresSerra da Estrelaon land (summit 1,991 m (6,532 ft) above sea level) is a major seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts.

The islands of Madeira and Azores are scattered in the Atlantic Ocean, with the Azores archipelago in betweenMidland mountains of the oceanat a tectonic junction and Madeira along a strip formed byin the disc hotspotGeology. Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events. The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in 1957–58 (Capelinhos) and small earthquakes are rare, usually of low intensity.

Exclusive Economic Zone of Portugal, a sea where the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and exploitation of marine resources, has 1,727,408 km2. This is the third largestExclusive Economic Zoneof the European Union and the 20th largest in the world.[96]


Portugal’s climate

Portugal is mainly characterized byMediterranean climate(Csain the south, central and inlandDouroriver valley;Csbin the North, West Central andVincentian coast),[97] marine temperate climate(Cfb) in the mountains and highlands northwest of the mainland and in some high-altitude regions of the Azores; a semi-arid climatein some parts ofBeja districtfar south (BSk) and inPorto Santo Island(BSh), onewarm desert climate(BWh) aSelvagen’s Islandsand ahumid subtropical climateIn western countryAzores(Cfa), TheoKöppen-Geiger climate classification. It is one of the warmest countries in Europe: average annual temperature inMainland Portugalvaries from 10–12 °C (50.0–53.6 °F) in the mountainous hinterland in the north to 16–18 °C (60.8–64.4 °F) in the south and aboveGuadiana river basin. However, there are differences between the highlands and the lowlands: The Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martinez presents Portugal with several different bioclimatic regions.[98]ThatAlgarve, apart fromAlentejoarea of ​​mountains as high as 900 meters (3,000 feet) inAlto da Foia, has a climate similar to the southern coastal areas of Spain or south-west Australia.

Average annual rainfall inland varies from just over 3,200 mm (126.0 in) perPeneda Gerês National Parkto less than 500 mm (19.7 in) in the southern parts ofAlentejo.Mount Picohas been recognized as the largest annual rainfall (more than 6,250 mm (246.1 in) per year) in PortugalInstituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera.

In some areas, such as the Guadiana Basin, annual mean daily temperatures can be as high as 26 °C (79 °F) and summer peaks are often above 40 °C (104 °F). The record high of 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) was recorded inAmareleia, although this may not be the hottest place in summer, according to satellite results.[99][100]

Marina beachlagoonAlgarveMichelin guide

In winter it occurs in the north and center of the country in districts such as B. often to snowfallsGuarda,Braganca,ViseuandVilla Real, especially in the mountains. In winter, temperatures can drop below -10.0 °C (14.0 °F), especially inSerra da Estrela,Serra do Geres,Serra do MaraoandSerra de Montesinho. It can snow in these places any time from October to May. Snowfall is rare in the southern part of the country but occurs at the highest elevations. While the bare minimum is officially the sameIPMAis -16.0 °C (3.2 °F) inchesPenhas da SaudeandMiranda do Douro, lower temperatures have been recorded, such as B. -17.5 °C (0.5 °F).BragancaOutskirts Polytechnic Institute in 1983 and below −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) in Serra da Estrela.

Mainland Portugal has around 2300 to 3200 hours of sunshine per year, averaging 4-6 hours in winter and 10-12 hours in summer, with higher values ​​in the south-east, south-west and Algarve coast and lower values ​​in the north-west. Insulation values ​​are lower in the archipelago, at around 1600 hours when wetFlores Islandand about 2300 hours on the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo. isolation onSelvagensshould be higher because it is weakerorographic elevatorand their relative distance fromSahara desert.

The central west and south west coasts of Portugal have oceansseasonally late, the water temperature in October is warmer than in July and coldest in March.
Middlesea ​​surface temperatureon the west coast of mainland Portugal varies from 14–16 °C (57.2–60.8 °F) in January–March to 19–21 °C (66.2–69.8 °F) in August -October on the south coast, ranges from 16 °C (60.8 °F) in January to March, rising to about 22–23 °C (71.6–73.4 °F) in summer, sometimes reaching 26° C (78.8°F).[101]In the Azores, the temperature is about 16 °C (60.8 °F) from February to April to 22–24 °C (71.6–75.2 °F) from July to September.[102]and in Madeira from about 18°C ​​(64.4°F) in February-April to 23–24°C (73.4–75.2°F) in August-October.[103]

Both the Azores and Madeira islands have a subtropical climate which, despite the differences between the islands, makes it very difficult to predict the weather (due to the rough terrain). The Madeira and Azores islands have a narrower temperature range, with average annual temperatures exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) in some coastal areas (according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute). Some of the islands of the Azores have drier months in summer. This is how the islands of the Azores were identified as suchMediterranean climate(bothCsaandCsbtype), while some islands (such asFloresorcorvo) is classified asSubtropical humid(cfa), convert to amarine climate(cfb) at higher altitudes according to the Köppen-Geiger classification.

Porto Santo IslandMadeira has a warm semi-arid climate (BSh). ThatWild Islands, is part of the Regional Territory of Madeira and is a Special Protected Area classified as Desert Climate (BWh) with an average annual rainfall of about 150 mm (5.9 in). Sea surface temperatures on these islands vary from 18.5 °C (65.3 °F) in winter to 23–24 °C (73.4–75.2 °F) in summer, sometimes as high as 25 °C (77, 0°F).[citation required]


Peneda Gerês National Park

Portugal is onMediterranean basin, the third hotspot of plant diversity in the world.[104]Due to its geographic and climatic location – between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic – Portugal has a high biodiversity on land and in the sea. It is home to six terrestrial ecozones:Azores – temperate mixed forest,Cantabrian mixed forest,Evergreen forest of Madeira,Iberian sclera and semi-deciduous forest,Northwestern Iberian Mountains, andSouthwest Iberian Mediterranean mixed and mixed forests.[105]More than 22% of its land area is enclosedNature 2000Network, including 62 special protection areas and 88 types of scenically protected natural habitats.[106][104]

eucalyptus,Oak woodandmaritime transporttogether make up 71% of the total forest area of ​​mainland Portugal, followed byholm oak, thatpine stone, other oaks (Q. robur,Q. fagineaandQ. pyrenaica) andSweet chestnuts, corresponding.[107]on Madeira,laurel(is recognized asWorld Heritage) dominates the landscape, especially on the northern slopes. Among the most important species in this forest areLaurus novocanariensis,Apollonias barbujana,Ocotea foetens leavesandPersea indica. Before human occupation, the Azores also had dense laurel forests, today these native forests have been destroyed by immigrants.Pittosporum undulatumandCryptomeria japonica.[108][109]There have been several projects aimed at restoring Laurisilva’s presence in the Azores.[110]Remnants of these laurel forests are also present in mainland Portugal, with some living evidence of this.Laurel nobilis,Prunus lusitanica,Arbutus unedo,Myrica fayaandRhododendron ponticum.[111]

These geographic and climatic conditions facilitate the introduction of alien species that later become invasive and destructive to native habitats. More than 20% of the total extant species are in mainland Portugalstrange.[112]In Madeira about 36%[113]and in the Azores about 70% are weird.[114][115]This puts Portugal in 168th place out of 172 countries worldwideForest Landscape Integrity Indexin 2019.[116]


Portugal is the second largest country in Europe with the highest number of threatened species (488 species as of 2020).[117][118]

Portugal is generally an important stopover point for migratory birds:swampof the eastAlgarve(Ria Formosa,Castro Marim) and the Lisbon Region (The mouth of the river Tagus,estuary of the river Sado) hosts various waterfowl,Bonelli’s eagleandEgyptian Vultureover the valleys ofDouro International, thatblack storkandGriffon VultureAboveTagus International, thatgullsacred place ofWild IslandsandBerlengasand the highlands ofMadeiraandSao Miguelall represent an amazing variety of wild bird species (around 450 in mainland Portugal) that are not only migratory but also endemic (e.g.:Trocaz pigeon,Bullfrog Azores) or weird (Coat of arms of Myna,Whydah has a tail).[119][120]

The large mammals of Portugal (the damas,deer,Sika deer,Iberian ibex,boar,Red fox,Iberian wolfandIberian lynx) was once widespread across the country, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, intense hunting, habitat destruction, and increasing pressure from agriculture and ranching greatly reduced population numbersCapricorn portugueseeven led to extinction. Today, these animals are expanding their range again.[121][122]Smaller mammalian species includered squirrel,European Badger,Eurasian otter,Egyptian mongoose,Granada rabbit,European rabbit,common genes,European wildcat, among other.[122]

Due to their isolated location, the volcanic islands ofAzores,Madeiraandsalary, a part ofMacaronesia, there are many endemic species that have evolved independently of their European, African, and sometimes American relatives.

The west coast of Portugal is part of the four main eastern bordersboostsystems of the oceans. This seasonal uplift system, which often occurs during the summer months, brings and promotes cooler, nutrient-rich water to the surfacephytoplanktonEvolution,zooplanktonthe next rich development and diversity inswimming fishand othermarine invertebrates.[123]

Exclusive Economic Zone of Portugal

This keeps increasingEEZThis makes Portugal one of the largest fish consumers in the world per capita.[124] anchovy(Sardina pilchardus) andhorse mackerel(trachurus tachurus) are collected by the thousands every year.[125]duringblue,lionfish,atlantic cod,cephalopod,skatesor any other form ofseafoodto betraditional fishingin local coastal villages.[126]This upgrade also allows Portugal to have itseaweed forestwhich is otherwise very rare or non-existent in the Mediterranean region.[127]

73% of themFishhappen in itIberian Peninsulais endemic, the largest of any region in Europe.[128]Many endemic species are concentrated in Midwestern waters (an exclusively endemic species), these and other bodies of water throughout the peninsula are mostly transient and vulnerable to annual droughts, leaving most of these species submergedthreatenedStatus.[129]

About 24[130]until 28[131]A kind ofwhaleroams the Azores, making it one of only four places in the world where most species of this substrate are found.[130]Beginning in the mid-19th century and ending in 1984,whaling(especially fromspermaceti) has made great use of this diversity. Beginning in the early 90’s,whale watchingIt quickly became famous and is now one of the most important economic activities in the Portuguese archipelago.[132][133]

SomethingProtected areas in PortugalOther than the above are:Serra de Aire and Candeeiroswith its limestone formations, paleontological history and great diversity inbatandorchid,[134]thatSouthwest Alentejo and Vicentine Coast Natural Parkwith a well-preserved unspoilt coastline.[135]thatMontesinho Natural Parkwhere some unique populations ofIberian wolfand a current lookIberian brown bear,[136]considered extinct in the country; among other.

government and politics[Editor]

Portuguese governmentPolitics of Portugal

Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa

President of Portugal
since 2016

Antonio Costa

Prime Minister of Portugal
since 2015

Portugal is already oneSell ​​President representative democracy republicsince ratificationConstitution of 1976, WithLisbon, the country’s largest city, is its capital.[137]The Constitution provides for the division or separation of powers between four bodies known as “agencies of the sovereign”:President of the Republic, thatgovernment, thatCouncil of the Republicandcourt.[138]

The President, elected for a 5-year term, has an executive role: the current President isMarcelo Rebelo de Sousa. The National Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral parliament composed of up to 230 deputies elected for four-year terms. The leading government isprime minister(GiftAntonio Costa) and includes ministers and foreign ministers. Thatcourtorganized on several levels, between judiciary, administration and finance. ThatSupreme Courtare institutions of last resort/appeal. Thirteen membersconstitutional courtmonitor the constitutionality of the law.

Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive local legislative/government bodies at national, regional and local levels. The General Assembly of the Republic, the Regional Council and the local municipalities and parishes is governed by two political parties,socialist partyandSocial Democratic Party, NextUnited Democratic Union(Communist Party of Portugalandenvironmental party “The Greens”), thatleft blockandCenter for Democracy and Social Affairs – People’s Party, which regularly receives between 5 and 15% of the votes.

President of the Republic[Editor]

President of PortugalList of Presidents of Portugal

Belem PalacePresident of the Republic

The head of state of Portugal isPresident of the Republic, is directly elected for a term of 5 years,Universal suffrage. The President’s powers include appointing the Prime Minister and other members of the Government (with the President taking into account the results of general elections); dismiss the prime minister; Dissolution of the National Assembly of the Republic (so-called early elections);objectionthe law (may be subject to the Board of Directors); and declared a state of war or besieged. The President also oversees andreserve forcesand isofficiallySupreme Commander of the Armed Forces.

The President is advised on important matters byCouncil of State, composed of six senior civilian officials, a former President elected under the 1976 Constitution, five members elected by Congress, and five members elected by the President.


Portuguese governmentPrime Minister of PortugalList of Prime Ministers of Portugal

Praca do ComercioPortuguese government

The government is headed by an appointed presidentprime minister, which also includes one or more deputy prime ministers, ministers, foreign ministers and foreign ministers.

The government is both the sovereign body that regulates the general politics of the country and the supreme organ of state administration.

In principle, it has executive powers, but also limited legislative powers. The Government may legislate through its own organization, through those areas of legislative mandate recognized by the National Assembly of the Republic, and through the specific provisions of general laws enacted by the National Assembly.

ThatCouncil of Ministers- chaired by the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the Prime Minister’s request) and Ministers (which may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) – act asRoom. Each government had to outline its policies in a program and submit it to Congress for mandatory debate. The fact that the National Assembly does not reject the government program of the majority of deputies absolutely confirms that the cabinet is in power.

houses of Parliament[Editor]

Council of the RepublicPalace of Sao BentoParliament of the Republic (Portugal)List of political parties in Portugal

ThatCouncil of the Republic, in Lisbon, is the countryhouses of Parliamentfrom Portugal. It is the main legislative body, although the government also has limited legislative powers.

The National Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of a maximum of 230 deputies. To be elected by universal suffrage in a systemclose the door List of proportional representation parties, delegates serve a four-year term unless the president dissolves the council and calls for new elections.

Currently, the government (hp) and the parties that support it throughTrust and Supply Agreement(TO BE,PCP,PEV) controls the parliament with the most seats. ThatPSDandCDS PPAnti-government parties along withPAN, Chega, Iniciativa Liberal and Partido Livre.

Foreign regulations[Editor]

Portugal’s External Relations

Palace of NreidadesMinistry of Foreign Affairs

The Secretary-General of the United NationsAntonio Guterres

A member state ofunited nationsince 1955 Portugal is also a founding member of theNato(1949),OECD(1961) andEFTA(1960); it left to join the last in 1986European Economic Community, which became the European Union in 1993.

In 1996 Portugal was co-foundedCommunity of Portuguese Speaking Countries(CPLP), also known as the Commonwealth of Lusophone, an international organization and political association oflusophoneCountries on four continents wherePortugueseis an official language. CPLP’s global headquarters inPenafiel Palace, inLisbon.

Antonio Guterres, who was Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002 andUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugeesfrom 2005 to 2015 in the position asUN Secretary Generalon January 1, 2017; made him the first Secretary General in Western EuropeKurt Waldheimof Austria (1972–1981), the first former head of government to become Secretary-General and the first Secretary-General born after the founding of the United Nations on June 26, 1945.

In addition, Portugal is a full member of theLatin Union(1983) andOrganization of Iberoamerican States(1949). It has a friendly alliance anddual citizenshiptreaty with his former colony Brazil. Portugal and the UK share the world’s oldest active military agreementAnglo-Portuguese Union(Treaty of Windsor), signed 1373.

There are two international territorial disputes, both with Spain:

  • olive za
  • . Under Portuguese suzerainty since 1297, the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain
  • Treaty of Badajoz
  • 1801, after
  • War of the Oranges
  • . Portugal claimed it in 1815 under the
  • Treaty of Vienna
  • . Since the 19th century, however, it has been continuously ruled by Spain, which considers its territory more than its own.
  • actually
  • but also
  • de jure
  • .
  • [139]
  • Ilhas Selvagens (
  • Wild Islands
  • ). The archipelago was under Portuguese rule but geographically closer
  • Canarian island
  • (165 km) vs
  • Madeira
  • (280 kilometers). Discovered by Italian navigators in 1,364, the islands were privately owned until 1971, when the Portuguese government acquired them and established an all-encompassing nature reserve. The islands have been claimed by Spain since 1911 and the dispute has caused some periods of political tension between the two countries. The main problem is not so much their intrinsic value, but their expansion
  • Exclusive Economic Zone
  • from Portugal clearly to the south.
  • [140]


Portuguese Armed Forces

Portuguese ArmyLeopard 2A6

Portuguese NavyMEKO-200PN

Portuguese Air ForceF-16 Fighting Falcon

The armed forces have three branches:marine,armyandair force. They serve primarily as a self-defense force tasked with protecting the country’s territorial integrity and providing humanitarian and security assistance at home and abroad. Since 2008[To update], three branches have 39,200 active employees, including 7,500 women.Portuguese military issuesIn 2009 it was 5 billion US dollars,[141]accounts for 2.1% of GDP. Conscription was abolished in 2004. The minimum age for recruiting volunteers is 18 years.

The army (21,000 men) consisted of three brigades and other small units. AInfantry Brigade(Mainly equipped withPandar II APC), amechanized brigade(Mainly equipped withLeopard 2 A6tanks andM113APC) and oneRapid Reaction Brigade(consistsflying soldier,commander soldiersand rangers). Navy (10,700 employees, including 1,580marines), the oldest surviving naval force in the world, consisting of 5 frigates, 7 corvettes, 2 submarines and 28 patrol and support ships. The Air Force (7,500 employees) hasLockheed F-16 Fighting Falconas the main fighter.

In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there areRepublican National Guard, a law-abiding security force and military organization (gendarme) with 25,000 employees. This force is owned by both the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Interior. It provided detachments involved in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.

The United States maintains a military presence of 770 troopsLajes Air Force BaseinTerceira Island, in the Azores. ThatAllied Command Lisbon(JFC Lisbon) – one of the three main subdivisions ofNato’SAllied Command activities- it is based inOeiras, near Lisbon.

During the 20th century, Portugal was involved in two major conflicts:First World WarandPortuguese Colonial War(1961-1974). After the endPortuguese EmpireIn 1975, Portuguese Armed Forces participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq (Nasiriyah), Lebanese,mali[142]andCentral African Republic.[143]Portugal also conducted a number of independent unilateral military operations abroad, as well as the cases of interventions by Portuguese forces in Angola in 1992 and Guinea-Bissau in 1998, with the main objective of protecting Portuguese and foreign nationals and withdrawing those from locals civilians were threatened. conflicts.


Judicial Authority of PortugalPortuguese lawPortugal’s drug policyLGBT rights in Portugal

The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law system, also known as the continental family law system. The most important laws include the Constitution (of 1976 as amended),Portuguese Civil Code(1966, revised) andPortuguese Penal Code(1982, revised). Other relevant laws aretrade code(1888, modified) andCode of Civil Procedure(1961, revised).

The National Supreme Court isSupreme Courtandconstitutional court. ThatFurnishing, headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, forms the independent body of prosecutors.

Portuguese law has been applied so farcolonies and territoriesand continue to be influential countries.

Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish itdetention(1884) and was one of the first nationsabolition of the death penalty. The maximum sentence is limited to 25 years.

Portugal is also known for being the first country in the world to ban all common medicines in 2001. Portugal effectively nullifies possession of all drugs still illegal in other developed countries, includingmarijuana,cocaine,heroin, andLSD. While possession is legal, trading and possession of “more than 10 days of personal use” still carries jail time and fines. Those caught with small amounts of any drug will be sent to a rehab facility and can refuse treatment with no consequences. Despite criticism from other European countries that claim drug use will increase so much in Portugal, overall drug use has declined as the number of drug users has increasedHIVinfections, fell by 50% in 2009. Drug use among 16-18 year olds also fell, but cannabis use increased only slightly in this age group.[144][145][146]

LGBTI rightshas increased significantly in recent years. On August 27, 2003, Portugal added a labor law against discrimination based on sexual orientation.[147]On July 24, 2004, sexual orientation was included in the constitution as one of the grounds protected from discrimination.[148]On May 31, 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and eighth in the world to be legally recognizedsame-sex marriageat national level. The law came into force on June 5, 2010.[149] Same-Sex Adoptionhas been permitted since March 1st, 2016[150]as well as same-sex couples who have access to medically assisted reproduction as of May 13, 2016.[151]This law was passed by Parliament and signed by the PresidentMarcelo Rebelo de Sousa.[152][153][154]As of January 2017Gender Identity Law,[155]Simplify the legal processsexand rename fortransgenderFolks, make it easy for minors to changegender markerin legal documents.[156]In August 2018 the rightgender identityandgender expressionself-determination is protectedintersexMinors are protected by law from doing unnecessary thingsmedical procedure”until youthful identity emerges” and the right to protection from discrimination on the basissex characteristicsare also protected by the same law.[157]


Republican National GuardLaw enforcement in Portugal

The main police organizations of Portugal areGuarda Nacional Republicana – GNR(Republican National Guard), agendarme; thatPolicia de Seguranca Publica – PSP(People’s Public Security), civil defense police in urban areas; andPolicia Judiciaria – PJ(Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal investigation department overseen by the Ministry of Public Security.

Proofreading Services[Editor]

In Portugal there are a total of 49 correctional facilities run by the Ministry of Justice. These include 17 central prisons, 4 special prisons, 27 regional prisons and 1 “Cadeia de Apoio” (support prison).[158]From January 1, 2021[To update], their current prison population is about 11,234 inmates, about 0.11% of their total population.[159]Their incarceration rate has increased since 2010, with a 15% increase over the past eight years.[159]

administrative units[Editor]

Administrative divisions of Portugal

Administratively, Portugal is divided into 308autonomous city(Portuguese:municépios or concelhos), after a reform intwo thousand thirteendivided into 3,092 civil parishes (Portuguese:Freguesia). In operational terms, the municipal and municipal governments are the only legal institutions alongside the national governmentlocal administrative unitdefined by the Portuguese government (e.g. cities, towns or villages have no legal status but can be used as watersheds for defined services). The Portuguese government also investigated for statistical purposesNomenclature of territorial units for statistics(NUTS), intercity communities and informal circle system used until European integration (and being phased out by national governments).[original research?]Mainland Portugal is divided into 18 counties, while the Azores and Madeira Islands are administered as oneautonomous Region; is the largest entity formed since 1976Mainland Portugal(Portuguese:Mainland Portugal) andAutonomous Regions of Portugal(AzoresandMadeira).

The 18 counties in mainland Portugal are:Aveiro,yeah,braga,Braganca,Castel Branco,coimbra,Evora,Faro,Guarda,Leiria,Lisbon,Portalegre,postage,Santarém,Setúbal,Viana do Castelo,Villa RealandViseu- Each district bears the name of the county seat.

In the NUTS system of the European Union, Portugal is divided into seven regions:Azores,Alentejo,Algarve,center,Lisbon,Madeiraandnorth, and with the exception of the Azores and Madeira, the NUTS regions are divided into 28 sub-regions.

Areas [160]
country capital city area population
First Northern area postage 21,284 square kilometers (8,218 sq mi) 3,587,074
2 The Lisbon region Lisbon 3,001 square kilometers (1,159 sq mi) 2,870,770
3 central region coimbra 28,200 square kilometers (10,888 sq mi) 2,227,567
4 Alentejo region Evora 31,603 km2 (12,202 sq mi) 704,707
5 Algarve region Faro 4,960 square kilometers (1,915 sq mi) 467,475
6 Autonomous Region of Madeira funchal 801 km2 (309 sq mi) 250,769
7 Autonomous Region of the Azores Ponta Delgada 2,333 square kilometers (901 sq mi) 236,440
District [160]
Circle area population Circle area population
First Lisbon 2,761 km2 (1,066 sq mi) 2,275,591 ten Guarda 5,518 square kilometers (2,131 sq mi) 143.019
2 Leiria 3,517 km2 (1,358 sq mi) 458,679 11 coimbra 3,947 km2 (1,524 sq mi) 408,631
3 Santarém 6,747 km2 (2,605 sq mi) 425,431 twelfth Aveiro 2,808 square kilometers (1,084 sq mi) 700,964
4 Setúbal 5,064 square kilometers (1,955 sq mi) 875,656 13 Viseu 5,007 km2 (1,933 sq mi) 351,592
5 yeah 10,225 km2 (3,948 sq mi) 144,410 14 Braganca 6,608 km2 (2,551 sq mi) 122,833
6 Faro 4,960 square kilometers (1,915 sq mi) 467,495 15 Villa Real 4,328 square kilometers (1,671 sq mi) 185,878
7 Evora 7,393 square kilometers (2,854 sq mi) 152,436 16 postage 2,395 square kilometers (925 sq mi) 1,786,656
8th Portalegre 6,065 square kilometers (2,342 sq mi) 104,989 17 braga 2,673 square kilometers (1,032 sq mi) 846,515
9 Castel Branco 6,675 square kilometers (2,577 sq mi) 177,912 18 Viana do Castelo 2,255 square kilometers (871 sq mi) 231,488

public finances[Editor]

Portuguese financial crisis 2010–2014

Portuguese debt compared to Eurozone average

Portugal’s economy

The Portuguese government is heavily indebted and has received a €78 billion bailoutEuropean UnionandIMFin May 2011.[161]Portugal’s debt-to-economy ratio was 107% when the country received the bailout.[161]As part of the deal, the country agreed to reduce its budget deficit from 9.8% of GDP in 2010 to 5.9% in 2011, 4.5% in 2012 and 3% in 2013.[162]

After the rescue package was announced, the Portuguese government initiatedPedro Passos Coelhomanaged to take measures to improve the state’s financial situation, including raising taxes, freezing lower public sector salaries and cutting 14.3% of higher salaries, in addition to cutting government spending. The Portuguese government also agreed to the removalshare goldinTelecommunications Portugalgave him the right to veto important decisions.[163][164]In 2012, all civil servants’ salaries were cut by an average of 20% from their 2010 baseline, with cuts of up to 25% for those earning over €1,500 a month.[165]

IMF,European Commission(EC) andEuropean Central Bank(ECB) said in September 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak in 2014 at 124% of GDP.[166]The IMF previously said in July 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak in 2013 at around 118.5% of GDP.[166]In September 2013, the Portuguese government revised Portugal’s public debt to 127.8% for 2013, after peaking at 130.9% that month.[167]

A report was published in January 2011 byDiario de Noticias[168]and published in Portugal byGradiva, it has been proved that in the meantime betweenCarnation Revolution1974 and 2010 democracyGovernment of the Republic of PortugalEncourage overspending and investment bubbles through ambiguityPublic Private Partnershipand the funding of many ineffective and unnecessary external consultations and consultations by committees and companies.
This allows significantlyunderpantsin state leadershippublic buildingand increased bonuses and salaries of top managers and executives. The persistent and persistent recruitment policy has led to a surplus of civil servants. riskrecognition,national debtCreative and EuropeStructuring and association fundshas been mismanaged for nearly four decades.[169]

Two Portuguese banks,Banco Português de Negócios(BPN) andBanco Privado Portuguese(BPP), had accumulated losses through bad investments, embezzlement and accounting fraud for years. BPN’s case is particularly dire because of its size, market share and political implications – then-Portuguese President Cavaco Silva and several of his political allies had personal ties to individuals and did business with the bank and its executives, who were eventually charged and convicted arrested for fraud and other crimes.[170][171][172]Under the pretext of avoiding a possible serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy, the Portuguese government has decided to provide them with a rescue package that will ultimately cause harm to taxpayers and the Portuguese people in general in the future.

So economical[Editor]

Portugal’s economyEconomic History of Portugal

[To update]

Portugal is adevelopedand ahigh income country, with a GDP per capita of 77% of the EU28 average in 2017 (up from 75% in 2012)[173]and aHDIwas 0.850 in 2018 (40th highest).[174]At the end of 2018, Portugal’s GDP (PPP) was USD 32,554 per capita, according to an OECD report.[175]The national currency of Portugal isEuro(€), replacePortuguese escudoand the country was one of the original member states ofeuro zone. The central bank of Portugal isBank of Portugal, an important part ofEuropean Central Bank System. Most industries, businesses and financial institutions focus onLisbonandpostageCity areas -Setúbal,Aveiro,braga,coimbra,LeiriaandFaroCounties are the largest economic centers outside of these two main regions.
According to the World Travel Awards, Portugal was Europe’s Best Golf Destination in 2012 and 2013.[176][177]

Avenida da LiberdadeMarquis of Pombal SquareThe most expensive shopping streets in Europe

SinceCarnation Revolution1974, culminated in the end of one of theeconomic expansion phases(from the 1960s),[178]The country’s annual economic growth has changed significantly.[179]After the chaos of the 1974 revolution andPRECDuring this period, Portugal tried to adapt to changemodern world economy, a process that continued in 2013. Portugal since the 1990spublic consumption-basedeconomic developmentthe model is gradually changing to a private, export-oriented systeminvestmentand the development ofhigh technologyFields. As a result, business services have overtaken more traditional industries like textiles, footwear, and morecork(Portugal is the world’s leading cork producer),[180]wood products and beverages.[181]

In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy experienced its worst recession since the 1970s, which resulted in the country being bailed out by the European Commission, the Central Bank and the European Union. Europe and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The discharge agreed in 2011 requiresPortugalImplemented a range of austerity measures in exchange for €78 billion in financial support. In May 2014, the country pulled out of the bailout but reiterated its commitment to maintain its reform momentum. At the time of the exit from the bailout, the economy shrank by 0.7% in the first quarter of 2014; The unemployment rate, while still high, has fallen to 15.3%.[182]

Council of the Republic

The average salary in Portugal is €910 per month, not including self-employed[183]andminimum wagefrom 2022, as required by law, will be €705 per month (paid 14 times a year).[184][185][186]

ThatGlobal Competitiveness Reportfor 2019, published byWorld Economic Forum, which puts Portugal in 34th place in the economic index.

ThatEconomist Intelligence UnitPortugal’s Quality of Life Index in 2005 ranked Portugal as the 19th country with the best quality of life in the world, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries such as France and Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but nine places behind its only neighbor, Spain.[187]And this despite the fact that Portugal remains one of the countries with the lowest GDP per capita in Western Europe.[188]

gold reserves

LargeState companyconsists:Aguas de Portugal(Country),Caixa Geral de Depositos(Bank),Combos de Portugal(Rail),Companhia das Lezirias(agriculture) andRTP(Media). Some state-owned units were previously administered by the statepublic company Parpublica, the Ashareholdera range of public and private companies.[citation required]Recently privatized ex-state companies include:CTT(postal service) andAna(Airport).

companies listed onEuronext Lisbon exchangesasit,galp,Jeronimo Martins,Mota-Engil,Novabase,semapa,Portucel Soporcel,Telecommunications PortugalandSonae, is one of the largest Portuguese groups by number of employees,net incomeor internationalmarket share. Euronext Lisbon is a major Portuguese stock exchange and is part of theNYSE Euronext, the first global exchange. ThatPSI-20is the choice and best known of Portugalinventory list.

ThatIMFpublished an updated report on Portugal’s economy at the end of June 2017, with strong short-term prospects and an increase in investments and exports compared to previous years. Having a surplus in 2016, the country is no longer bound by the surplus-surplus regime introduced during the previous financial crisis. The banking system is more stable, although there are still bad debts and corporate debt. The IMF recommends working on solving these problems for Portugal so that it can attract more private investment. “Continued strong growth, coupled with continued deleveraging, should mitigate the risks posed by high debt levels, particularly as currency capacity shrinks.”
ThatOECDEconomic reports since 2018 show recovery, albeit slow; and Portugal’s growth prospects for 2020 remain positive.[189][190][191]

main area[Editor]

Agriculture in PortugalFishing in PortugalMining in PortugalPortuguese wine


Agriculture in Portugalbased on small and medium-sized distributed family-owned units. However, the field also encompasses a larger scaleintensive farmingexport orientedagricultural operationSupported by companies (egGroup RAR’Svitacress,sovena,Lactogal,Vale da Rosa,Companhia das LeziriasandValouro). The country produces a variety of crops and livestock, including:tomato,citrus fruits,green vegetables,rice,Wheat,just,Corn,olives,oilseed,nuts,cherry,blueberry,table grapes,edible mushrooms,Dairy products,poultryandbeef. Based onFAO, Portugal is the leading producer ofcorkandcarobin the world, accounting for about 50% and 30% of world production respectively.[192]It is also the third largest exporter ofchestnutand is Europe’s third largest producer ofcellulose.[193]Portugal is among the top 10 largest countriesolive oilproducer in the world and the fourth largest exporter.[194]The country is also one of the world’s largest exporters ofalcohol, become famous for itWine.

forestryhas also played an important economic role in rural communities and in industry (vizpaper industryconsistsGroup of Portucel Soporcel,shape woodconsistsSonae Industriea, andfurnitureincluding several manufacturing facilities in and aroundPaços de Ferreira, the core of Portugal’s main industrial activitiesIKEA). In 2001, the total agricultural product accounted for 4% of the country’s GDP.

“Cup of tea”Alentejotypes of wine.

Traditionally a sea power, Portugal has a strong traditionPortugal’s fishing industryand is one of the countries with the highest per capita fish consumption.[195]The main landings in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira), total annual landings, were the ports ofMatosinhos,Peniche,Olhao,Setúbal,Figueira da Foz,Sine,PortimaoandMadeira. Processed fish products from Portugal are exported through a number of companies under a number of different trademarks and registered trademarks such as:Ramirez, the oldest operating canned fish manufacturer in the world.

Portugal is an important EuropemineralManufacturer and belongs to thecopperProducer. The country is also a notable producer oftin,tungstenanduranium. However, the country lacks the potential to implement itexploration of hydrocarbonsandaluminum, a limitation that has hampered the development ofMiningandmetallurgicalIndustry sectors. Although, after the 1974 revolution and subsequent years, the country has vast deposits of iron and coal, mainly in the northglobalization of the economy, low competitiveness forced a reduction in mining activities for these minerals. ThatPanasqueiraandNeves Corvo mineis one of the most famous mines in Portugal that is still in operation.[196]

Rich Portugallithiumunderground land, especially concentrated in the districtsGuarda,Viseu,Villa RealandViana do Castelo, while most of the country’s lithium comes from the Gonçalo Aplite pegmatite mine. largestlithiumThe European mine operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region has estimated reserves for 30 years of production. It has 5 additional deposits.[197][198][199]Savannah Resources announced a 52% increase in estimated lithium resources at the Mina do Barroso lithium project in northern Portugal in May 2018, saying the country could become Europe’s first supplier.spodumene, a mineral-bearing lithium.[200]The Company said the estimated mineral resource at the mine is currently 14 million tonnes. Lithium prices have risen due to growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and to store electricity from the grid. Europe consumes more than 20% of the world’s lithium battery supply, but currently has to import all of these mineral supplies.[201]

W Resources announced in 2018 that it had started a new drilling campaign at its São Martinhoyellowproject in Portugal. The reverse circulation drilling program consists of 15 drill holes totaling approximately 2,000 meters of drilling. The goal is to expand the resource by incorporating data from the 2016 drill results with the expected expansion into the ongoing campaign.[202][203][204]

secondary area[Editor]

Portucel SoporcelSetúbal

The industry is very diverseCar(Volkswagen Auto EuropeandPeugeot Citroën) andbicycle,[205] Aerospace(embraerandOGMA),electronic deviceanddocument, arrivecourt,Chemistry,cementandwood flour. Volkswagen GroupAutoEuropeAutomotive assembly plant inPalmelais one of the biggestForeign Direct InvestmentProjects in Portugal.
Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such asAerospace,biotechnologyandinformation technology, was developed at several sites across the country.Alverca,Evora[206]andPonte de Sorare the main hubs of the Portuguese aerospace industry, led by the Brazilian Embraer and the Portuguese OGMA. Having entered the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been established and concentrated in China’s urban areas.Lisbon,postage,braga,coimbraandAveiro.[citation required]

Third level area[Editor]

Tourism in Portugal


The banking and insurance sector had developed well up until then2007-2008 financial crisis, and this partly reflects the rapid expansion of the market in Portugal. Although sensitive to a variety of markets and underwritingrisk, both the life and non-life sectors as a whole are expected to be able to withstand some severe shocks, albeit with very different impacts on individual insurers.[207]

travel andto travelcontinues to be of great importance to Portugal. The country needs to focus on its niche attractions such as health, nature and rural tourism to stay ahead of its competitors.[208]

Portugal is among the 20 most visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,000,000 foreign tourists every year.[209]In 2014 Portugal was electedBest European CountryaboutUnited States today.[210]

In 2017, Portugal was elected to bothEurope’s top destinations[211]and in 2018 and 2019,The top travel destination in the world[212]

Barcelo’s cock

The tourist hotspots in Portugal are:Lisbon,Cascais,Fatimah,Algarve,Madeira,postageandcoimbra. Lisbon is the sixteenth most visited tourist destination among European cities[213](with seven million tourists staying in the city’s hotels in 2006).[214]Notable luxury destinations includePortuguese RivieraandComporta coast.

In addition, about 5-6 million religious pilgrims visitFatimahThe site where the Virgin Mary appeared to three shepherd children each year is said to have taken place in 1917.Shrine of Our Lady of FatimaIt is one of the largest Roman Catholic temples in the world. The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist attractions, such asDouro Valley, the islandPorto Santo, andAlentejo.

legend ofBarcelo’s cocktells the story of the miraculous intervention of a dead rooster to prove the innocence of a man wrongly accused and sentenced to death. Stories from the 17th CenturyCalvaryIt is part of the collection of the Archaeological Museum in Paço dos Condes, a Gothic palace inBarcelona, a city in northwestern Portugal.
ThatBarcelo’s cockbought as land by thousands of touristssouvenir.

On November 30, 2016, the United Nations added PortugueseBisalhaesThe tradition of making black pottery is on the UNESCO list of cultural heritage protection.[215]On December 7, 2017,united nationaddedBonecos de Estremoz-Toys by Estremoztraditionally asIntangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCOof humanity.[216]

fourth area[Editor]

Science and Technology in Portugal

Scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly carried out within a networkCHEAPunit ofpublic universitiesand state-run autonomous research institutions such asINETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e InovaçãoandINRB – Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos. The funding and management of this research system is mainly under the direction ofMinistry of Science, Technology and Higher Education(MCTES) and MCTESFundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia(FCT).

Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa

Biggest Rbiologyresearch institutions such asInstituto de Medicina Molecular, thatCenter for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, thatIPATIMUP, thatInstituto de Biologia Molecular e CellularandAbel Salazar, Institute of Biomedical Sciences.

Among the largest non-governmental research organizations in PortugalInstituto Gulbenkian de CienciaandChampalimaud Foundation, a research center for neuroscience and oncology, which awards one of the most valuable scientific awards in the world every year. A number of national and multinational industrial and high-tech companies are also responsible for research and development projects. One of the oldest learned societies in Portugal isAcademy of Sciences of Lisbon, was founded in 1779.

IberianGovernment-sponsored bilateral research efforts includeInternational Iberian Laboratory of NanotechnologyandIbercivis computer distributionFoundation, which are joint study programs of Portugal and Spain. Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. These includeEuropean Space Agency(ESA),European Laboratory for Particle Physics(CERN),ITERS, andEuropean Southern Observatory(ESO).

Portugal has the largestAquariumin Europe,Lisbon Oceanarium, and the Portuguese have a number of other notable institutions focused on science-related exhibitions and analysis, such as B. Government agenciesCiencia Viva, a program of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to promote the culture of science and technology among the Portuguese people,[217]thatUniversity of Coimbra Science Museum, thatNational Museum of Natural Historyat the University of Lisbon andvisionarium.
With the emergence and development of somescience parkaround the world After helping to create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based companies, Portugal began to develop a number of companies[218]science parks across the country. These includeTagus Park(inOeiras), thatCoimbra iParque(incoimbra), thatbiological substance(inCantanhede), thatMadeira Technopolo[219](infunchal),Sines Technopolo[220](inSine), Tecmaia[221](inMaia) andparkurbis[222](inCovilha). Businesses are based in Portugal’s science parks to take advantage of a wide range of services, ranging from financial and legal advice to marketing and technology support.

Egas Moniz, a Portuguese doctor who developedangiogram of the brainandalbino, received in 1949Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine- he was the first Portuguese to receiveNobel prizeand unique in the sciences.

ThatEuropean Innovation ScoreboardIn 2011, it ranked Portugal-based innovation 15th, with an impressive increase in innovation spending and outcomes.[223]Portugal is ranked 31st inGlobal Innovation Indexin 2021, up from 32nd place in 2019.[224][225][226][227]


Transportation in Portugal

In Portugal in the early 1970srapid economic growthwith the increaseconsumptionand new car purchases prioritize improvements in transportation. Again in the 1990s, after joiningEuropean Economic CommunityThe country built many new highways. Today, the country has a road network of 68,732 km (42,708 miles), of which almost 3,000 km (1,864 miles) are part of a system of 44 freeways. The first motorway (connecting Lisbon to the National Stadium) opened in 1944 and was an innovative project that made Portugal one of the first countries in the world to build a motorway (a road). This road eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais Motorway or A5).

Vasco da Gama Cầu BridgeEU

Although several other routes were laid (circa 1960s and 1970s), large-scale highway construction was not undertaken until after the early 1980s. 1972,Brisa, a highway franchisor, was formed to provide management of many highways in the area. Many motorways are subject to tolls (cfVia Verde).Vasco da Gama Cầu Bridgeis the longest bridge inEU(second longest in Europe) with 12,345 km.[228][229]

Mainland Portugal89,015 kilometers2(34,369 square miles) Area served by four international airports near major citiesLisbon,postage,Faroandyeah. Lisbon’s geographic location makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several domestic airports. ElementaryensignTo beTAPAirPortugal, although many other domestic airlines offer domestic and international flights. The government decided to build a new airport outside of Lisbonalcohol, substituteLisbon Portela Airport, although the plan was suspended due to austerity measures. Currently the main airports are inLisbon,postage,Faro,funchal(Madeira) andPonta Delgada(Azores), managed by the Group of National Airport AuthoritiesANA – Aeroportos de Portugal. Another important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the Azores island of Terceira. The airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores. It also serves as a military airfield for the United States Air Force. The base is still in use today.

A national railway system that extends across the country and into Spain, supported and managed byCombos de Portugal(CP).rail transportPassenger and freight traffic is carried over the currently operating 2,791 km (1,734 mi) of rail track, of which 1,430 km (889 mi) is electrified and approximately 900 km (559 mi) allow train speeds in excess of 120 km/h (75 mph ) to have ). The railway network is managed byInfrastructures of Portugaland the transportation of passengers and goods is the responsibility of CP, including public companies. In 2006, CP carried 133,000,000 passengers and VND 9,750,000ton(9,600,000 VND)long tons; 10,700,000 wonshort tons) of the goods.

The main seaports are inSine,Lisbon,leixoes,Setúbal,Aveiro,Figueira da Foz, andFaro.

The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems:Lisbon MetroandMetro Sul do TejoInsideLisbon metropolitan areaandPorto metro stationInsideUrban area of ​​Porto, each with more than 35 km (22 mi). O Bo Dao Nha,Lisbon tramwas provided byCompanhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa(Karris), for more than a century. Inpostage,a tram network, of which there is only one tourist queue on the shoreDourothe rest began construction on September 12, 1895 (initially forIberian Peninsula). All major cities and communities have their own local transport networks and taxi services.


Energy in Portugal

Portugal has a significant source of wind and river energy, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a tendency to develop renewable resource industry and reduce consumption and use of fossil fuels. 2006 the largest in the worldSolarplanted that dayMoura, photovoltaic power plant, began to work nearbymura, in the south while the world’s first advertisingwater wave powerFarm yard,Aguçadoura Song Wave Farm, opened inNorte region(2008). At the end of 2006, 66% of the country’s electricity generation came from coal and fuel-fired power plants, while 29% came from coal-fired power plantsHydropowercrushed and 6% throughwind energy.[230]

In 2008, renewable energy produced 43% of the country’s electricity, although hydropower declined due to a severe drought.[231]As of June 2010, electricity exports have exceeded imports. In the period from January to May 2010, 70% of the national energy production came from renewable sources.[232]

Portugal’s national energy transmission company,Redes Energéticas Nacionais(REN), which uses complex modeling to predict weather, particularly wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy from various renewable energy assets.
For decades, prior to the solar-wind revolution, Portugal generated electricity from hydroelectric power stations on its rivers. New programs combining wind and water: Wind-powered turbines pump water uphill at night, during the windiest time; The water then flows downhill day after day, generating electricity when consumer demand is greatest. The Portuguese distribution system is now also a one-way street. Instead of just supplying electricity, it draws power from even the smallest generators, such as. B. Solar panels on the roof. The government has actively encouraged such contributions by setting a high price for those who buy rooftop solar power.


Demographics of Portugal


fadistsJerónimos Monastery

Statistics Portugal (Portuguese:INE – Instituto Nacional de Estatística) estimates that the population as of the 2021 census is 10,344,802 (52% female, 48% male).[7]This population was relatively homogeneous throughout most of its history: a single religion (Roman Catholic) and a single language contributed to this national and ethnic unity.[233]

The most important demographic influence in modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest; Current interpretation ofY chromosomeandmtDNAData shows that the Portuguese are descendedold stoneAround 45,000 years ago, peoples began to arrive on the European continent. All subsequent migrations have had a genetic and cultural influence, but the main source of the Portuguese population remains the Paleolithic. Genetic studies have shown that the Portuguese population does not differ significantly from other European populations.[234]The Portuguese had the upper hand in genetics (Iron Age)[235]belongs to haplogroup R1b along withbriant,alpineandGoidelicgeneral signs. Also expected but not too common are southern Europe (Sardinia, Italy and the Balkans), generally the North West (West Germany) and to a lesser extent Great Britain/Ireland (Brythonic/Gaelic) and France (Alpine). With low confidence, there are Scandinavian and Eastern European genetic markers.[235]Other sources indicate a low presence ofBerberand Israel will also be part of the low-confidence zone.[236]

Native Portuguese is aIberianethnic group and they make up 95% of the total population have very similar ancestorsSpanishand have close contact with colleaguesCountries in the arc of the Atlantic Oceansuch as Ireland, the British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dating back to the Bronze Age. These maritime contacts and the prevalence of haplogroup R1b as the main common hallmark of these nations suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity. Other maritime connections with the Mediterranean, notably with the Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans and Moors, added some specific phenotypes in southern Portugal and particularly southwestern Spain (Tartessusculture), making Portugal and north-west Spain a bridge between north-west Europe and the Mediterranean, but maintaining itAtlanticPersonality.

Despite good economic development over the past three decades, the Portuguese since 1890 are the shortest in Europe. This emerging elevation change took place in the 1840s and has been steadily increasing ever since. One of the driving factors was modest real wage growth compared to central Europe, given Portugal’s late industrialization and economic growth. Another crucial factor is laghuman resourcesmaking progress.[237]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) as of 2015[To update]an estimated 1.52 births per woman, one of the lowest in the world, well below the replacement rate of 2.1,[238]it is still well below the peak of 5.02 children born per woman in 1911.[239]In 2016, 52.8% of births were to unmarried women.[240]Like most western countries, Portugal faces low fertility: the country has experienced oneFertility rate below reproduction levelsince the 1980s.[241]Portugal then has the 17th oldest population in the world with a median age of 43.7 years.[242]

The structure of Portuguese society is marked by significant inequalities that ranked the country seventh lowest of all countries in 2016.Social Justice Indexfor the European Union.[243]

The Portuguese Parliament approved a 2019 budget in 2018 that provided tax breaks for returning immigrants to attract those who had left during the period.2007-2008 financial crisis. Budget 2019 Extension, powered byleft wingMajority in Parliament, also aims to increase household purchasing power while reducing an already lower deficit.migrant returnsmay only state half of their taxable income for five years when they return, provided they have lived abroad for at least three years. The “Return Show” runs for two years. About 500,000 residents left Portugal between 2010 and 2015 afterwardsGreat Depression. Although around 350,000 people have returned, Lisbon is looking to lure the rest back home – much like the Irish.[244]Portugal has approved a line of credit for Portuguese immigrants to invest in the country upon their return. Additionally, taxes for immigrants returning in 2019 and 2020 will be halved as part of a stimulus measure to bring back native Portuguese and revive the population and boost growth[245]- when Portugal was struggling with a low birth rate andold population. According to the National Statistics Office, Portugal’s population will fall from 10.3 million today to 7.7 million in 2080, and the population will continue to age.[246]


Largest cities or communes in Portugal
Grant Surname country Pop music. Grant Surname country Pop music.
LisbonPorto First Lisbon Lisbon 552,700 11 Queluz Lisbon 75,169 Vila Nova de GaiaAmadora
2 postage north 237,591 twelfth Rio Tinto north 64,815
3 Villa Nova de Gaia north 186,502 13 Barreiro Lisbon 63,353
4 Amadora Lisbon 175.136 14 Aveiro center 60,058
5 braga north 136,885 15 Viseu center 57,975
6 funchal Madeira 111,541 16 Odivelas Lisbon 56,847
7 coimbra center 105,842 17 Leiria center 50,533
8th Setúbal Lisbon 98.131 18 Matosinhos north 49,486
9 Almada Lisbon 96,404 19 Guimaraes north 47,588
ten Agualva cacem Lisbon 79,805 20 Faro Algarve 47,575

urban area[Editor]

Urban areas of Portugal


There are two major metropolitan areas (GAME):Lisbonandpostage.[248]The following is a list of people with a mainlandFunctional Urban Area (FUA).

Grant city ​​name Population [249]
First Lisbon 2,818,000 won
2 postage 1,758,531
3 coimbra 270,000 won
4 braga 250,000 won
5 funchal 210,000 won
6 Guimaraes 180,000 won
7 Aveiro 140,000 won
8th Ponta Delgada 120,000 won
9 Vila Franca de Xira 120,000 won
ten Faro 118,000 won
11 Viseu 110,000 won

Regions by HDI[Editor]


This is a list ofNUTS2 statistical regions of PortugalaboutHuman Development Indexsince 2019.[250]

Grant The Provincial HDI (2019) [251]
Human development is very high
First Lisbon metropolitan area 0.901
Portuguese (average) 0.864
2 center 0.856
3 north 0.851
4 Algarve 0.847
5 Alentejo 0.840
6 Madeira 0.818
7 Azores 0.807


Immigration to Portugal

In 2007, Portugal had a population of 10,617,575, of which about 332,137 were legalimmigrant.[252]In 2015, Portugal had 10,341,330 inhabitants, of whom about 383,759 were legal migrants, representing 3.7% of the population.[253]In 2017, Portugal had 416,682 legal residents of foreign origin, of whom 203,753 were male and 212,929 were female.[254]As of 2020, 32,147 residents of foreign origin hold Portuguese nationality, of whom 17,021 are female and 15,126 are male.[255]

From Portugalcolonial historyhas long been the cornerstone of its national identity as well as its geographic location in the south-west corner of Europe overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. It was one of the last Western European colonial powers to cede its overseas territories (includingAngolaandMozambican1975), transferred the management to theMacaoto the People’s Republic of China in late 1999. It is therefore both influenced and influenced by cultures from the former colonies or dependencies, leading to immigration from these former areas for both economic and personal reasons. Portugal, a longstanding immigration country (the vast majorityBrazilianPortuguese descent),[256]has now become a net immigration nation,[257]and not just the last wordIndian(Portuguese until 1961),African(Portuguese until 1975) andFar East Asia(Portuguese until 1999) Overseas Territories. An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal when the country’s African possessions gained independence in 1975.[256]

Since the 1990s with the explosion ofconstruction, several new waves ofUkrainians,Brazilian people,African Lusophoneand otherAfricansettled in the country.Romans,Moldovans,Kosovo Albanians,Russianandchinese peoplealso immigrated to the country. From PortugalRomaniaThe population is estimated at around 40,000 people.

The number ofVenezuelans,PakistaniandIndianMigrants are also important. According to estimates, there are usually more than 30,000 seasonallyIllegal immigrantsin … worksAgriculture, mainly in the South, where they are often exploited by organized networks of seasonal workers. Workers are sometimes paid less than half the legal minimum wage. These migrants, who often arrive without valid papers or employment contracts, make up more than 90% of the agricultural workforce in southern Portugal.
Mostly Indo-Asian, from India,Bangladesh,Nepal, Pakistan uThailand. Inside ofAlentejoThere are many African workers. Significant figures also come from Eastern Europe, Moldova, Ukraine, Romania and Brazil.[258]

Also someEU citizens, mostly from the UK or other Nordic countries, have become permanent residents (with the UK diaspora being made up mostly of pensioners living in the Algarve and Madeira.[259]


Religion in Portugal

Religions in Portugal (2011 Census) [260]
Roman Catholic 81.0%
Other Christianity 3.3%
Miscellaneous 0.6%
There is no religion 6.8%
Don’t declare 8.3%

According to the 2011 census, 81.0% of the Portuguese populationRoman Catholicism.[261]The country has small Protestants,Holy day by day,Islam,Hindus,Sikhism,Eastern Orthodox Church,Jehovah’s Witnesses,Bahá’í,Buddhists,Jewishandspiritualistcommunity. influence ofTraditional African Religionsand traditional Chinese religion are also prevalent, particularly in areas related to traditional Chinese medicine and traditional African medicine. About 6.8% of the population said they were not religious and 8.3% gave no information about their religion.[262]

Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church have been generally peaceful and stable since the dawn of the Portuguese nation, their relative power has fluctuated. Inside13th and 14th centuries, the Church enjoyed authority and identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the founding of the Portuguese educational system, includingthe first university.

development ofPortugal’s overseas empiredo itevangelistImportant agent ofcolonization, with important roles intrainingandmissionaryby people from all inhabited continents. development ofgenerouslyand youngrepublicMovements in the era that led to the creation ofFirst Portuguese Republic(1910–26) changed the role and meaning of organized religion.

Portugal is asecular state:Church and state are officially separateduring the First Portuguese Republic, and this was repeated in 1976Portuguese Constitution. In addition to the constitution, the two most important documents regardingfreedom of religionin Portugal is the Concordata 1940 (later revised 1971) between Portugal andHoly Seeand the Religious Freedom Act 2001.


language of PortugalPortuguese

mirandeseMiranda do DouroTras os Montes

Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. It is aRomance languagecoming fromGalician-Portuguese, was said in what is nowGaliciaandnorthern portugal. There are still strong similarities betweenGaliciaandPortuguesecultures. Galicia was advisory observerCommunity of Portuguese Speaking Countries.

The Portuguese language is derivedLatinsaid byLatinize pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsulaabout 2000 years ago – especiallyThe Celts,[21] Conii,[263] The Lusitans[20]andTurduli.[264]The language spread worldwide in the 15th and 16th centuries as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and 1999.[265]Portuguese is spoken as a first language on five different continents, with Brazil having the largest number of native Portuguese speakers of any country.
As of 2013, Portuguese is the official language in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, and Equatorial GuineaEast Timor. These countries, plusMacaoSpecial Administrative Region (People’s Republic of China) where Portuguese is co-officialChinese, createlusosphere, a term of ancient originRoman provinceof “Lusitania’, which now corresponds to Portuguese territory to the southDouroFlow.[266]

mirandeseIt is also recognized as a co-official regional language in several autonomous cities in north-eastern Portugal. It is part ofAstur Leoneselanguage group.[267]There are an estimated 6,000 to 7,000 Mirandese speakers in Portugal.[268]A specific dialect is also mentionedBarranquenho, say insideBarrancos, will also be officially recognized and protected in Portugal from 2021.[269] Minderico, aSocialPortuguese spoken by about 500 people in the citySpirit.[270]

CorrespondingInternational Index of English Proficiency, Portugal has a high level of English proficiency, higher than that of other Romance-speaking European countries such as Italy, France or Spain.[271]


Education in Portugal

The education system is divided into early childhood education (for those under the age of 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, compulsory from the age of 5. 2010) and higher education ( divided into university andencyclopediaTraining). Universities are usually organized intodepartments. Institutes and schools are also common names for autonomous subdivisionsPortuguese universities.

University of Evora

The overall adult literacy rate is 99.4%. The school enrollment rate in Portugal is 100%. CorrespondingInternational Student Assessment Program(PISA) 2018, Portugal scores roundOECDAverage in reading, math and science. In reading and mathematics, average performance in 2018 is close to that from 2009 to 2015; Regarding science, the average performance in 2018 is lower than in 2015 and is again close to the levels of 2009 and 2012.[272][273]

Approximately 46.9% of university-age citizens (20 years old) attend one of Portugal’s higher education institutions[274][275][276](compared to 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries). In addition to a goal forinternational student, Portugal is also among the top countries of origin for international students. All higher education students, both national and international, in 2005 totaled 380,937.

King DinizUniversity of Coimbra

Estudo General

Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis

Universities in Portugal have existed since 1290.Portugal’s oldest university[277]was initially founded in Lisbon before moving to Lisboncoimbra. Historically, the Portuguese founded the oldest engineering school within the Portuguese EmpireAmerica(thatReal Academia de Artilharia, Fortress and DesenhoofRio de Janeiro) in 1792, as well as the oldest medical college in Asia (Escola Medico-Cirúrgicaofgoa) in 1842. Currently the largest university in PortugalUniversity of Lisbon.

ThatThe Bologna Processwas adopted by Portuguese universities and technical colleges in 2006. Higher education in state institutions is offered on a competitive basis, a systemnumerus claususimplemented via the national approval database. However, each college also offers some additional positions through other unusual admissions procedures for athletes, adult applicants (over 23 years),international student, foreign students fromlusosphere, graduates from other universities, students from other universities (transfer learning), alumni (admission) and course transfers are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each educational institution or department of study.

Most study expenses are funded from public funds. Given the rising tuition fees students have to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students (many such as international students and part-time or evening students) such as Entrepreneurs, parents, retirees and expats (especially fromBrazil,[278]a Portuguese-speaking country), many departments make a significant profit from each additional student enrolling in courses, with the benefit of the full tuition of a college or university, and no[citation required]Loss of educational quality (teachers per student, computers per student, class size per student, etc.).

Portugal has joinedPartnership agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutionsDeveloping and increasing the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.


Health in Portugal


CorrespondingHuman Development Report, Middlelongevityturned 82 in Portugal in 2017;[279]2020 is estimated at 82.11 years.[280]According to United Nations forecasts, the life expectancy of the Portuguese population will be over 90 years old by the year 2100.[281]The history of life expectancy in Portugal is shown using historical data from 1950 and future projections up to 2100, as can be seen in the graphic on the left.

Portugal ranks 12th among the best public health systems in the world, ahead of other countries like the UK, Germany or Sweden.[282][283]

The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (National Service of Saude, SNS), special social health insurance programs for certain professions (medical subsystem) and voluntary private health insurance. SNS offers global coverage. In addition, approximately 25% of the population is insured through medical subsystems, 10% through private insurance plans, and another 7% through mutual funds.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for health policy development and SNS management. Five regional health authorities are responsible for implementing national public health goals, developing policies and procedures, and overseeing health care delivery. Decentralized efforts to shift administrative and financial responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, regional health authorities’ autonomy in budgeting and spending was limited to primary health care.

SNS is mainly funded by general taxes. Employers (including government) and employee contributions are the main sources of funding for the health subsystem. In addition, a large part of the funding source goes directly to patient and voluntary health insurance companies.

NOVA University of Lisbon

Similar to other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese died from itNon-Communicable Diseases. death ofheart related diseases(CVD) is higher ineuro zone, but its two main components, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, showed an inverse trend compared to Eur-A, withcerebrovascular diseaseis the leading killer in Portugal (17%). The Portuguese die 12% less from cancer than in Eur-A, but the mortality rate is not falling as fast as in Eur-A. Cancer is more common in children and women under the age of 44. Although lung cancer (slowly increasing in women) and breast cancer (rapidly increasing) are less common, cervical cancer and prostate cancer are more common.
Portugal has the highest diabetes mortality rate in Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the 1980s.

From Portugalinfant mortality rateabout 2 deaths per 1000 live births, 2.4 deaths per 1000 live births.

People are often well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behavior on their health, and their use of health services. However, their perception of their health may differ from what administrative and audit-based data on disease levels in the population suggest. The survey results are therefore based on self-reports at household level and supplement further data on the state of health and the use of services.

Only a third of adults in Portugal rate their health as good or very good (Kasmel et al., 2004). This is the lowest among Eur-A reporting countries and reflects the country’s relatively unfavorable situation in terms of the selected mortality and morbidity rates.[284] Santa Maria Hospitalis the largest university hospital in Portugal.[285]


Portuguese culture

Jerónimos MonasteryBelem towergrand operaManueline styleCasa da Musica

Portugal developed a particular culture while being influenced by the various civilizations that traversed the Mediterranean and continental Europe, or introduced when it played an active roleThe Age of Discovery. In the 1990s and 2000s (decades), Portugal additionally modernized its public cultural institutionsCalouste Gulbenkian Foundationwas founded in Lisbon in 1956.

These includeBelem Cultural Centerin Lisbon,Serralves organizationandCasa da Musica, both insidepostage, as well as new public cultural facilities such as municipal libraries and concert halls have been built or renovated in many cities across the country.
Portugal is home to17UNESCOWorld Heritage, rate it9th in Europe and 18th in the world.

architecture branch[Editor]

Architecture of PortugalMonument classification built in Portugal

Traditional architecture is distinctive and inclusivemanuelin, also known as Late PortugueseGothicmagnificent Portuguese architectural ornaments from the first decades of the 16th century, followed byPombaline style18th c. 20th c. interpretation of traditional architecture,Soft portuguese style, appeared widely in large cities, especially Lisbon. Modern Portugal has world-renowned architects such asEduardo Souto de Moura,Alvaro Siza Vieira(bothPritzker Prizewinner) andGoncalo Byrne. O Bo Dao NhaTomas TaveiraAlso noteworthy, especially the stadium design.[286][287][288]

movie theater[Editor]

Portuguese cinema

Portuguese cinemashas a long tradition dating back to the emergence of the media at the end of the 19th century.Antonio Lopes Ribeiro,Antonio Rice,Pedro Costa,Manoël de Oliveira,Joao Cesar Monteiro,Edgar Pera,Antonio Pedro Vasconcelos,Fernando Lopes,João Botelho,João Mario GriloandLeonel Viera, is among those who have achieved notoriety. Notable Portuguese film actors includeJoaquim de Almeida,Nuno Lopes,Daniela Rua,Mary of Medeiros,Diogo Infante,Soraia Chaves,Ribeirinho,Lucy Moniz, andDiogo Morgado.


Portuguese literature

Luis Vaz de CamoesPortuguese Renaissance

Fernando PesoaPortuguese

Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through both writing and song. until 1350,Portuguese Galicia street singerspread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula,[289]like a kingD.Dinis(1261-1325), who became known for his poems. Other kings would write and finance literary works in Portuguese history, such asD Fernando(1367-1383), who assisted Pêro Menino in writing oLivro da Falcoaria[75].Another notable name in Portuguese literature isGil Vicente(c. 1465 – c. 1536) was one of the founders of the Portuguese dramatic tradition.

explorers and poetsLuis de Camoes(ca. 1524–1580) wrote the epicOs Lusiadas(The Lusiads), WithVirgil’SAeneidis his main influence.[290]Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassical and contemporary styles, as exemplifiedbocage(1765–1805),Antero de Quental(1842–1891) andFernando Pesoa(1888-1935). Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such asAlmeida Garrett,Camilo Castelo Branco,Eca de Queiros,Fernando Pesoa,Sophia de Mello Breyner-Andresen,Antonio Lobo Antunes,Miguel TorgaandAgustina Bessa Luis. Particularly popular and awarded asJose Saramago, recipient in 1998Nobel Prize in literature.


Portuguese cuisinePortuguese wine

Portuguese cuisine is very diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry foodsnowfish(Bacalhauin Portuguese), of which there are hundredscooking recipe. Two other popular fish recipes are grilledanchovyandCalderada, a kind of tomatostewcan be made from several types of fish with a mixture of onions, garlic, bay leaves, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, or parsleycoriander. Typical Portuguese meat recipes with beef, pork, lamb, goat or chicken are among otherscozido a portuguesa,feijoada,Franco de Churrasco,Leitao(Grillsucking pig),Chanfanaandcarne de porco in Alentejana. A very popular dish from the north isdobrada, a trio of steamed white beans and carrots, usually served with steamed white rice.peri-periChicken is a spicy charcoal chicken dish served with rice and vegetables, a favorite across Portugal but most popular in PortugalAlgarveCountry.

Typical fast foods includeFranziska(French) from Porto”,Tripas a moda do Porto”also a traditional Porto dish, andbifanas(grilled pork) orAction(grilled meat)sandwich, known throughout the country. Portuguese art aboutcakederived from muchmiddle AgesCatholic monasteries are spread all over the country. These monasteries use very few ingredients (mainly almonds,vanilla,Cinammon, flour, eggs and some alcohol) has managed to create a spectacular range of different baked goods, includingPasteis de Belem(orPasteis de Nata) originally from Lisbon, andEgg Molefrom Aveiro are examples. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a good food culture, and there are countless delicious restaurants and eateries throughout the countryTasquinhas.

Portugal’s wines have been internationally recognized since the days of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god.Bacchus. Today, the country is well known to wine lovers and its wines have received several international awards. Some of Portugal’s best wines areVinho Verde,Vinho Alvarinho,Vinho do Douro,Vinho do Alentejo,Vinho do Dao,Vinho da Bairradaand sweetWine,Madeira wine, andMoscowout ofSetúbalandfavourite. Port wine and Madeira are particularly appreciated in many parts of the world.


Music of Portugal

fadoJose Malhoa

Portuguese musicspans many genres. The traditional type is Portuguese folk music with deep roots in local customs as a musical instrumentbagpipes(corridor), drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and ukuleles (cavaquinho). In Portuguese folk music, the famous genre is thefado, a melancholic urban music with rootsLisbonin the 19th century, possibly in bohemian settings, often associated withPortuguese guitarandsaudade, or longing.Coimbra fado, a kind of “street singerSerenaded “Fado” is also notable. Notable international artists includeAmalia Rodrigues,Carlo Paredes,Jose Afonso,Mariza,Carlos do Carmo,Antonio Chainho,misia,Dulce PontesandMadredeus.

In the field of classical music, Portugal is represented by pianist namesArthur Pizarro,Maria João Pires,Sequeira Costa, violinist Carlos Damas,Gerardo Ribeiroand in the past by the great cellistGuilhermina Suggia. Notable composers includePortuguese Marcos,Jose Vianna da Motta,Carlo Seixas,Joao Domingo’s Bomtempo,João de Sousa Carvalho,Luis de Freitas Brancoand his studentsJoly Braga Santos,Fernando Lopes-Graça,Emmanuel NunesandSergio Azevedo. Similarly, contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel d’Oliveira have achieved some international success.

Amalia Rodrigues


OutdoorsPeople, fado and classical music, other genres are available in Portugal such as pop and other modern music, particularly from North America and the UK, as well as a wide variety of Portuguese artists and bands, Portuguese, Caribbean, African Lusophone and Brazilian. Internationally recognized artists includeDulce Pontes,magic of the moon,Buraka Som system,blowing mechanism,David CarreiraandThe gifts, with three later nominated for aMTV Europe Music Awards.

Portugal has several summer music festivals, such asSudoeste FestivalinZambujeira do Mar,Festival de Paredes de CourainParedes de Coura,Festival Vilar de MourosnearCaminha,Exploding FestivalinCity of Idanha-a-Nova,NOS lives,Summer festival SumolinEriceira,Rock in Rio LisbonandSuper Bock Super RockinGreater Lisbon. Outside of the summer, Portugal has a large number of festivals geared more towards an urban audience, such as Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto. Also, one of theGoa tranceHeld every two years in central Portugal, the Festival Boom Festival is also the only festival in Portugal to have received international awards: European Festival Awards 2010 – Green Festival’n’Clean of the Year and Green Festival Award for Excellence 2008 and 2010. There are also student festivals fromQueima das Fitasare major events in several cities across Portugal. Portugal hosted in 2005MTV Europe Music Awards, inPavilion Atlantico,Lisbon. Also, Portugal wonEurovision song contest 2017inKyivwith the song”Amar pelos dois”presented bySalvador Sobraland then organizedCompetition 2018inAltice ArenainLisbon.[291][292]

Visual arts[Editor]

Portuguese art

Domingos Sequeiraneoclassical

Eucharistic Adoration; 1828

Portugal has onerich history in painting. The first famous painters date back to the 15th century – likeNuno GoncalvesandVasco Fernándes- was part of the late Gothic period. During the Renaissance, Portuguese painting was heavily influenced by Nordic painting. During the Baroque periodJosefa de ObidosandVieira Lusitanoare the most prolific painters.Jose Malhoa, known for his workfado, andColumbano Bordalo Pinheiro(who drew the portrait ofTeofilo BragaandAntero de Quental) all references are innature painting.

The 20th century saw the emergence ofmodernism, and with him the most prominent Portuguese painters:Amadeo de Souza Cardoso, who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly the Delaunays (RobertandSonja). His most famous works includeCanção Spread a Russa e o Fígaro. Another great modernist painter/writer isCarlos BotelhoandAlmada Negreiros, friends with poetsFernando Pesoa, who painted Pessoa’s portrait. He is heavily influenced by bothcubismandfuturistTrend.

Painters are among the prominent international personalities of the visual arts todayVieira da Silva,Julio Pomar, Helena Almeida,Joana Vasconcelos,Julian SarmentoandPaula Reg.


Sports in Portugal

Cristiano Ronaldo


Socceris the most popular sport in Portugal. There are several football leagues ranging from local amateurs to world-class professionals. LegendaryEusebiostill an important symbol forPortuguese soccerStory.FIFA’s best playerwinnerLuis FigoandCristiano RonaldoWho won?Golden FIFA Ball, are two Portuguese world-class footballers. Also notable are Portuguese football managers withJose Mourinhois one of the most famous.

ThatPortugal national football team-Selecao National- won oneUEFA European ChampionshipTitle: theUEFA Euro 2016, with a 1-0 win infinalEndFrance, organize the tournament. Portugal also took first placeUEFA Nations League 2018-19with a 1-0 win firstNetherlandsInsidefinal(organized in Portugal), second inEURO 2004(also held in Portugal), third inSoccer World Cup 1966andConfederations Cup 2017and fourth inWorld Cup 2006. At youth level, Portugal have won twoFIFA World Youth Championship(in1989and1991) and someUefaEuropean Youth Championship.

SL Benfica,Sports CPandFC Portois the biggestsports clubby popularity and number of titles won, often referred to as “os tres grandes”(“three adults”). You have won eight titles in EuropeUefaClub tournaments, have been in 21 finals and are a regular contender for the finals almost every season. Besides football, many of the Portuguese sports clubs, including the ‘big three’, compete in a number of other sporting events with varying degrees of success and popularityroller hockey,basketball,futsal,handball, andvolleyball.
ThatPortuguese Football Federation(FIGHT FIRE) -Federacao Portuguesa de Futebol- held annuallyAlgarve Cup, seriouswomen soccerThe tournament was held in the Portuguese regionAlgarve.

ThatPortuguese national rugby teamqualified forRugby World Cup 2007andPortuguese national rugby teamplayed inWorld Rugby Sevens Series.

Nelson Evora

Patricia Mamana

InOlympicThe Portuguese won multiple gold, silver and bronze medals at European, World and Olympic Games.road cycling, WithVolta a Portugalis the most important race, also a popular sporting event and includes professional cycling teams such asSports CP,Boavista,Clube de Ciclismo de TaviraandUniao Ciclista da Maia. At international level, Portuguese cyclists have achieved good results.Joaquim AgostinoFinished on the podium in 1978 and 1979Tour de France, and 1974Vuelta a Espana.Rui Costawonworld titlein the men’s road race.

The country has also achieved notable achievements in sports such as:fencing,judo,kite surfing,rowing, sailboat,windsurfing, Try it,Taekwondo,triathlonandwindsurfing, owns a number of European and world titles. ThatParalympic GamesAthletes have also won many medals in sports such as;Bathe,Bocce,Olympic,mixed martial artsandwrestling.

Miguel Oliveira

In motorsport, Portugal is internationally knownAssembly of Portugal, andEstorilandCircuit Algarveas well as revivalCircuit of Portoorganizes a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for some of the world famous pilots and racers such asMiguel Oliveira,Thiago Monteiro,Antonio Felix da Costa,Filipe Albuquerque,Pedro Lamyand others in a variety ofsports car racing.

In equestrian sport, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship in 2006, finishing third in first shadowWorld Cup and have had several victories in Europeworking methodsChampionship.

In water sports, Portugal has three main sports:Bathe,water balloonandwindsurfing. Recently Portugal succeededrowingwith a string of world and European champions including Olympic medalists. Every year the country also hosts one of the stages ofWorld Surfing FederationMan And Womanchampionship, thatMEO Rip Curl Pro PortugalinsupertubosinPeniche.

Northern Portugal has its own originalmartial arts,Jogo do Pau, in which boxers confront one or more opponents with a staff. Other popular sports related outdoor leisure activities with thousands of enthusiasts across the country are among othersAirsoft, fishing,golf, hiking, hunting etcorientation.

Portugal is one of the best countries in the worldgolfDestinations.[294]It has received several World Golf Awards accolades.[295]

The famous sportsmanship and spirit of successful competitions in Portugal can be traced back to timeAncient Rome.Gaius Appuleius Diocles(104 – after 146 AD) is a remarkable thingcoachmanborn inLamegowho became one of the most famous athletes in the worldold story. He is often consideredhighest paid athlete of all time.[296][297]

See more[Editor]

  • Portal Portugal
  • Index of articles on Portugal
  • About Portugal


  1. ^
  2. Mirandese, spoken in the Terra de Miranda region, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n. ° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] making it official use. [2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  3. ^
  4. By country of birth
  5. ^
  6. The Portuguese Constitution was adopted in 1976 with some minor changes later, from 1982 to 2005.
  7. ^
  8. In Portuguese recognized minority languages:
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The source[Editor]

  • Bliss, Christopher; Macedo, Jorge Braga de (1990). Unity with Diversity in the European Economy: The Southern Frontier of the Community. London, UK: Center for Economic Policy Research. ISBN 978-0-521-39520-5.
  • Juang, Richard M.; Morrissette, Noelle Anne (2008). Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia. Volume 2. ISBN 978-1-85109-441-7.
  • Trang, Melvin Eugene; Sonnenburg, Penny M. (2003). Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia. Volume 2. ISBN 978-1-57607-335-3.
  • Brockey, Liam Matthew (2008). Portuguese Colonial Cities in the Early World. ISBN 978-0-7546-6313-3.
  • Ribeiro, Angelo; Jose Hermano (2004). História de Portugal I – A Formação do Território [History of Portugal: The Making of the Territory] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-106-6.
  • Ribeiro, Angelo; Saraiva, Jose Hermano (2004). História de Portugal II – A Afirmação do País [History of Portugal II: National Acknowledgment] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-107-4.
  • de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, Jose Hermano (2004). História de Portugal III – A Epopeia dos Descobrimentos [History of Portugal III: The Age of Discovery] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-108-2.
  • de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, Jose Hermano (2004). História de Portugal IV – Glória e Declínio do Império [Portuguese History IV: Glory and Decline of the Empire] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-109-0.
  • de Macedo, Newton; Saraiva, Jose Hermano (2004). História de Portugal V – Aosystemração da Indepêndencia [History of Portugal IV: The Restoration of Independence] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-110-4.
  • Saraiva, Jose Hermano (2004). História de Portugal X – A Terceira República [History of Portugal X: Third Republic] (in Portuguese). QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-115-5.
  • Loucao, Paulo Alexandre (2000). Portugal, Terra de Mistérios [Portugal: Mystic Land] (in Portuguese) (3rd ed.). Esquilo. ISBN 972-8605-04-8.
  • Munoz, Mauricio Pasto (2003). Viriato, A Luta pela Liberdade [Viriato: The Struggle for Freedom] (in Portuguese) (3rd ed.). Esquilo. ISBN 972-8605-23-4.
  • Great Encyclopedia Universal. Durclub Club. 2004
  • Constituição da República Portuguesa [Constitution of the Portuguese Republic] (in Portuguese) (VI Revão Constitucional ed.). 2004

external link[Editor]


sister project

  • Definition from Wiktionary
  • Media from Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Quote from Wikiquote
  • Content from Wikisource
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
  • Travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Source from Wikiversity
  • Data from Wikidata
  • Portugal
  • in
  • curl
  • Geographic data related to
  • Portugal
  • in
  • OpenStreetMap
  • National language newspaper
  • National Wine Website
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  • from Portuguese American Magazine
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  • UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Portuguese profile
  • out of
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  • Out of
  • The collection of rare and special books at the Library of Congress
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Portugal


  • Official website of the National Assembly
  • Official website of the Portuguese government
  • (in English and Portuguese)


  • World Bank Summary of Portuguese Trade Statistics


  • Official tourism/media website of the Portuguese government
  • [link is dead forever]
  • Official website of the Bureau of Tourism and Travel

Video tutorials about what is the continent of portugal

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Learn about the 18 Districts and 2 autonomous regions of the country of Portugal and it’s geography, with this fun educational music video and parents. Brought to you by Kids LearningTube! Don’t forget to sing along!


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We make up Portugal

With 18 continental districts

And 2 Autonomous Regions

In Europe our beauty is bliss

We make up Portugal

We have a capital named Lisbon

We touch the country of Spain

And the North Atlantic Ocean

I’m Aveiro District

In the central coastal region

In Portugal

touching the North Atlantic Ocean

This is Beja District

In Southern Portugal

I span from the Atlantic Ocean

To Spain now you know

Braga District is what

you are seeing right now

in the northwest of Portugal

Touching the North Atlantic, Wow

Bragança District

In the Northeast corner

Of the country of Portugal

Of this is am sure

Castelo Branco

Is also a District

Located in central Portugal

Touching Spain like this


Is a District as well

In central Portugal

My coastline is really swell

Évora District

Does border Spain

I’m. In southern Portugal

Now you know my name

I’m Faro

A District also

You can come to visit me

I’m as south as you can go

I’m Guarda

A District you can see

I do border Spain

Thanks for learning about me

The District of Leiria

IU has a long coastline

Touching the Atlantic

You’re now a friend of mine

We make up Portugal

With 18 continental districts

And 2 Autonomous Regions

In Europe our beauty is bliss

We make up Portugal

We have a capital named Lisbon

We touch the country of Spain

And the North Atlantic Ocean

I am the Lisbon District

I have the capital

Of this beautiful country

Of this land of Portugal


In central Portugal you see

I’m also a district

I hope you remember me

The District of Porto

I’ on the northwest coast

My coastline is plentiful

You may love me the most

I’m Santarém

And I’m mostly landlocked

Also touching the TAGUS river

I’m glad we talked

The District of Setúbal

Has a defining shape

In the southwest part of Portugal

South of Lisbon I drape

Viana do Castelo

The most Northern district

The southern part of me

touches Portugal like this

The District of Vila Real

Is located in the north

I do border Spain

For what that is worth

The District of Viseu

Is landlocked inside Portugal

Coming up are 2 Autonomous Regions

You will know

The Azores

An Autonomous Region

And Madeira

An Autonomous Region that is fun

I am Portugal

Touching North Atlantic Ocean

I have a capital

Its name is Lisbon

We make up Portugal

With 18 continental districts

And 2 Autonomous Regions

In Europe our beauty is bliss

We make up Portugal

We have a capital named Lisbon

We touch the country of Spain

And the North Atlantic Ocean

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#Portugal #Travel #Info #Europe

keywords: #Portugalinformation, #PortugalBasicInformation, #BasicInformationofPortugal, #Portugal, #Portugalhistory, #country, #Continent, #generalinformation, #OfficialNameOfPortugal, #PortugalCapital, #AreaofPortugal, #Population, #Language, #LargestCity, #NationalName, #Emblem, #currencyofPortugal, #flagofPortugal, #factsaboutPortugal, #nationalsportofPortugal, #nationalanthemofPortugal, #informationaboutPortugal, #Simplyinfo, #portugal, #factsaboutportugal

Do You Know Portugal Basic Information useful for General Knowledge (GK) Quiz and competitive exams. Basic World Countries information for all – Best General Knowledge Video Series on YouTube #01. Suitable to learn all basic details about World country Portugal to learn GK (General Knowledge) for Indian Competitive Exams like UPSC, Groups, Banking Exams, Navy Exams etc.

From this video you will learn Portugal basic information like:


Official Name – Portuguese Republic

Capital – Lisbon

Area ( – 92,090

Population (2018) – 2.363 million

Language – Portuguese

National Currency – Euro

Largest City – Lisbon

Continent – Europe

National Name – República Portuguesa

National Anthem – A Portuguesa

Principal River – Tagus

National Bird – Barcelos Rooster

National Flower – Lavender

National Tree – Cork Oak

National Animal – Iberian Wolf

National Sport – Football

#Portugal, #PortugalInformation, #WorldCountriesInformation


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Perched on the edge of the Atlantic Ocean on the coast of Western Europe, Portugal was once believed to be the end of the earth. A medley of diverse geography and natural charms, it’s the continent’s oldest nation boasting over 1,200 kilometres of coastline with long stretches of white and golden sand, calm blue waters, and lovely coves to explore. In the less populated north, dramatic granite mountains cover much of the land that’s changed little over the centuries. Clifftop castles, cobblestone villages, medieval towns, and enchanting cities combine with a culture rich with history, music, and fantastic food.

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