Best 21 city named for a president before he became president

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List of US counties named after presidents of the United States

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  • Summary: Articles about List of US counties named after presidents of the United States This is a list of U.S. counties named after presidents of the United States. … Lincoln County, Maine is named after the city of Lincoln, England, …

  • Match the search results: In the United States, there are twelve counties named Johnson County, nine named Clinton County, five named Carter County, four named Wilson County, two named Ford County, and one named Reagan County, but none of them are named after presidents.

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Grover Cleveland – Wikipedia

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  • Summary: Articles about Grover Cleveland – Wikipedia Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United …

  • Match the search results: Grover Cleveland Hall at Buffalo State College in Buffalo, New York is named after Cleveland. Cleveland Hall houses the offices of the college president, vice presidents, and other administrative functions and student services. Cleveland was a member of the first board of directors of the then Buffa…

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Explore Nebraska’s City Named For The 16th President

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  • Summary: Articles about Explore Nebraska’s City Named For The 16th President For American history buffs or fans of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, a trip to Nebraska’s capital city should be on the agenda.

  • Match the search results: For American history buffs or fans of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, a trip to Nebraska’s capital city should be on the agenda. Lincoln, Nebraska is the largest city in the world with Lincoln’s namesake and there are a lot of tributes to the top hat-wearing leader to be fo…

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10 Facts About President Washington’s Election

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  • Summary: Articles about 10 Facts About President Washington’s Election Even before the Constitution was ratified, rumors spread declaring George Washington would likely elected first President of the United States (much to the …

  • Match the search results: Washington brought the book home to Mount Vernon after retiring from the presidency in March 1797. Since leaving the hands of the Washington family in 1876, it has been treasured and preserved by several noted private collectors. The book now resides within The Fred W. Smith National Library fo…

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Presidential Birth States and Places With Names of Presidents

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  • Summary: Articles about Presidential Birth States and Places With Names of Presidents The president born farthest west? Barack Obama in Hawaii. Even though we may think of Ronald Reagan as a Californian because he served as …

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    Reference #18.4d8c1bb8.1650511951.167a1bc

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Donald Trump | Biography, Education, & Facts – Encyclopedia …

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  • Summary: Articles about Donald Trump | Biography, Education, & Facts – Encyclopedia … In 1974 he became president of a conglomeration of Trump-owned corporations and partnerships, which he later named the Trump Organization.

  • Match the search results: In the 1980s Trump invested heavily in the casino business in Atlantic City, where his properties eventually included Harrah’s at Trump Plaza (1984, later renamed Trump Plaza), Trump’s Castle Casino Resort (1985), and the Trump Taj Mahal (1990), then the largest casino in the world. During that peri…

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Herbert Hoover | The White House

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  • Summary: Articles about Herbert Hoover | The White House Before serving as America’s 31st President from 1929 to 1933, Herbert Hoover … In the 1930’s he became a powerful critic of the New Deal, warning against …

  • Match the search results: In 1947 President Truman appointed Hoover to a commission, which elected him chairman, to reorganize the Executive Departments. He was appointed chairman of a similar commission by President Eisenhower in 1953. Many economies resulted from both commissions’ recommendations. Over the years, Hoover wr…

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George Washington: Facts, Revolution & Presidency – HISTORY

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  • Summary: Articles about George Washington: Facts, Revolution & Presidency – HISTORY In 1787, he was elected president of the convention that wrote the U.S. … River—the city later named Washington, D.C., in his honor.

  • Match the search results: Granted statehood in 1889, Washington was named in honor of George Washington; it is the only U.S. state named after a president. The state’s coastal location and excellent harbors have contributed to its role as a leader in trade with Alaska, Canada and countries of the Pacific …read more

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Herbert Hoover – Biography, Facts & Presidency – HISTORY

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  • Summary: Articles about Herbert Hoover – Biography, Facts & Presidency – HISTORY Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), America’s 31st president, took office in … New York City, assessments of his legacy had grown more favorable.

  • Match the search results: Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), the 30th U.S. president, led the nation through most of the Roaring Twenties, a decade of dynamic social and cultural change, materialism and excess. He took office on August 3, 1923, following the sudden death of President Warren G. Harding …read more

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The President’s House in Philadelphia: A Brief History

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  • Summary: Articles about The President’s House in Philadelphia: A Brief History For nearly a decade, the Philadelphia mansion served as the seat of the executive … sailed up the Chesapeake Bay, and marched his troops toward the city.

  • Match the search results: A mansion at 6th & Market Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania served as the executive mansion for the first two Presidents of the United States, while the permanent national capital was under construction in the District of Columbia. Following a 16-month stay in New York City, George Washington oc…

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George Washington: Life Before the Presidency | Miller Center

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  • Summary: Articles about George Washington: Life Before the Presidency | Miller Center Official quorum for the convention was reached on May 25, and the delegates elected Washington as president of the Constitutional Convention. As president, …

  • Match the search results: Many leaders understood that Washington’s participation was essential to the convention’s success, and the Virginia state legislature agreed and included his name on the slate of delegates. With much reluctance, Washington departed Mount Vernon on May 9. Official quorum for the convention was reache…

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Grover Cleveland: Life Before the Presidency | Miller Center

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  • Summary: Articles about Grover Cleveland: Life Before the Presidency | Miller Center As President, he would deliver his inaugural addresses without notes—something no President had ever done before. In 1870, Cleveland was elected sheriff of …

  • Match the search results: During the Civil War, Cleveland served as assistant district attorney for Erie County. He had avoided military service in the war by hiring a substitute for $300. In later years, his enemies would castigate him as a “slacker” for having evaded the draft. Nevertheless, Cleveland soon earned the reput…

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Everyone loved George Washington, until he became president

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  • Summary: Articles about Everyone loved George Washington, until he became president Years before, he had been so excited to be general at the beginning of the Revolutionary War that he showed up to the Second Continental …

  • Match the search results: Renowned presidential historian Doris Kearns Goodwin finally takes on George Washington

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10 fascinating facts about Grover Cleveland, the only double …

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  • Summary: Articles about 10 fascinating facts about Grover Cleveland, the only double … On March 18, 1837, the future President was born in Caldwell, … Yes, he’s a distant relative of the guy they named the city of Cleveland …

  • Match the search results: Officially, Cleveland is known as the 22nd President and the 24th President, after his wins in the 1884 and 1892 general elections. But he lost the 1888 to his Republican foe, Benjamin Harrison.

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Presidents, Vice Presidents, & Coinciding Sessions of Congress

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  • Summary: Articles about Presidents, Vice Presidents, & Coinciding Sessions of Congress Xem thêm 57 hàng

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    History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, “Presidents, Vice Presidents, & Coinciding Sessions of Congress,”
    (April 20, 2022)

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Church Presidents

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  • Summary: Articles about Church Presidents He was called to be an apostle in 1959, serving for 35 years before becoming president of the Church on 5 June 1994 at age 86. During his short presidency, he …

  • Match the search results: Thomas Spencer Monson was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, on 21 August 1927. He served in the United States Navy near the close of World War II. In 1950, at age 22, he was called as bishop and five years later was called to serve in a stake presidency. From 1959 to 1962, he served as president of the …

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Biography of the President – The Clinton White House

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  • Summary: Articles about Biography of the President – The Clinton White House It All Began in a Place Called Hope … He was named after his father, William Jefferson Blythe II, … In 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected President.

  • Match the search results: In 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected President. Two years later, when
    Bill Clinton was a senior in high school, he was selected to go to Washington,
    D.C., to be a part of Boys Nation, a special youth leadership conference. The
    young men of Boys Nation and the young women of Girls Nation wer…

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Why ‘president’? How the U.S. named its leader – NPR

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  • Summary: Articles about Why ‘president’? How the U.S. named its leader – NPR “In April of 1789, Washington was making his way to New York City to be inaugurated, and Congress started to have this discussion about how are …

  • Match the search results: “Other republics, when they were creating new governments and deciding what to call their heads of state, very often followed this model that the Americans had of naming a president,” Zimmer said. “In Latin America, for instance, Haiti had its own president to be the head of its Presidential Republi…

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Richard Nixon’s Birthplace–Presidents

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  • Summary: Articles about Richard Nixon’s Birthplace–Presidents Nixon formed the private nonprofit Richard Nixon Library Foundation for the purpose of building his presidential library in 1969, after he became president.

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    President Nixon’s domestic achievements included revenue sharing, new anticrime laws, a broad environmental program, and the end of the military draft.  Concerned about rising inflation, he instituted mandatory wage and price controls.  On July 19, 1969, Nixon spoke with…

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Presidential Election of 1800: A Resource Guide – Library of …

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  • Summary: Articles about Presidential Election of 1800: A Resource Guide – Library of … Jefferson and his running mate Aaron Burr each received seventy-three votes. … Thomas Jefferson elected president on the thirty-sixth ballot, Annals of …

  • Match the search results: "Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson defeated Federalist John Adams by a margin of seventy-three to sixty-five electoral votes in the presidential election of 1800. When presidential electors cast their votes, however, they failed to distinguish between the office of president and vice presi…

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Companies Former President Donald Trump Owns

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  • Summary: Articles about Companies Former President Donald Trump Owns Trump’s net worth slipped to about $2.3 billion during his presidency compared to about $3 billion before he took office, according to Bloomberg.3 Separately, …

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    Donald J. Trump, the nation's 45th president, is unique among U.S. presidents in his connections to the business world. Certainly, there have been presidents before him who were businessmen: both George H.W. Bush and his son, George W., were in the oil business. Herbert Hoover was in mining and…

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Multi-read content city named for a president before he became president

General Washington (disambiguation)George Washington (disambiguation)

george washington
Portrait after Gilbert Stuart’s unfinished Portrait of the Athenaeum, 1796
First President of the United States of America
In office: April 30, 1789[a] – March 4, 1797
Vice President John Adams
through before Established office
followed by John Adams
7th Senior Officer, US Army
In office: August 13, 1798 – December 14, 1799
chairman John Adams
through before James Wilkinson
followed by Alexander Hamilton
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army
In office June 19, 1775[2] – December 23, 1783
Designated by continental congress
through before Established office
followed by Henry Knox (as Senior Officer)
The 14th Rector of the College of William
In office: April 30, 1788 – December 14, 1799
chairman JamesMadison
through before Richard Terrier (1776)
followed by John Tyler (1859)
Representing Virginia at the Continental Congress
In office September 5, 1774 – June 16, 1775
through before Established office
followed by Thomas Jefferson
Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses
In office August 24, 1758 [3] [4] – June 24, 1775 [5]
through before Hugh West [6] [7]
followed by The office was abolished
formation Frederick County (1758–1765)
Fairfax County (1765–1775) [5]
Personal information
Born (1732-02-22) February 22, 1732 Popes Creek, Virginia, Great Britain
Died 14 December 1799 (1799-12-14) (aged 67) Mount Vernon, Virginia, United States
cause of death epiglottitis
resting place Mount Vernon, Virginia, USA38°42’28.4″N 77°05’09.9″W / 38.707889°N 77.086083°W / 38.707889; -77.086083
political parties independence
Pair Martha Dandridge (d. 1759)
children 2
John Parke Custis Patsy Parke Custis
Parents) Augustine Washington
Mary Ball Washington
Relative Washington family
Place of residence) Mount Vernon, Virginia, United States
training University of William
work army officer
Price National Assembly Gold Medal
Thank you Congress [8]
military service
loyalty United Kingdom
branch of service Virginia Militia
Continental Army
United States Army
years of service 1752–1758 (Virginia Militia)
1775–1783 (Continental Army)
1798–1799 (US Army)
Grant Colonel (Virginia Militia)
General and Commander-in-Chief (Continental Army)
Lieutenant General (US Army)
General of the Army (posthumously awarded by Congress in 1976)
command Virginia Regiment
Continental Army
United States Army
fight / war French and Indian War
Battle of Jumonville Glen
Necessary fortress battle
Braddock Expedition
Battle of Monongahela
Forbes Expedition
American War of Independence
Operation Boston
Campaign in New York and New Jersey
Operations Philadelphia
Operation Yorktown
Northwest Indian War
Whiskey Rebellion

george washington(February 22, 1732[b]-December 14th, 1799) was an American military officer, statesman andFatherwho served firstPresidents of Statesfrom 1789 to 1797. Appointed bycontinental congressis the commander ofContinental Army, leading Washingtonpatriotpower to winAmerican War of Independenceand served as President ofConstituent AssemblyCreated in 1787US Constitutionand the federal government of the United States. Washington was called “father of the nation”for his diverse leadership in the founding days of the country.[ten]

Washington’s first public office to serve as an official officeland surveyorofCulpeper County, Virginiafrom 1749 to 1750. He then received his first military training (as well as commanding withVirginia Regiment) During this timeFrench and Indian War. He was later elected to Virginiatown halland was appointed delegatecontinental congress. Here he was appointedcommanderlaterContinental Army. With this title he commanded American forces (allied withFrance) during the British defeat and surrenderThe Siege of YorktownDuring this timeAmerican War of Independence. Heresigns from its board of directorsaccording toParis Agreementwas signed in 1783.

Washington played an integral role in the adoption and ratification of the United States Constitution. After that he was twice elected Presidentelectoral collegeI Agree. As President, he established a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in the face of fierce competition among cabinet members.Thomas JeffersonandAlexander Hamilton. InFrench Revolution, hedeclare a policy of neutralitywhen punishingJaya Pact. He has set enduring precedents for the presidency, including the title “Mister President’ and swearSwornInsideBible. Hisfarewell addressis considered by many to be an outstanding statement aboutrepublicanism.

Washington was a slave ownerwho had a complicated relationshipslavery. During his lifetime he controlled a total of more than 577 slaves who were forced to work on his farms and wherever he lived, includingPresidential Building in Philadelphia. As President, he signed legislation passed by Congress to protect and limit slavery. His will states that one of his slaves,William Lee, were to be freed after his death and 123 other slaves who had to work for his wife and freed after her death. She freed them while she was alive to remove their motives for death.[11][Twelfth]

He worked hard to assimilateAmerican nativesin theBritish Americancultural. However, during the Revolutionary War he conducted military campaigns against hostile Native American nationsNorthwest Indian War. He is a member ofAnglican ChurchandFreemason, and he called for widespread religious freedom in his presidency and presidency. After his death he was praised byHenry “Light-Horse Harry” Leewas “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen”.[13]

Washington hasmonumentby monument, onefederal holiday,different media descriptions, geographical location, includingnational capital, thatWashington,Stamp, andcurrency, and many scholars as well as ordinary Americans place it in theAmerica’s Greatest Presidents. 1976 was WashingtonPostscriptssupport financiallyGeneral of the United States of America, the highest rank in the US Army.

  • 1 Early life (1732–1752)
  • 2 Colonial military career (1752–1758)
  • 2.1 French and Indian War
  • 3 Married, civil and political life (1755–1775)
  • 3.1 Opposition to Parliament and the British Crown
  • 4 Commanders-in-Chief (1775–1783)
  • 4.1 Siege of Boston
    4.2 Invasion of Quebec (1775)
    4.3 Battle of Long Island
    4.4 Crossing Delaware, Trenton and Princeton
    4.5 Brandywine, Germantown and Saratoga
    4.6 Forge Valley and Monmouth
    4.7 West Point Spy
    4.8 South Theater and Yorktown
    4.9 Discharge and Resignation
  • 5 early republics (1783–1789)
  • 5.1 Back to Mount Vernon
    5.2 Constitutional Convention of 1787
    5.3 Prime Minister William
  • 6 presidential terms (1789–1797)
  • 6.1 Cabinet and Executive Departments
    6.2 Domestic Affairs

    6.2.1 African Americans
    6.2.2 National Bank
    6.2.3 Jefferson – Hamilton feud
    6.2.4 Whiskey Rebellion

    6.3 External Relations
    6.4 Native American issues
    6.5 Part Two
    6.6 Farewell Speech

  • 7 After the Presidency (1797–1799)
  • 7.1 Retirement
    7.2 The last days and death
  • 8 Funeral, Assets and Consequences
  • 9 privacy
  • 9.1 Religion and Freemasonry
  • 10 Slavery
  • 10.1 Slaves of Washington
    10.2 Revocation and Licensing
  • 11 Reputation and Historical Legacy
  • 11.1 Monument

    11.1.1 Educational Institutions
    11.1.2 Sites and Monuments
    11.1.3 Currency and Postage

  • 12 See more
  • 13 references
  • 13.1 Notices
    13.2 Quotations
    13.3 Directory

    13.3.1 Pressure source
    13.3.2 Main source
    13.3.3 Online Sources

  • 14 Read More
  • 15 external links

Early life (1732–1752)

Washington familyAmerican English

ferry farm

ThatWashington familywas a rich Virginiaplanterthe family became rich thanksproperty speculationandgrow tobacco.[14]Washington’s great-grandfatherJohn Washington Hike1656[15]out ofSulgrave,Northamptonshire,England, in EnglishColony Virginiawhere he amassed 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of land, inclusiveSmall hunting streamAbovethe Potomac.[16]George Washington was born on February 22, 1732,[b]inPopes CreekinCounty of Westmoreland, the British colony of Virginia,[17]and was the first of six children byAugustineandMary Ball Washington.[18]His father is ajustice of peaceand a socialite who had 4 other children from his first marriage to Jane Butler.[19]The family moved to Little Hunting Creek in 1735. In 1738 they moved to Little Hunting Creekferry farmnearFredericksburg, VaAboveRappahannock River. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited the Ferry Ranch and ten slaves; his half brotherLaurentiusinherit Little Hunting Creek and rename itMount Vernon.

Washington did not have the formal education his brothers receivedAppleby High Schoolin the UK but attendedHa churchschool inhardfield. He studied mathematics, trigonometry and earthopinion polland become a talented draftsman and cartographer. As an adult he wrote with “remarkable force” and “accuracy”;[20]however, his writing has a touch of wit or humor. In pursuit of admiration, status, and power, he tends to blame his shortcomings and failures on the ineffectiveness of others.[21]

Washington often visits Mount Vernon andbelvoir, the plantation belonged to Lawrence’s father-in-lawWilliam Fairfax. Fairfax became Washington’s patron and surrogate father, and Washington spent a month in 1748 with a group of FairfaxShenandoah Valleyproperty.[22]He received his surveying license the following yearUniversity of William.[c]Although Washington did not complete the usual apprenticeship, Fairfax appointed him surveyor of theCulpeper County, Virginia, and he appeared in Culpeper County to be sworn in July 20, 1749.[23]He then became acquainted with the borderland and, although resigning in 1750, continued to conduct surveys in the west of the country.Blue Ridge Mountains.[24]By 1752 he had purchased almost 600 ha (1,500 acres) in the valley and owned 937 ha (2,315 acres).[25]

In 1751 Washington made his only foreign voyage when he accompanied Lawrence thereBarbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother’s tuberculosis.[26]Washington signed the treatysmallpoxDuring this trip it vaccinated him and slightly scarred his face.[27]Lawrence died in 1752, and Washington leased Mount Vernon back from his widow Anne; he inherited it shortly after her death in 1761.[28]

Colonial military life (1752–1758)

Lawrence Washington serves as Adjutant General ofVirginia Militiainspired his half-brother George to seek commission. Central Governor of Virginia,Robert Dinwiddie, made George Washington a major and commanded one of the four militia districts. British and French compete for controlOhio Valley. While the British were building forts along the Ohio River, the French were doing the same – building forts between the Ohio River and Lake Erie.[29]

In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy. He sent George to ask the French to vacate the lands the British were claiming.[d]Washington was also appointed to make peace with himUnion of the Iroquois, and to gather more information about the French armed forces.[thirty-one]Washington met the half-kingTanacharison, and other Iroquois chiefswooden town, and collected information on the number and location of French forts, as well as information on people captured by the French. Washington got the nicknameConotocaurius (destroyers of cities or cannibals of villages)by Tanacharison. The nickname was previously given to his great-grandfatherJohn Washingtonat the end of the seventeenth centurySusquehannock.[32][33]

Washington’s party reached the Ohio River in November 1753 and was intercepted by a French patrol. The group was escorted thereFort Le Boeuf, where Washington received a warm welcome. He entrusted the British request for recruitment to the French commanderSaint Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre, after a delay of several days, gave Washington his official reply in a sealed envelope, along with additional food and winter clothing for the group’s return trip to Virginia.[34]Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days under difficult winter conditions, and made significant headway when its report was released in Virginia and in London.[35]

French and Indian War

French and Indian WarGeorge Washington in the French and Indian WarSeven Years’ War

In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second in command of the powerful 300th Virginia Regiment with orders to confront French forcesOhio Crossing.[36]Washington sailed to Forks with half his regiment in April and soon learned that a force of 1,000 French had begun to build up.Fort Duquesnethere. Founded in May adefensive positionAt Great Meadows he learned that the French were encamped seven miles (11 km) away. He decided to attack.[37]

Night scene depicting Washington at center, standing among officers and Indians, around a lamp, holding a war council

Necessary fortress

The French detachment turned out to be only about fifty men, so on May 28 Washington brought in a small force of Virginians and Indian allies to ambush them.[38][e]What happened meansBattle of Jumonville Glenor the “Jumonville Affair”, was denied, and the French were killed instantly with muskets and trapdoors. French commanderJoseph Coulon de Jumonville, who was delivering a diplomatic message to the British evacuees, was killed. French troops found Jumonville and several of his men dead and burned, blaming Washington.[40]Washington accused his interpreter of failing to convey the intentions of the French.[41]Dinwiddie celebrates Washington’s victory over the French.[42]This incident sparked theFrench and Indian War, later became part ofSeven Years’ War.[43]

The entire Virginia regiment joined Washington at Fort N Necessary the following month with the news that he had been promoted to regimental commander and colonel after the death of the regiment’s commander. The regiment was reinforced by aindependent South Carolina company of 100 residentsled by the captainJames Mackay, had a higher royal commission than Washington, and a conflict of command ensued. On July 3, a French force of 900 men attacked andnext battleended with Washington’s surrender.[44]After that, ColonelJames Innesassumed command of the intercolonial forces, the Virginia regiment was divided, and Washington received the captain’s armband, which he declined by resigning from the commission.[45]

Washington on horseback in the middle of a battle scene with other soldiers

Washington the soldierBattle of MonongahelaReǵnier

In 1755 Washington voluntarily served as the general’s aide-de-campEdward Braddock, who led an Englishmanexplorationto drive the French out of Fort Duquesne and the Ohio country.[forty six]At Washington’s suggestion, Braddock divided his troops into a main column and a lightly armed “flying column”.[47]Suffering from a severe case ofdysentery, Washington was left behind, and when he reunited with Braddock at Monongahela, the French and their Indian alliesambushdivided army. Two-thirds of the British forces were killed, including Braddock, who was mortally wounded. Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage, Washington, still very ill, rallied the survivors and formed a rearguard, allowing what was left of the force to scatter and retreat.[48]During the engagement he was shot from below by two horses, his hat and coat pierced by bullets.[49]His behavior under fire saved his reputation among those who criticized his orders during the battle for Necessary Fortress.[50]but he was not included in the plan of further operations by his successor (Colonel Thomas Dunbar).[51]

The Virginia Regiment was reestablished in August 1755, and Dinwiddie appointed Washington as his commander, again with the rank of colonel. Washington almost immediately clashed over seniority, this time withJohn Dagworthy, another captain of high royal rank who commanded a team of Marylanders at Regimental Headquarters inFort Cumberland.[52]Washington, impatient for an attack on Fort Duquesne, believed Braddock would give him a royal commission and took up his case in February 1756 with Braddock’s successor,William Shirley, and again in January 1757 with his successor Shirley,Mr. Loudoun. Shirley only benefits Washington in Dagworthy’s affair; Loudoun humiliated Washington, refusing him a royal commission and only agreeing to relieve him of responsibility for the administration of Fort Cumberland.[53]

In 1758 the Virginia Regiment was assigned to the BritishForbes Expeditionto take Fort Duquesne.[54][f]Washington disagrees with GeneralJohn Forbes’selected tactics and route.[56]However, Forbes Washington acertificationGeneral’s brigade and gave him command of one of the three brigades that would attack the fort. The French left the fortress and valley before the attack was launched; Washington saw only friendly fire that left 14 dead and 26 injured. The war dragged on for another four years, and Washington resigned his commission and returned to Mount Vernon.[57]

Under Washington, the Virginia regiment defended 300 miles (480 km) of the border against twenty Indian attacks in ten months.[58]He improved the regiment’s professionalism as it grew from 300 to 1,000 men and the frontier population of Virginia suffered less damage than the other colonies. Some historians have said that this was Washington’s “only unqualified success” during the war.[59]Although he failed to carry out the royal commission, he gained confidence, leadership skills and an invaluable knowledge of British military tactics. The destructive competition Washington saw among colonial politicians fueled his later support for strong central government.[60]

Married, civil and political life (1755–1775)

Painting of Washington, by Charles Wilson Peale, standing in a formal pose, in a colonel's uniform, right hand inserted in shirt.

Charles Wilson Peale

On January 6, 1759, at the age of 26, Washington marriedMartha Dandridge Custis, 27-year-old widow of a wealthy plantation ownerDaniel Parke Custis. The wedding took place at Martha’s estate; Smart, charming and adept at managing a plantation owner’s estate, the couple make for a happy marriage.[sixty one]You have nurturedJohn Parke Custis(Jacky) andMartha “Patsy” Parke Custis, children from her previous marriage and later Jacky’s childrenEleanor Parke Custis(Nelly) andGeorge Washington Parke Custis(Garbage). Washington’s battle with smallpox in 1751 is said to have rendered him sterile, although it is just as likely that “Martha suffered lasting injuries in giving birth to Patsy, her last child, preventing the More birth from taking place”.[62]The couple complained that they had no children together.[63][G]They moved to Mount Vernon, nearbyAlexandria, where he started out as a tobacco and wheat farmer and became a political figure.[66]

The marriage allowed Washington to control one-third of MarthagrantInterest in an area of ​​18,000 acres (7,300 ha)Custis .real estate, and he administered the remaining two-thirds to Martha’s children; The estate also included 84 slaves. He became one of the richest men in Virginia, which increased his social status.[sixty-seven]

At Washington’s urging, GovernorMr Botetourtfulfilled Dinwiddie’s 1754 promise to receive land rewards for volunteer militiamen during the French and Indian Wars.[68]In the late 1770s, Washington surveyed the lands inOhioandAmazing Kanawharegions and he took part in the surveyWilliam Crawfordto subdivide it. Crawford delivered 9,400 ha (23,200 acres) to Washington; Washington told the veterans their land was hilly and unsuitable for farming, and he agreed to buy 20,147 acres (8,153 hectares), leaving some feeling they had been swindled.[69]He also doubled the area of ​​Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (2,600 ha) and increased the slave population to over a hundred by 1775.[70]

Washington’s political activities include supporting his friend’s candidacyGeorge William Fairfaxin his 1755 bid to represent the area inVirginia House of Citizens. This support led to a dispute that led to a conflict between Washington and another Virginia planter.William Payne. Washington de-escalated the situation, among other things, seconded officialsVirginia Regimentto stand. Washington apologized to Payne in a pub the next day. Payne expected to be challenged to a duel.[71][72][seventy-three]

A respected military hero and landowner, Washington held local offices and was elected to the Virginia legislature, representing Frederick County in the House of Representatives for seven years beginning in 1758. .[70]He courted voters with beer, spirits, and other beverages, though he was absent from Forbes expeditions.[74]He won the election with about 40% of the vote, defeating three other candidates with the help of some local supporters. He rarely spoke in his early legislative career, but became a prominent critic of British customs and trade policies towards the American colonies, beginning in the early 1990s, 1760s.[75]

A mezzotint of Martha Washington, standing, wearing a formal gown, based on a 1757 portrait by John Wollaston

John Wollaston

Washington was a plantation owner by trade, and he imported luxury goods and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting tobacco.[76]His excessive spending coupled with low tobacco prices left him £1,800 in debt by 1764, prompting him to diversify his fortune.[77]In 1765, due to erosion and other land problems, he switched Mount Vernon’s main crop from tobacco to wheat and expanded operations to corn.Milland fishing.[78]Washington also makes time for recreation with fox hunting, fishing, dancing, theater, card games, backgammon and billiards.[79]

Washington was soon recognized as one of Virginia’s political and social classes. From 1768 to 1775 he invited about 2,000 guests to his Mount Vernon estate, most of whom he considered men of class and was known for being particularly friendly to his guests.[80]In 1769 he became more politically active and presented the law inVirginia Councilimpose an embargo on goods from the UK.[81]

Washington’s stepdaughter Patsy Custis suffered from epilepsy at the age of 12 and died in his arms in 1773. The next day he wrote to him.Burwell Basset: “The plight of this family is easier to imagine than indescribable.”[82]He quit all business and stayed with Martha every night for three months.[83]

Resistance to Parliament and the British Crown

American RevolutionAmerican War of IndependenceGeorge Washington during the American Revolution

Washington plays a central role before and duringAmerican Revolution. His disdain for the British military began when he was promoted to the regular army. Resist taxes imposed byBritish Parliamenton colonies that have noneappropriate representative,[84]he and the other colonists were also upset about itRoyal proclamation of 1763forbidden American settlement west ofThe Allegheny Mountainsand protectBritish fur trade.[85]

Washington believes soStamp Act of 1765was an “act of repression” and it celebrated its repeal the following year.[H]In March 1766, Congress passeddeclaration lawclaimed that parliamentary law superseded colonial law.[eighty seven]In the late 1760s, British royalist intervention in lucrative land speculation in the American West spurred the American Revolution.[88]Washington himself was a wealthy land speculator, and in 1767 he encouraged “adventures” to claim land far to the west.[88]Washington helped lead widespread protests against itTownshend LawsPassed by Parliament in 1767 and he made a proposal in May 1769George Maurerwhich urged the Virginians to boycott British goods; The laws were largely repealed in 1770.[89]

Congress sought to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their role in the United StatesBoston Tea Party1774 by crossingcompulsive behavior, which Washington calls “an invasion of our rights and privileges.”[90]He said that Americans must not succumb to tyranny because “custom and manners will make us slaves to be tamed and abandoned like the negroes we rule with.” Such arbitrary influence”.[91]In July of that year, he and George Mason drafted a list of solutionsFairfax CountyCommittee chaired by Washington and approved by CommitteeFairfax solvedcalled for a Continental Congress and an end to the slave trade.[92]On August 1, Washington attendedFirst Virginia Convention, where he was elected as a delegate forFirst Continental Congress, September 5 to October 26, 1774, which he also attended.[ninety three]As tensions rose in 1774, he helped train the Virginia county militia and organize enforcementcontinent associationBoycott of British goods proposed by Parliament.[ninety four]

ThatAmerican War of Independencebegan April 19, 1775 withBattles of Lexington and ConcordandSiege of Boston.[95]The colonists were divided because they broke away from British rule and split into two camps:patriotswho opposed British rule, andloyalistwho wanted to continue serving the king.[96]DividedThomas Gaugewas commander of the British forces in America at the beginning of the war.[97]Upon hearing the shocking news of the outbreak of war, Washington was “dismayed and dismayed”[98]and he hastened to leave Mount Vernon on May 4, 1775, to joinSecond Continental CongressinPhiladelphia.[99]

Commander-in-Chief (1775–1783)

American strategy of the American Revolutionary WarThe military life of George Washington

Formal painting of General George Washington, standing in uniform, as commander of the Continental Army

Continental ArmyCharles Wilson Peale

conferencecreateContinental Armyon June 14, 1775 andSamuelandJohn Adamsto appoint Washingtoncommander. Washington was chosenJohn Hancockbecause of his military experience and his belief that a Virginia would better unite the colonies. He is considered a nimble leader who keeps his “ambitions under control”.[100]The next day, Congress unanimously elected him Commander-in-Chief.[101]

Washington appeared before Congress in uniform and delivered his acceptance speech on June 16, refusing his salary – although he was later reimbursed for his expenses. Authorized on June 19, he was elected by members of Congress, including John Adams, who declared that he was best suited to lead and unite the colonies.[102][103]Congress appoints Washington “General”.Unified Colonyand all forces raised or reinforced by them” and directed him to take charge of the siege of Boston on June 22, 1775.[104]

Congress elected its principal staff officers, including Major GeneralArtemas district, Assistant GeneralHoratio Gate, BrigadierKarl Lee, BrigadierPhilip Schuyler, BrigadierNathanael Greene, ColonelHenry Knox, and ColonelAlexander Hamilton.[105]Washington was impressed with the ColonelBenedict Arnoldand gave him the responsibility of launching an invasion of Canada. He also engaged his countrymen in the French and Indian Wars, Brigadier GeneralDaniel Morgan. Henry Knox impressed Adams with his knowledge of guns, and Washington promoted him to colonel and chief of artillery.[106]

Early in the war, Washington opposed the recruitment of blacks, both free and slave, into the Continental Army. After their appointment, Washington barred them from conscription. Seeing an opportunity to carve up the colonies, the British expelled the colonial governor of Virginiaa declaration, which promised freedom to the slaves if they joined the British.[107]Desperate for labor in late 1777, Washington refused and reversed its ban.[108]By the end of the war, about one-tenth of Washington’s army was black.[109]After the British surrender, Washington attempted to enforce the provisional provisionsTreaty of Paris (1783)through the recovery of slaves freed by the British and their return to slavery. He ordered this request to be madeMr Guy Carletonon May 6, 1783. Carleton instead issued 3,000 certificates of liberty, and all former slaves in New York City were free to leave before the city was evacuated by the British at the end of the month. Nov 1783.[110]

After the war, Washington became the target of General Lee’s allegations of his questionable behavior as commander-in-chief during the war, which were published by the patriotic journalist.William Godard. Goddard, in a letter dated May 30, 1785, informed Washington of Lee’s request for his reports to be published, assuring him that he “…had the liberty of preventing the publication of such experiments.” a frustrated man.[111][112]

Siege of Boston

Siege of Boston

In early 1775, in response to the growing rebellion, London sent British troops under the command ofGen. Thomas Gageto take Boston. They built fortifications around the city, making it invulnerable. Many local militias effectively surrounded the town and captured the British, leading to a standoff.[113]

As Washington headed for Boston, news of his march had preceded him and he was greeted everywhere; Gradually he became a symbol of the patriotic cause.[114][I]Arriving on July 2, 1775, two weeks after the defeat of the Patriots nearbyBunker Hill, he has hiredCambridge, Masscommand post and check out the new army there only to find an undisciplined and ill-dressed militia.[115]After consultation he initiatedBenjamin Franklinproposed reforms – lenient soldiers and the imposition of severe discipline, exchange and imprisonment.[116]Washington ordered his officers to identify recruits’ abilities to ensure military effectiveness while eliminating incompetent officers.[117]He urged his former supervisor, Gage, to release the captured Patriot officers from prison and treat them humanely.[118]In October 1775 King George III declared that the colonies were breaking out in rebellion and dismissed General Gage for incompetence and replaced him with General.William Howe.[119]

The Continental Army, which continued to decline due to the expiration of short-term conscription, halving to 9,600 men by January 1776, had to be added to the militia and supplemented by the Continental Army.Knox with heavy artillerycatch wordFort Ticonderoga.[120]WhenKarl riverFrozen, Washington eagerly crossed and stormed Boston, but General Gates and others resisted the untrained militia, who attacked the well-manned fortifications. Washington reluctantly agreesprotect Dorchester Heights, 100 feet above Boston, in an attempt to force the British out of the city.[121]On March 9, under cover of darkness, Washington’s troops raised the big guns of Knox and bombarded British ships in Boston Harbor. above17. March9,000 British troops and Loyalists, using 120 ships, began a chaotic 10-day evacuation from Boston. Soon after, Washington entered the city with 500 men with explicit orders not to pillage the city. He orderedmutateagainst smallpox with great effectiveness, as he later did in Morristown, New Jersey.[122]He refused to exercise military power in Boston, leaving civil affairs to local government.[123][j]

Invasion of Quebec (1775)

Invasion of Quebec (1775)

The Invasion of Quebec (June 1775 – October 1776, French: Invasion du Québec) was the first major military initiative by the newly formed Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. On June 27, 1775, Congress authorized General Philip Schuyler to investigate and, if necessary, launch an invasion. Benedict Arnold, given command, arrived in Boston and persuaded General George Washington to send a support force under his command to Quebec City. The goal of the campaign was to conquer the province of Quebec (part of present-day Canada) from Britain and persuade French-speaking Canadians to join the revolution on the side of the Thirteen Colonies. An expedition left Fort Ticonderoga under the command of Richard Montgomery, besieged and captured Fort St. Johns, and nearly captured British General Guy Carleton while capturing Montreal. Another expedition, led by Benedict Arnold, left Cambridge, Massachusetts and, with great difficulty, traveled through the Maine wilderness to Quebec City. Two forces combined there, but were defeated in December 1775 at the Battle of Quebec.

Battle of Long Island

Battle of Long Island

Painting by Alonzo Chappel, 1858, showing the frantic battle scene of the Battle of Long Island, with smoke in the background

Battle of Long IslandAlonzo Chapel

Washington then continuedNYC, arrived 13 April 1776 and began building fortifications to thwart the expected British attack. He ordered his occupying forces to treat civilians and their property with respect in order to avoid the mistreatment that the citizens of Boston suffered from British troops during their occupation.[125]A plot to assassinate or arrest him was discovered and foiled, resulting in the arrest of 98 people involved or accomplices (56 of whom were from Long Island (Kings (Brooklyn)andQueensCounty), including the Loyal Mayor of New YorkDavid Mathews.[126]Washington Bodyguard,Thomas HikeShe was hanged for mutiny and seduction.[127]General Howe transported his supply army along with the British fleetHalifaxafter New York, knowing the city is key to defending the continent.George Germain, who led the British war effort in England, believed that a “decisive blow” could be won.[128]British forces, consisting of more than a hundred ships and thousands of men, began to arriveStaten Islandin July 2 to besiege the city.[129]According toDeclaration of IndependencePassed on July 4, Washington briefed its troops on the general order in July 9 that Congress declared the united colonies “free and independent nations.”[130]

Howe’s total reached 32,000 regulars andhelp Hesse, and Washington consisted of 23,000, mostly recruits and militiamen.[131]In August Howe landed 20,000 troopsGravesend, Brooklyn, and was approaching the fortifications of Washington just as George III was declaring the rebellious American colonists traitors.[132]Washington chose to fight against his generals based on false information that Howe’s army numbered just over 8,000 men.[133]InsideBattle of Long Island, AsAttack on Washington’s flanksand inflicted 1,500 Patriot casualties while the British suffered 400.[134]Washington withdrew and instructed GeneralWilliam HeathRivercraft available for purchase in the area. On August 30 totalWilliam AlexanderStop the British and take cover while the army passeseast riverunder the darkness tooManhattan cityIsland with no human or material damage, although Alexander was captured.[135]

Howe, emboldened by the victory on Long Island, nicknamed Washington “George Washington, Esq.” in vain to negotiate peace. Washington refused, asking to be treated diplomatically, as a general and his belligerent accomplices, not “rebels,” for fear that if arrested, his men would be hanged that way.[136]ThatRoyal NavyBombing of unstable structures on Lower Manhattan Island.[137]Washington, confused, took General Greene’s advice andPutnamto protectFort Washington. They couldn’t keep it, and Washington gave it up, though Generalleeopposed as his army retreated northWhite Plains.[138]Howe’s pursuit forced Washington to retreatThe Hudson RiverarriveFort Leeto avoid being surrounded. Howe landed troops on Manhattan in November andCapture Fort Washington, resulting in heavy casualties for the Americans. Washington was responsible for delaying the withdrawal, although he blamed Congress and General Greene. Loyalists in New York saw Howe as a liberator and spread rumors that Washington had set fire to the city.[139]Patriotism was at its lowest when Lee was arrested.[140]Now reduced to 5,400 troops, Washington’s troops have withdrawnnew shirt, and Howe ceased the pursuit, delaying the advance to Philadelphia and establishing winter quarters in New York.[141]

Crossing Delaware, Trenton and Princeton

George Washington crossing the Delaware RiverBattle of TrentonBattle of Assunpink CreekBattle of Princeton

Famous 1851 painting by Emanuel Leutze, depicting Washington, standing in a boat with his troops, crossing the icy Delaware River, with soldiers pushing away chunks of ice

Washington crosses Delaware

Emmanuel Leutze


Washington passedDelaware Riverin Pennsylvania, which replaced LeeJohn Sullivanjoin him with 2,000 other troops.[143]The future of the Continental Army was in doubt due to lack of supplies, a severe winter, the expiration of conscription, and desertion. Washington is frustrated that many New Jersey residents are loyalists or skeptical about the prospect of independence.[144]

Howe divided his British army and hiredHessiangarrison atTrentonbetween the west coast of New Jersey and the east coast of Delaware,[145]but the army proved complacent, and Washington and his generals planned a surprise attack on the Hessians at Trenton, which he called “victory or death”.[146]The army that would cross the Delaware River to Trenton was divided into three divisions: one led by Washington (2,400 men) and one led by generalsJacob Ewing(700) and the third from ColonelJohn Cadwalader(1,500). After that the force split up and Washington sentPenningtonRoad and General Sullivan drove south along the river bank.[147]

Delaware’s street

Thomas SulliMuseum of Fine Arts, Boston

Washington initially ordered a 60-mile searchBoat Durhamto transport his army and he ordered the destruction of ships that might be used by the British.[148]WashingtonCrossing the Delaware RiverAboveChristmasNight,[149]December 25, 1776 while personally venturing to conquer the Jersey shore. His men followed the ice-covered river through hail and snowMcConkey Ferry Port, with 40 men on each ship. The wind was stirring the water and they had hail, but at 3:00 p.m On the morning of December 26 they got through without loss.[150]Henry Knox was late and manned terrified horses and about 18 field guns on flat-bottomed ferries. Cadwalader and Ewing were unable to cross due to the ice and strong currents, and Washington awaited his planned attack on Trenton. When Knox arrived, Washington went to Trenton only to engage his troops against the Hessians rather than risk being seen sending his troops back to Pennsylvania.[151]

The army spotted Hessian positions a mile from Trenton, so Washington split his forces into two columns and massed his troops: “Soldiers are held by your officers. At the Birmingham Crossing, two pillars are separated. General Nathanael Greene’s column advanced along the ferry route led by Washington, and General John Sullivan’s column advanced along the River Road. (Look at the map.)[152]Americans marched in sleet and snowfall. Many were barefoot with bloodied feet, and two died from exposure. Meanwhile Hessian commanderJohn Rallekept in the house ofAbraham hunt, of Trenton, who appeased Rall and several of his officers with copious amounts of food and drink in the late evening and morning hours. At dawn, Washington, supported by Major General Knox and artillery, led his troops in a surprise attack on an unsuspecting Rall. The Hessian team had 22 dead including Colonel Rall, 83 wounded and 850 captured along with supplies.[153]

Painting showing Washington on horseback, accepting the surrender of Hessian troops after the Battle at Trenton

The arrest of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776

John Trumpet

Washington retreated to Pennsylvania across the Delaware River, returning to New Jersey with the launch on January 3, 1777an attackon the official British authorities inPrinceton, with 40 Americans killed or wounded and 273 British killed or captured.[154]American generalHugh Mercerand John Cadwalader were repelled by the British when Mercer was mortally wounded, then Washington arrived and counterattacked within 90 feet (27 m) of the British line.[155]

Some British troops retreated after a brief stand while others took coverNassau Hall, became the target of ColonelAlexander Hamiltonof cannons. Washington’s army attacked, the British surrendered in less than an hour, and 194 soldiers were killed.[156]Howe retired to New York City, where his troops remained dormant until early the following year.[157]Washington’s exhausted Continental Army took up winter headquartersMorristown, New Jerseyand also cut off British supply lines and drove them out of parts of New Jersey. Washington later said the British may have successfully attacked his garrison before his army was dug in.[158]Washington’s victories at Trenton and Princeton boosted patriot morale and changed the course of the war.[149]

The British still controlled New York, and many Patriot soldiers did not enlist or deserted after the harsh winter campaign. Congress enacted higher reinstatement rewards and desertion penalties to produce greater numbers of troops.[159]Strategically, Washington’s victories were crucial to the revolution and thwarted Britain’s strategy of showing overwhelming power followed by generous terms.[160]In February 1777, news of American victories at Trenton and Princeton reached London, and the British realized that the patriots were in a position to demand unconditional independence.[161]

Brandywine, Germantown and Saratoga

Battle of BrandywineBattle of GermantownBattle of Saratoga

British general in July 1777John BurgoyneLeaderOperation Saratogasouth of QuebecLake ChamplainandRetaking Fort Ticonderogaplan to shareNew England, including controlThe Hudson River. However, General Howe in British-occupied New York made the mistake of sending his army south to Philadelphia rather than up the Hudson River to join Burgoyne nearbyAlbania.[162]Meanwhile, Washington andGilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayetterushes to Philadelphia to attack Howe and is shocked to learn of Burgoyne’s advances in upstate New York, where the Patriots are led by GeneralPhilip Schuylerand his successorHoratio Gate. Washington’s inexperienced army was defeatedintense fightsin Philly.[163]

Howe overtook Washington atBattle of Brandywineon September 11, 1777 and conducted an unnominated march to the nation’s capital in Philadelphia. A patriotattackdefeated by the BritishGerman cityin October. Brigadier GeneralThomas Conwaymotivated some members of Congress (known asConway Cabal) to consider removing Washington from command because of the casualties suffered at Philadelphia. Washington’s supporters protested, and after much deliberation the matter was finally settled.[164]When the conspiracy was exposed, Conway wrote an apology to Washington, resigned, and returned to France.[165]

Washington was interested in Howe’s movements north during the Saratoga Campaign, and he also knew that Burgoyne was advancing south from Quebec toward Saratoga. Washington took some risks to support Gates’ army and sent reinforcements north with the generalsBenedict Arnold, his most energetic commander on the battlefield, andBenjamin Lincoln. On October 7, 1777, Burgoyne attempted to take itBemis Heightsbut was isolated from Howe’s support. He was forced to retreat to Saratoga and eventually surrenderedBattles of Saratoga. As Washington suspected, Gates’ victory emboldened his critics.[166]Biographer John Alden argues, “The defeat of the forces of Washington and the simultaneous victory of the forces of upper New York were inevitable.” Admiration for Washington has waned, including scant appreciation for John Adams.[167]British commander Howe resigned in May 1778, leaving America for good and being replaced byMr Henry Clinton.[168]

Valley Forge and Monmouth

valley forgeBattle of Monmouth

Painting showing Washington and Lafayette on horseback in a winter setting, at Valley Forge

Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge

Washington’s 11,000-strong army entered winter quartersvalley forgenorth of Philadelphia in December 1777. They suffered between 2,000 and 3,000 deaths in the severe cold for six months, most of them from disease and want of food, clothing, and shelter.[169]Meanwhile, the British conveniently assembled in Philadelphia and paid for supplies therelb, while Washington struggles with devaluationAmerican banknotes. The Forest was quickly running out of game time, and by February morale was falling and an increase in desertions followed.[170]

Washington has repeatedly asked the Continental Congress for regulations. Receiving a delegation from Congress to review the state of the Army, he explained the urgency of the situation, stating, “Something needs to be done. Important changes need to be made.” He recommended that Congress expedite supplies, and Congress agreed to strengthen and fund military supply lines through a reorganization of the Political Commissar. Deliveries began to arrive in late February.[124]

Washington Rally troops at MonmouthEmmanuel Leutze

baronFrederick William of SteubenThe relentless drilling soon transformed Washington’s recruits into a disciplined force[171]and the Risen Army emerged from Valley Forge early next year.[172]Washington promoted von Steuben to major general and made him chief of staff.[173]

In early 1778, the French reacted to Burgoyne’s defeat and intervenedalliance treatywith Americans. The Continental Congress ratified the treaty in May, resulting in France declaring war on Britain.[174]

The British evacuated Philadelphia to New York in June of that year, and Washington called a war council of American and French generals. He decided on a partial attack on the retreating BritishBattle of Monmouth; The British were commanded by Howe’s successor GeneralHenry Clinton. generalsKarl Leeand Lafayette, unbeknownst to Washington, moved with 4,000 men and made their first attack on June 28. Washington replaced Lee and won a tie after an open battle. During the night the British retreated further into New York, and Washington moved its army out of the city.[175]Monmouth was Washington’s last battle in the north; He valued the security of his army more than cities, which were worthless to the British.[176]

West Point espionage

western pointThe Military Life of Benedict Arnold, 1777–1779

Washington became “America’s First Broadcaster” by designing a spy system against the British.[177]1778 majorBenjamin TallmadgeshapeRound culperinstructed by Washington to secretly collect information about the British in New York.[178]Washington ignored incidents of disloyaltyBenedict Arnold, who excelled in many battles.[179]

In the mid-1780s, Arnold began supplying English toastersJohn Andrewith sensitive information to harm and capture Washingtonwestern point, a key American defensive positionThe Hudson River.[180]historian[WHO?]noted the possible reasons for Arnold’s defection and his anger at losing promotions to junior officers or repeated reckless acts.[Clarification required]from Parliament. He was also heavily in debt, profiting from the war, and frustrated by Washington’s lack of support in his final days.martial arts field.[181]

Arnold repeatedly requested command of West Point, and Washington finally agreed in August.[182]Arnold met André on September 21 and presented a plan to take over the garrison.[183]The militia captured André and discovered the plan, but Arnold escaped to New York.[184]Washington recalled the commanders stationed under Arnold at key points around the fort to prevent any complicity, but he did not suspect Arnold’s wife.peggy. Washington assumed personal command at West Point and reorganized the defense.[185]André’s espionage trial ended with a death sentence, and Washington offered to bring him back to England in exchange for Arnold, butClintondenied. André was hanged on October 2, 1780, despite his last pleas to face a firing squad to stop other spies.[186]

South Theater and Yorktown

Southern Theater of the American Revolutionary War

Painting showing French King Louis XVI, standing, wearing formal King's robe

Louis XVI

In late 1778, General Clinton transported 3,000 troops from New York to Georgia and launched a southern invasion against itsavannah, reinforced by 2,000 British and Loyalist troops. They fended off a Patriots attack andFrench Navy, which spurred the British war effort.[187]

In June 1778,IroquoisWarriors joinloyalistrangers doWalter Butlerand killed more than 200 border guards in JuneWyoming Valleyin Pennsylvania.[188]In response to this and other attacks on New England towns, in mid-1779 Washington ordered General John Sullivan to lead an expedition to drive the Iroquois out of New York by “completely wrecking and destroying” their villages and taking women and children hostage .[189][190]The expedition systematically destroyed Iroquois villages and granaries, forcing at least 5,036 Iroquois to flee to British Canada. The campaign directly killed several hundred Iroquois, but according to the anthropologistAnthony FC Wallace, the real effect of the campaign was to halve the number of Iroquois unable to support themselves or survive the harsh winter of 1779–1780. Rhiannon Koehler estimates that as many as 5,500 Iroquois, about 55.5% of the population, may have died as a result of a campaign that some historians have described as genocide.[191][192]

Washington’s army invaded the Morristown, New Jersey areas in the winter of 1779–1780 and endured the worst winter of the war, with temperatures below freezing.New York Harborwas frozen, ice covered the ground for weeks, and the army lacked backup troops.[193]

Clinton rallied 12,500 troops and attackedCharlestown, South Carolinadefeated the shogun in January 1780Benjamin Lincolnwho had only 5,100 continental troops.[194]The British continued their occupationSouth Carolina Piedmontin June there was no Patriot resistance. Clinton returned to New York, leaving 8,000 troops under the general’s commandKarl Cornwallis.[195]Congress replaced Lincoln with Horatio Gates; He failed in South Carolina and was replaced by Washington’s choice of Nathaniel Greene, but the British had the South within reach. However, Washington was revived when Lafayette returned from France with more ships, men, and supplies.[196]and 5,000 veterans of France under the command of the MarshalRochambeauarrived atNewport, Rhode Islandin July 1780.[197]Then the French Navy landed under the command of the admiralgrass, and Washington encouraged Rochambeau to move his fleet south to launch a combined land and sea attack on Arnold’s army.[198]

Washington’s troops entered the winter areaNew Windsor, New Yorkin December 1780, and Washington urged Congress and state officials to proceed with the regulations in the hope that the troops “would not grapple further with the hardships hitherto suffered.”[199]On March 1, 1781, Congress approvedArticle of the Federation, but the government came into effect in March 2 has no taxing powers and loosely ties states together.[200]

General Clinton sent Benedict Arnold, currently a British brigadier general with 1,700 troops, to invade VirginiaPortsmouthand from there launched raids on the Patriots; Washington responded by sending Lafayette south to counter Arnold’s efforts.[201]Washington initially hoped to bring the war to New York, withdraw British troops from Virginia and end the war there, but Rochambeau advised Grasse to do soCornwallisin Virginia is a better target. Grasse’s fleet arrived off the coast of Virginia, and Washington saw the advantage. He chased Clinton in New York and then made his way south to Virginia.[202]

Generals Washington and Rochambeau, standing in front of HQ tent, giving last orders before the attack on Yorktown

The Siege of YorktownRochambeau

ThatThe Siege of YorktownIt was a decisive Allied victory by the combined forces of the Continental Army commanded by General Washington, the French Army commanded by General Comte de Rochambeau and the French Navy commanded by the Admiral.from Grass, in the defeat of the British army by Cornwallis. On August 19, the march to Yorktown, led by Washington and Rochambeau, now known as the began”Pageant”.[203]Washington took command of an army of 7,800 French, 3,100 militiamen and 8,000 Continentals. With little experience of siege warfare, Washington often took General Rochambeau’s comments and used his advice on how to proceed; However, Rochambeau never questioned Washington’s authority as a combat officer.[204]

In late September, French Patriotic forces besieged Yorktown, captured British troops and halted British reinforcements from Clinton to the north, while the French Navy was winning in the war.Battle of the Chesapeake. The last American attack was preceded by a shot from Washington.[205]The siege ended with the surrender of the British on October 19, 1781; more than 7,000 British soldiers were capturedprisoner of war, in the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War.[206]Washington negotiated the terms of surrender in two days, and the formal signing took place on October 19; Cornwallis declared ill and absent, general dispatchedCharles O’Haraas his deputy.[207]As a gesture of goodwill, Washington hosted a dinner for American, French, and British generals, all of whom were on friendly terms and regarded one another as members of the same professional army.Step.[208]

After the surrender at Yorktown, a situation developed that threatened the relationship between the newly independent United States and Britain.[209]After a series of recorded executions betweenpatriotsandloyalist, Washington wrote in a letter to the general on May 18, 1782Moses Hazen[210]that a British captain would be executed in retaliation for the executionJoshua Huddy, a famous patriotic leader who washangedunder the direction of the loyalistRichard Lippincott. Washington wanted Lippincott executed himself, but was turned down.[211]Later,Karl Asgilwas instead selected by pulling several things out of a hat. This is a violation of Article 14 of the Yorktown Article of Surrender, which protects prisoners of war from retaliation.[210][212]Thereafter, Washington’s attitude to the matter changed, and in a letter addressed to Asgill dated November 13, 1782, he acknowledged the letter and Asgill’s situation and expressed his desire not to harm me.[213]After much deliberation betweencontinental congress,Alexander Hamilton, Washington, and appeal fromFrench crown, Asgill was finally released,[214]where Washington issued Asgill a passport allowing him to go to New York.[215][210]

retirement and resignation

Painting by John Trumbull, depicting General Washington, standing in Maryland State House hall, surrounded by statesmen and others, resigning his commission

General George Washington resigns from his commission

John Trumpet

When peace negotiations began in April 1782, both Britain and France began gradually evacuating their forces.[216]An empty American treasury, no pay, and hard-line soldiers forced Congress to adjourn, and Washington dispersed the unrest with repressionNewburgh’s Conspiracyin March 1783; Congress promised officers a five-year bonus.[217]Washington deposited $450,000 in expenses he had advanced for the military. The account was settled, although it was said to be vague about large sums and included expenses incurred by his wife upon arrival at his headquarters.[218]

The following month, a congressional committee implementedAlexander Hamiltonbegan adapting the army for peacetime. In August 1783, Washington presented the Army’s position to the Committee in WashingtonOpinion on a peaceful environment.[219]He advised Congress to maintain a standing army, create a “national militia” of separate state entities, and create a navy and national military academy.

ThatParis AgreementSigned on September 17, 1783, Britain officially recognized the independence of the United States. Washington then disbanded his troops and delivered a farewell address to his troops on November 2.[220]During this time, Washington monitorsEvacuation of British troops in New Yorkand is greeted with parades and celebrations. There he announced that Colonel Henry Knox had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief.[221]Washington and the governorGeorge Clintonofficially took over the city on November 25th.[222]

In early December 1783, Washington bid farewell to its officersFraunce’s Tavernandresignation of the supreme commandersoon after, he dismissed Loyalist predictions that he would not relinquish his military command.[223]In his final appearance in military uniform, he told Congress, “I consider it an indispensable duty to conclude the last solemn act of my official life by honoring the interests of our dearest country in protecting Almighty God and those who have His.” stewardship to preserve their sanctity.”[224]Welcomed at home and abroad, Washington’s resignation revealed a world skeptical that the new republic would not descend into chaos.[225][l]

That same month, Washington was elected PresidentAssociation of Cincinnati, a newly formed hereditary fraternity of Revolutionary War officers. He served in that capacity for the rest of his life.[227][m]

The early republic (1783–1789)

The Confederate AgeArticle of the Federation

Back to Mount Vernon

Not only am I retiring from all public affairs, but I am retiring into myself and will be able, with sincere satisfaction, to walk alone and tread the path of private life… I will gently walk down the stream of life until I sleep with my father.

George Washington became Lafayette on February 1, 1784 [229]

Washington longed to return home after spending just ten days at Mount .frac {space: nowrap} .mw-parser-output .frac .num, .mw-parser-output .frac .den {font-size: 80%; line height: 0; align vertically: super} .mw-parser-output .frac .den {align vertically: sub} .mw-parser-output .sr-only {border: 0; clip: direct (0,0,0,0) ; Height: 1px; border: -1px; overflow hidden; padding: 0; absolute position; Width: 1px}8 1⁄2many years of war. He arrived on Christmas Eve, delighted to have “escaped the hubbub of a camp and the busy scenes of public life”.[230]He was a celebrity and was introduced during a visit to his mother in Fredericksburg in February 1784, and he received a steady stream of visitors wishing to pay their respects to Mount Vernon.[231]

Washington has reactivated its interestsBig gloomy swampandPotomac CanalProjects began before the war but did not pay off, and he undertook a 34-day, 670-mile trip to inspect his lands in Ohio Country.[232]He oversaw the completion of the remodeling work at Mount Vernon that made his mansion what it is today – although his financial position was not strong. Creditors paid him in devalued war currency, and he owed a substantial sum in taxes and wages. Mount Vernon has not turned a profit during his absence and has experienced persistent poor crop yields due to disease and inclement weather. His fortunes were in their eleventh year in deficit in 1787, and there was little prospect of improvement.[233]Washington has started a new landscaping program and has managed to plant a wide array of fast-growing trees and shrubs native to North America.[234]He started toobreed muleafter giving a spanishJackaboutKing Charles III from Spainin 1784. At that time, mules were very few in the United States, and he believed that properly reared mules would make a revolution.AgricultureandCar.[235]

Constitutional Convention of 1787

Constitutional Convention (USA)

Shays’ rebellion

Before returning to private life in June 1783, Washington demanded a strong alliance. Although he feared he might be criticized for interfering in civil affairs, he sent out a circular to all states alleging thisArticle of the Federationnothing more than a “sand cord” connecting the states. He believed that the country was on the brink of “anarchy and anarchy”, highly vulnerable to foreign interference, and that the national constitution would unite the states under a strong central government.[236]WhenShays’ rebellionBreaking out in Massachusetts on August 29, 1786, Washington became increasingly convinced of the need for a national constitution.[237]Fearing that the new republic had descended into lawlessness, some nationalists met on September 11, 1786, atAnnapolisasking Congress to change the Articles of Confederation. However, one of their greatest efforts was to get Washington to participate.[238]Congress approved a constitutional convention to be held in Philadelphia in the spring of 1787, and each state would send delegates.[239]

On December 4, 1786, Washington was chosen to head the Virginia delegation, but he declined on December 21. Concerned about the legitimacy of the convention, he consulted.JamesMadison,Henry Knox, and other. However, they persuaded him to attend, as his presence would discourage states from sending delegates and would facilitate the ratification process.[240]On March 28, Washington notified the governorEdmund Randolphthat he would attend the meeting, but made it clear that he was being urged to do so.[241]

Painting by Howard Chandler Christy, depicting the signing of the Constitution of the United States, with Washington as the presiding officer standing at right

Scenes from the signing ceremony of the United States Constitution

Howard Chandler Christy

Washington arrived in Philadelphia on May 9, 1787, but not until Friday, May 25. Benjamin Franklin, who had just reached the quorum, nominated Washington to chair the assembly, and he was unanimously elected to the office of President.[242]The state-mandated purpose of the convention was to amend the Articles of Confederation with “all such amendments and other provisions” as may be required to amend them, and a new government to be formed when the results are “confirmed by several States”. .[243] Governor Edmund Randolph of VirginiaIntroducing MadisonThe Virginia Planon May 27th, the third day of the Congress. It called for an entirely new constitution and sovereign national government, which Washington strongly encouraged.[244]

Washington wroteAlexander Hamiltonon July 10: “I am almost desperate to see a matter favorable to our conference procedures, and therefore I regret having had any authority in this business.”[245]However, he showed his credibility to the good will and work of the other delegates. He unsuccessfully lobbied for ratification by many peoplestructure, like anti-federalistsPatrick Henry; Washington told him that “in my opinion it is desirable to accept it in the present circumstances of the Union”, stating that the alternative is anarchy.[246]Washington and Madison then spent four days at Mount Vernon to assess the new administration’s transition.[247]

Chancellor of William

In 1788 the Visitor Council ofUniversity of Williamdecided to restore the office of prime minister and elected Washington to office on January 18.[248]College President Samuel Griffin wrote to Washington inviting him to join the post, and in a letter dated April 30, 1788, Washington accepted the 14th place.Chancellor of the College of William.[248][249]He remained in office during his presidency until his death on December 14, 1799.[248]

First Presidential Election

1788–89 United States presidential election

Delegates to the convention predict a term for Washington’s presidency and, once elected, let him choose the office.[245][N]The state electors voted for the president under the Constitution on February 4, 1789, and Washington suspects that most Republicans did not vote for him.[251]entrusted to March Four days passed without a quorum from Congress to count the votes, but a quorum was reached on April 5. The votes were counted the next day.[252]and Secretary of the National AssemblyKarl Thomsonwas sent to Mount Vernon to tell Washington that he had been elected President. Washington won the majority of the electoral college votes of all states; John Adams received the next highest number of votes, becoming vice president.[253]Washington had “feelings of fear and pain” at leaving Mount Vernon’s “domestic crime” but leftNYCto be inaugurated on April 16th.[254]

President (1789–1797)

President of George Washington

Painting by Gilbert Stuart (1795), formal portrait of President George Washington

President George Washington

Washington hasconsecrateon April 30, 1789sworninFederation Hallin NYC.[255][O]His coach was led by a militia and marching band, followed by foreign politicians and dignitaries in an opening parade attended by 10,000 spectators.[257]prime ministerRobert R Livingstontake an oathBible provided by Freemasons, then the militia fired a 13-gun salute.[258]Washington delivered a speech in the Senate chamber in which he demanded “that the Almighty govern the universe, who presides over the assembly of nations — and whose vital support can erase every human error” dedicated to the liberty and happiness of the American people is”.[259]Though he wanted to serve without pay, Congress insisted he accept, then offered Washington $25,000 a year to help offset the expenses of the presidency.[260]

Washington wrote to James Madison, “Since everything first in our circumstances will serve to set a precedent, it is my strong desire that those precedents be corrected on the basis of real principles.”[261]As such, he preferred the title “Mr. President” to the more dignified names proposed by the Senate, including “Sir” and “His Royal Highness”.[262]His executive precedents include his inaugural address, messages to Congress andcloset shapelaterexecutive.[263]

Washington had planned to step down after his first term, but domestic unrest convinced him to remain in office.[264]He is an able administrator and an assessor of talent and character, and he regularly consults department heads for advice.[265]Despite concerns that a democratic system would lead to political violence, he held opposing views and ensured a smooth transition of power to his successor.[266]He remained impartial throughout his presidency and opposed splits in political parties, but he supported a strong central government that was sympathetic to federal government and tolerated Republican opposition.[267]

Washington has solved the big problems. Elderly peopleleagueLack of authority to manage workload and weak leadership, no manager, small secretariat, large amount of debt, worthless fiat money and no authority to establish tax categories.[268]It is his duty to put together an executive department and rely on itTobias Learto advise on the selection of its officers.[269]Britain refused to give up its forts in the American west,[268]and Berber pirates preying on American merchant ships in the Mediterranean at a time when the United States didn’t even have a navy.[270]

Cabinet and executive departments

US Cabinet

Washington’s cabinet
office Surname Period
chairman george washington 1789-1797
Vice President John Adams 1789-1797
foreign minister John Jay (Acting) 1789-1790
Thomas Jefferson 1790-1793
Edmund Randolph 1794-1795
Timothy Pickering 1795-1797
Minister of Finance Alexander Hamilton 1789-1795
Oliver Wolcott Jr. 1795-1797
Minister of War Henry Knox 1789-1794
Timothy Pickering 1795
James McHenry 1796-1797
Minister of Justice Edmund Randolph 1789-1794
William Bradford 1794-1795
Karl Lee 1795-1797

Congress established executive departments in 1789, includingMinistry of Foreign Affairsin July,Ministry of Warin August andfinancial departmentin September. Washington appoints fellow countryman VirginiaEdmund Randolphas Attorney General,Samuel Osgoodas general manager of the post office,Thomas Jeffersonas Secretary of State andHenry KnoxasMinister of War. Finally he specifiedAlexander HamiltonasMinister of Finance. Washington’s cabinet became an advisory and advisory body not mandated by the Constitution.[271]

Members of the Washington cabinet formed rival factions with the sharpest opposition, most vividly illustrated between Hamilton and Jefferson.[272]Washington limited cabinet discussions to issues of its choice without participating in the debate. Occasionally he obtained a written statement from the cabinet and expected the heads of department to implement his resolutions quickly.[268]

domestic problems

Washington was apolitical and discouraged the formation of parties, believing that conflict would weaken republicanism.[273]He was very reluctant to use ithis vetoShe writes: “I sign many bills, the judgment of which differs ….”[274]

His closest advisers formed two factions that dictated thatFirst Party System. Minister of FinanceAlexander HamiltonshapeFederalist Partyto promote national creditworthiness and a financially strong country. foreign ministerThomas Jeffersonagainst Hamilton’s agenda and establishedJeffersonian Republican Party. However, Washington supported Hamilton’s agenda, and it eventually went into effect – sparking much controversy.[275]

Washington declares November 26 to be the day ofThanksgivingto promote national unity. “It is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, appreciate his bounty, and humbly seek his protection and favor.” He spent that day fasting and visiting debtors in prison to provide them with food and beer.[276]

African American

Before two anti-slavery petitions were presented to Congress in 1790, slave owners in Georgia and South Carolina protested and threatened to “rat out the Civil War.” Washington and Congress responded with a series of racist measures:Naturalization was deniedto black immigrants;Blacks are forbidden from servicein the state militias; thatSouthwest Territorywould soon the state of Tennessee be permitted to maintain slavery; and two more slave states were admitted (Kentucky 1792 and Tennessee 1796). On February 12, 1793, Washington signed it into lawRefugee Slave Act, which negated the laws and courts of the state and allowed agents to cross state lines to capture and return runaway slaves.[277]Many liberal blacks in the North condemned the law, believing it would allow bounty hunting and kidnapping of blacks.[278]Fugitive Slave Act comes into force for the ConstitutionRunaway Slave Clause, and the bill passed Congress overwhelmingly (e.g., 48-7 votes in the House of Representatives).[279]

On the anti-slavery page of the ledger, Washington signed a reenactment in 1789Northwest Ordinancefreed all slaves brought into a large federal territory north of after 1787Ohio River, excluding slaves who fled slave states.[280][281]This 1787 law expired when the new United States Constitution was ratified in 1789.[282]ThatSlave Trade Act of 1794, which severely limited US participationThe Atlantic Slave Trade, was also signed by Washington.[283]And Congress acted on February 18, 1791, admitting the Free State of Vermont into the Union as the 14th state since March 4, 1791.[284]

state bank

Engraving of President Washington's House in Philadelphia, his residence from 1790 to 1797

Washington’s first term was largely devoted to economic concerns, during which Hamilton outlined various plans to deal with the problems.[285]The creation of public credit has become a major challenge for the federal government.[286]Hamilton presented a report to a deadlocked Congress, and he, Madison, and Jefferson got itCompromise 1790in which Jefferson agreed to Hamilton’s debt proposals in exchange for temporarily moving the nation’s capital to Philadelphia and then nearer the Southgeorge townAbovethe Potomac.[275]The provisions have been enshrined in lawScholarship Act of 1790andimmigration laws, both of which were signed by Washington. Congress authorized the assumption and payment of the nation’s debts, funded by tariffs and excise taxes.[287]

Hamilton caused controversy among cabinet members by endorsing the facilityAmerica’s First Bank. Madison and Jefferson protested, but the bank passed Congress easily. Jefferson andRandolphHamilton maintained that, as Hamilton believed, the new bank exceeded constitutionally granted authority. Washington sided with Hamilton and signed the law into law on February 25, and the public rift between Hamilton and Jefferson grew hostile.[288]

Of the countryThe first financial crisisoccurred in March 1792. Hamilton’s Federalists exploited large credits to gain control of US debt, causing the National Bank to flee;[289]Markets return to normal in mid-April.[290]Jefferson believed Hamilton was part of the plan, despite Hamilton’s efforts to improve, and Washington once again found themselves in the midst of a feud.[291]

Jefferson-Hamilton feud

Formal portrait of Thomas Jefferson, part of a dual image of Jefferson and Hamilton

Thomas Jefferson

Formal portrait of Alexander Hamilton, part of a dual image of Jefferson and Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton

Jefferson and Hamilton applied diametrically opposed political principles. Hamilton believed in a strong national government that needed national banks and foreign credit to function, while Jefferson believed that the states and the agrarian element should run government; he also rejected the idea of ​​banks and foreign credit. To Washington’s chagrin, the two men repeatedly got into arguments and power struggles.[292]Hamilton urged Jefferson to resign if he could not support Washington, and Jefferson told Washington that Hamilton’s financial system would lead to the Republic’s downfall.[293]Washington urged them to call for a ceasefire in the national interest, but they ignored it.[294]

Washington reversed his decision to retire after his first term in order to minimize conflict within the party, but the feud continued after his re-election.[293]Jefferson’s political actions, his endorsement of FreneauNational Gazette,[295]and his attempt to weaken Hamilton nearly resulted in Washington firing him from the Cabinet; Jefferson finally resigned in December 1793, and Washington has failed him ever since.[296]

The feud resulted in clearly defined Republican and Federal parties, and party alignment was required for the 1794 congressional elections.[297]Washington has stayed away from Congressional attacks on Hamilton, but he hasn’t publicly defended him either. ThatHamilton sex scandal – Reynoldsshamed Hamilton, but Washington continued to cherish him as the dominant force in the legislature and the federal government.[298]

whiskey rebellion

whiskey rebellion

In March 1791, at Hamilton’s urging and with the support of Madison, Congress introduced an excise tax on spirits to reduce the national debt, which took effect in July.[299]Grain farmers protested violently in the frontier counties of Pennsylvania; Arguing that they were underrepresented and burdened with too much debt, they compared their situation to Britain’s pre-Revolutionary War excessive taxation. On August 2, Washington assembled its cabinet to discuss how to handle the situation. Unlike Washington, which had reservations about the use of force, Hamilton had long awaited such a situation and was ready to use federal power and force to quell the insurgency.[300]Because Washington did not want to involve the federal government if possible, Washington urged Pennsylvania state officials to take the initiative, but they refused to take military action. On August 7, Washington released its first statement calling for state militias. After calling for peace, he reminded protesters that, unlike the rule of the British Crown, Commonwealth law is made by elected officials of the state.[301]

However, threats and violence against tax collectors escalated in defiance against the federal government in 1794, leading towhiskey rebellion. Washington made its last statement on September 25, threatening military force in vain.[301]The federal military failed to complete the mission, Washington saidMilitia Act of 1792to call the state militia.[302]The governors sent troops, initially commanded by Washington, which surrendered commandHarry Lee light horseto lead them to the rebellious districts. They took 150 prisoners and the remaining rebels dispersed without further fighting. Two of the prisoners were sentenced to death, but Washington, for the first time, exercised its constitutional authority and pardoned them.[303]

Washington’s decisive action shows that the new administration can protect itself and its tax collectors. This is the first use of federal military force against countries and citizens[304]and remains the only time a sitting president has commanded troops in the field. Washington justified its crackdown on “several self-made societies” which it saw as “subversive organizations” threatening the national coalition. He did not question her right to protest, but stressed that her protest should not violate federal law. Congress agreed and congratulated him; only Madison and Jefferson showed indifference.[305]

Foreign Affair

Gilbert Stuart portrait of Chief Justice John Jay in robes, seated and holding a law book

John JayJaya Pact

April 1792,French War of Independencestarted between Britain and France, and Washington declared America neutral. The French revolutionary government sent a diplomatCitizen Genetcame to America and he was received with great enthusiasm. He created a new networkDemocratic-Republican Societiespromote French interests, but Washington rejected them and urged France to withdraw Genêt.[306]The French National Assembly bestowed honorary French citizenship on Washington on August 26, 1792, during the first phase of the French RevolutionFrench Revolution.[307]Hamilton build formulaJaya Pactto normalize trade relations with Britain and remove it from the western bastions, and also to settle the financial debts left over from the revolution.[308]JudgeJohn Jayacted as Washington’s chief negotiator and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794; However, critical Jeffersonians preferred France. Washington considered, then supported the treaty because it avoided war with Britain,[309]but disappointed that his terms favored Britain.[310]He mobilized public opinion and secured Senate approval[311]however, has been widely criticized by the public.[312]

The British agreed to give up their strongholds in the areaBig lakes, and the United States revised its border with Canada. The government had liquidated much of its debt before the revolution, and the British opened upBritish West Indiesto US trade. The treaty secured peace with Britain and a decade of prosperous trade. Jefferson claimed this angered France and “invited, not avoided” war.[313]Relations with France subsequently deteriorated and led to the successor to the PresidentJohn Adamswith future war.[314] James Monroewas the United States Minister in France, but Washington recalled him for defying the treaty. The French refused to accept his replacementCharles Cotesworth Pinckney, and the French Secretariat claimed the power to seize the American ship two days before the end of Washington’s term.[315]

Native American affairs

Indians in the United StatesThe Battle of FallholzTreaty of New York (1790)Treaty of GreenvilleNorthwest TerritoriesOhio country

Portrait of Seneca Chief Sagoyewatha, Washington's peace emissary

SenecaRed jacketNorthwest Alliance

Ron Chernowdescribes Washington as always trying to be practical in dealing with the natives. He said Washington hoped they would abandon the itinerant hunting life and assimilate to the settled farming communities like white settlers. He also claimed that Washington has never been in favor of the outright confiscation of tribal lands or the forced expulsion of tribes, and that he has berated American settlers for abusing natives, acknowledging that there was no hope of peaceful relations with natives as long as the “Recovery line” is settlers who believe that killing a native is not the same crime (or no crime at all) as killing a white man.[316]

Opposite,Colin G Gallowaywrote that “Washington had a lifelong obsession with acquiring India’s land, either for himself or for his nation, initiating policies and campaigns that had devastating effects on the country of India. .”[317]”The development of the country,” Galloway explained, “requires that the people of India secede. Washington hopes the process can be bloodless and that the people of India will give up their land at a “reasonable” price and move on. But when the Indians refused and resisted, as they often did, he felt he had no choice but to “destroy” them and the expeditions he sought. I have therefore fully justified destroying the cities of India.”[318]

In the fall of 1789, Washington faced a British refusal to vacate their forts on the northwestern bordercoordinated effortInciting hostile Indian tribes to attackAmericansettlers.[319][p]Northwest tribes belowMiamiManagerLittle TurtleAllied with the British Army to resist American expansion and killed 1,500 settlers between 1783 and 1790.[320]

According to the Harless (2018) document, Washington states that “the United States Government has determined that its administration of Indian affairs should be governed wholly by the excellent principles of justice and human rights. Literature”,[321]and on condition that the treaties negotiate their land rights.[321]The government considers powerful tribes foreign, and Washington even smokes inpeace leadershipand have a drink with themPhiladelphia Presidential House.[322]He made many attempts to combine them;[323]He equated killing natives with killing whites and attempted to assimilate themUSA UKcultural.[324]Minister of WarHenry Knoxalso attempted to encourage agriculture among the tribes.[323]

In the Southwest, negotiations between the federal commissioners and the raiding Native American tribes seeking revenge broke down. Washington invitedstreamManagerAlexander McGillivrayand 24 top chiefs come to New York to negotiate a treaty and treat them like foreign dignitaries. Knox and McGillivray come to the endNew York Treatyon August 7, 1790, inFederation Hall, provided the tribes with agricultural goods, and McGillivray had the rank of brigadier general and a salary of $1,500.[325]

A R.F. Zogbaum scene of the Battle of Fallen Timbers includes Native Americans aiming as cavalry soldiers charge with raised swords and one soldier is shot and loses his mount

The Battle of FallholzOhio country

In 1790 Washington sent a brigadier generalJosiah Harmarto pacify the northwestern tribes, but Little Tortoise twice defeated him, forcing him to retreat.[326]ThatNorthwest AllianceTribes employed guerrilla tactics and were an effective fighting force against the sparsely manned US Army. Washington sent Major GeneralArthur St Clearout ofFort Washingtonon an expedition to restore peace to the area in 1791. On November 4, St. Clair was raided andHit a healthy pathby tribal troops with few survivors,[327]despite Washington’s warnings of surprise attacks. Outraged by what he saw as excessive Native American brutality, Washington executed those arrested, including women and children.[328]

St. Clair resigned and Washington replaced him with Revolutionary War Hero GeneralAnthonyWayne. From 1792 to 1793, Wayne instructed his troops in Native American warfare tactics and forged the discipline established under St. Klar.[329]In August 1794, Washington sent Wayne into tribal areas with the power to drive them out by burning their villages and crops for a while.Maumee Valley.[330]On August 24, American forces led by Wayne defeated the Western coalitionThe Battle of Fallholz, andTreaty of Greenvillein August 1795 two thirds of the number openedOhio countryemigrate to the USA.[331]

Second part

Originally, Washington had planned to retire after his first term in office, while many Americans could not imagine anyone else taking his place.[332]After nearly four years as president, and faced with his own infighting and partisan criticism, Washington showed little interest in running for a second term, while Martha wanted to. He did not run for office.[333]James Madison urged him not to retire, saying his absence would only exacerbate a dangerous political rift in his Cabinet and the House of Commons. Jefferson also asked him not to retire and agreed to stop his raids on Hamilton or he would retire as well if Washington did.[334]Hamilton insisted that Washington’s absence at this point is viewed as the “greatest crime” against the country.[335]Washington’s close grandson, George Augustine Washington, his manager at Mount Vernon, fell seriously ill and had to be replaced, further fueling Washington’s desire to retire and return to Mount Vernon.[336]

WhenElection 1792From the looks of it, Washington has not made its presidential bid public. Nevertheless, he tacitly declared his willingness to run in order to prevent further personal-political splits in his cabinet. Thatelectoral collegeunanimously elected him President on February 13, 1793John AdamsVice President by a vote of 77 to 50.[324]Washington arrived alone with nominal fanfarehis inaugurationin his carriage. Swearing-in by the Deputy Attorney GeneralWilliam Cushingon March 4, 1793 in the Senate Chamber ofroomin Philadelphia, Washington made a short speech and then immediately retired to his presidential home in Philadelphia, tired of office and ill.[337]

Painting of the frigate USS Constitution with three masts


On April 22, 1793 inFrench Revolution, Wash. publishedDeclaration of Neutralityand was determined to pursue “a friendly and impartial conduct toward the belligerent powers” while warning Americans not to intervene in international conflicts.[338]Although Washington recognizes France’s revolutionary government, he will eventually ask the French minister to come to AmericaCitizen Genetrecalled by the Citizen Genêt affair.[339]Genêt was a diplomatic troublemaker who was openly hostile to Washington’s policy of neutrality. He bought four private American ships to attack Spanish (British allied) forcesFloridaat the same time organize militia attacks on other British possessions. However, his efforts to get America involved failedforeign campaignsduring Washington’s presidency.[340]On July 31, 1793, Jefferson tendered his resignation from Washington’s cabinet.[341]Washington signedMaritime Law of 1794and sent the first six Confederate frigates into battleBerber pirates.[342]

In January 1795, Hamilton, wanting more income for his family, resigned and was replaced by Washington’s appointment.Oliver Wolcott Jr.Washington and Hamilton are still friends. However, Washington’s relationship with Secretary of War Henry Knox continued to deteriorate. Knox resigned over rumors that he was profiting from construction contracts aboard the US ship Fregates.[343]

In the final months of his presidency, Washington was attacked by his political enemies and the partisan press accused him of being ambitious and greedy while arguing that he failed to recognize war wages and risked his life in combat. He sees the press as a unifying force, the “devil” of the lies, of the feelings he expressesfarewell address.[344]At the end of his second term, Washington withdrew for personal and political reasons, dismayed by personal attacks and to ensure that a presidential election could actually be organized. He doesn’t feel bound by the two-office line, but his resignation has set an important precedent. Washington is often credited with setting the rules for a two-year presidency, but it was Thomas Jefferson who first declined to run for a third term for political reasons.[345]

farewell address

Farewell Speech by George Washington

Newspaper showing Washington's Farewell Address

Washington’s Farewell Speech

In 1796, Washington refused to run for a third term, believing that his death in office would create the image of a lifetime appointment. The precedent for the two-term limit was set when he retired.[346]In May 1792, before retiring, Washington headedJamesMadisonprepare a “graduation address’, an early manuscript entitled Farewell Address.[347]In May 1796, Washington sent the manuscript to his Secretary of the TreasuryAlexander Hamiltonwho rewrote the whole thing while Washington made the final changes.[348]September 19, 1796 David ClaypoolesAmerica’s Daily Advertiserthe final version of the address is published.[349]

Washington insists that national identity is paramount while a united America protects liberty and prosperity. He warned the nation of three major dangers: regionalism, partisanship and foreign manipulation, saying that “the name of the United States, which belongs to you as your nation, must always uphold legitimate patriotic pride, more so than any name derived from local discrimination.” .”[350]Washington urged the men to go beyond partisanship for the common good, stressing that the United States must focus on its own interests. He warned against foreign alliances and their influence on internal affairs, as well as against harsh partisan regimes and the dangers of political parties.[351]He advised friendship and trade with all nations, but discouraged engaging in wars in Europe.[352]He emphasized the importance of religion, declaring that “religion and morals are indispensable tools” in a republic.[353]Washington’s speech supported Federalist ideology and Hamilton’s economic policies.[354]

Washington ended the address by reflecting on his legacy:

While I do not intend to make a mistake in reviewing my government’s incidents, I am still too aware of my shortcomings to believe that I could have made many mistakes. Whatever they may be, I fervently pray to the Almighty to prevent or lessen whatever evil they may suffer. I will also carry within me the hope that my country will never cease to regard them with delusion, and that after forty-five years of my life I have dedicated myself to its service. If I become sincere, the faults of incompetence will be forgotten, for I myself must go to the villas soon to rest. [355]

After its initial publication, many Republicans, including Madison, criticized the address, saying it was an anti-French campaign document. Madison believed that Washington was very pro-British. Madison also doubts who the author of The Address is.[356]

1839 biographer in WashingtonJared Sparksclaim “… The old parting address isprint and publishthe laws, as directed by the legislature, as evidence of the value they attach to their policies and of their affection for their author. “[357]1972 Scholar WashingtonJames FlexnerMention of a farewell speech that received as much applause as Thomas Jefferson’sDeclaration of IndependenceandAbrahamLincoln’SGettysburg address.[358]2010 historianRon Chernowreportfarewell addressproved to be one of the most influential statements on republicanism.[359]

Post-Presidency era (1797–1799)

The Post Presidency of George Washington


Washington retired to Mount Vernon in March 1797 and devoted himself to his plantations and other business interests, includingdistillery.[360]His plantation operations brought only minimal profits,[forty six]and his country to the west (Piedmont) is under attack from India and has a meager income as residents refuse to pay rent. He tried to sell these but failed.[361]He became an even more committed Federalist. He voiced his supportAlien behavior and seductionand convince the federalistsJohn Marshallran for Congress to weaken Jefferson’s gripVirginia.[362]

Washington grew restless in retirement, fueled by tensions with France, and wrote to the Secretary of WarJames McHenryPresident Adams’ proposal to organize the army.[363]In the sequel toFrench War of Independence, French privateers began capturing American ships in 1798, and relations with France deteriorated, leading to “quasi-warOn July 4, 1798, without consulting Washington, Adams appointed him lieutenant general and commander-in-chief of the army.[364]Washington has instead chosen to acceptJames Wilkinson,[365]and he served as Commander-in-Chief from July 13, 1798 until his death 17 months later. He was involved in planning an interim army but avoided getting involved in the details. In advising McHenry on possible officers for the military, he seemed to have broken completely with Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party: “You can soon get rid of the black white man, for a change. the principles of the deepest Democrat; and he will leave nothing without trying to overthrow the government of this country.”[366]Washington placed Hamilton, a major general, in active command of the army. During this time, no troops invaded the United States, and Washington took no field orders.[367]

Washington is known for being rich because of the famous “glorious facade of wealth and greatness” at Mount Vernon.[368]but almost all his possessions were in the form of land and slaves rather than hard cash. To supplement his income, he built onedistilleryto produce substantial whisky.[369]Historians estimate the land was worth around $1 millions in 1799 dollars,[370]That equates to $15,967,000 in 2021. He purchased the lots to fuel development in the areafederal citywas named in his honor, and he sold individual lots to middle-income investors rather than multiple lots to large investors, believing they would be more committed to improvement.[371]

The last days and death

Washington on his deathbed, with doctors and family surrounding

Washington on the hospital bedJunius Brutus Stearns

On December 12, 1799, Washington inspected his ranch on horseback. He came home late and had guests over for dinner. The next day he had a sore throat, but was well enough to mark the tree for felling. That night he cried out in pain but remained cheerful.[372]On Saturday he woke up with a sore throat and trouble breathing, so he ordered estate manager George Rawlins to remove nearly a quart of his blood;bleedingwas the custom at the time. His family called the doctorsJames Craik,Gustavus Richard Braun, andElisha C Dick.[373](dr William Thorntonseveral hours after Washington’s death.)[374]

dr Brown believes Washington didtonsillitis; dr Dick considers the condition a more serious “severe sore throat”.[375]They continued the transfusion to about five pints and Washington’s condition worsened. dr Dick suggested atracheotomy, but others were unfamiliar with the procedure and so declined.[376]Washington orders Brown and Dick to leave the room while assuring Craik, “Doctor, I’m hard to die for, but I’m not afraid to go.”[377]

Washington’s death came sooner than expected.[378]On his deathbed he tutored his personal secretaryTobias Learhad to wait three days before being buried for fear of being buried alive.[379]According to Lear, he passed away peacefully between 10 p.m. and 11 p.m. on December 14, 1799, with Martha seated at the foot of the bed. His last words were “Good,” from his conversation with Lear about his funeral. He is 67 years old.[380]

zoom outRobert Feld

Congress immediately adjourned a day after news of Washington’s death, and the Chairman’s chair was covered in black by the next morning.[381]Funerals were held four days after his death on December 18, 1799 at Mount Vernon, where his body was interred. Cavalry and infantry led the procession, and six colonels served as wards. Funerals at Mount Vernon are mostly for family and friends only.[382]Pastor Thomas Davis reads the burial rite through the vault with a brief address, followed by a ceremony conducted by various members of the Masonic Motel in WashingtonAlexandria, Va.[383]Congress votedHarry Lee light horseto give a eulogy. The words of his death passed slowly; Church bells rang in the cities, many shops closed.[384]People around the world admire Washington and mourn his death, and memorial processions have been held in major US cities. Martha wore a black mourning robe for a year and burned her correspondence to protect her privacy. Only five letters between the couple are known to have survived: two from Martha to George and three from him to her.[385]

Washington’s diagnosis and immediate cause of death have been the subject of debate since the day he died. The published report by Dr. Craig and Brown[q]says his symptoms are consistent withcynanche trachealis(Tracheitis), a term of the period used to describe severe inflammation of the upper trachea, including angina. Medical malpractice charges have persisted since Washington’s death, with some believing he bled to death.[376]Various modern medical authors have speculated that he died from a severe case ofepiglottitiscomplicated by certain treatments, most notably the massive blood loss that is almost certainly causedhypovolemic shock.[387][r]

Funeral, net worth and aftermath

A picture of the two sarcophagi of George (at right) and Martha Washington at the present tomb at Mount Vernon.

Washington is buried in the old Washington family basement at Mount Vernon, on a grassy slope lined with willow, juniper, cypress and chestnut trees. It contained the remains of his brother Lawrence and other family members, but the decaying brick basement needed repairs, prompting Washington to leave instructions for building a new vault in his will.[384]Washington’s estate at the time of his death was worth about $780,000 in 1799, equivalent to $17.82. million in 2021.[391]Washington’s peak fortune was $587.0 million, including his 300 slaves.[392]Washington owns more than 65,000 acres in 37 different locations.[88]

1830 a disgruntled former employee of the estatetry to stealWhat he believed to be Washington’s skull prompted the construction of a more secure vault.[393]The following year a new vault was built at Mount Vernon to house the remains of George and Martha and other relatives.[394]In 1832, a joint congressional committee discussed moving his body from Mount Vernon to a crypt on the Capitol. The catacombs were built by the architectKarl Bulfinchin the 1820s when rebuilding the burnt down capitalburn Washingtonby the British inWar of 1812. Southern resistance was fierce, counteracted by the growing rift between North and South; Many fear that Washington’s remains may end up on “a shore alien to his homeland” if the country is divided, and Washington’s remains remain at Mount Vernon.[395]

On October 7, 1837, Washington’s remains, still in the original lead sarcophagus, were placed in a marble coffin provided by Mr.William Stricklandand built by John Struthers earlier in the year.[396]The coffin was sealed and boarded, and an outer vault was built around it.[397]The outer vault contains the coffins of George and Martha Washington; The basement inside contains the remains of other members of Washington’s family and relatives.[394]

private life

Washington family

Edward SavageNational Art Gallery


Coat of arms of the Washington family

Washington’s personality is a little reserved, but overall he has a strong presence among others. He makes speeches and announcements when required, but he is not a famous speaker or debater.[399]He was taller than most of his contemporaries;[400]Its height varies from 1.83 m (6 ft) to 1.92 m (6 ft 3.5 in).[80][401]he weighs 210–220 pounds (95–100 kg) as an adult,[402][403]and he is known for his great strength.[404]He has gray-blue eyes and long auburn hair that is curled, powdered and tied in an inner rowfashion of the day.[405]He had a solid and commanding look and earned the respect of his peers.

Washington often suffered from severe tooth decay and ended up losing everythingHis toothbut one. He had several dentures that he wore during his presidency, made from a variety of materials including animal teeth and human teeth, but despite popular legend, wood was not used.[406]These dental problems caused him constant pain, and helaudanum.[407]As a public figure, he relies on the strict trust of his dentist.[408]

Washington was a gifted horseman from a young age. He has collected Thoroughbreds at Mount Vernon and his two favorite horses areblue skinnedandNelson.[409]Virginians countrymenThomas JeffersonHe stated that Washington was “the finest rider of his age and the most graceful man visible on horseback”;[410]He also hunts fox, deer, duck and other game.[411]He is an excellent dancer and attends the theatre. He drinks in moderation, but morally disapproves of excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, and profanity.[412]

Religion and Freemasonry

George Washington’s Religious ViewsEnlighten America

Washington is a descendant of the Anglican ministerLawrenceWashington(his great grandfather) who had problems withChurch of Englandmay have caused his heirs to emigrate to America.[413]Washington was baptized as an infant in April 1732 and became a devoted member of the Church of England.[414]He served more than 20 years asPerson wearing a vestand church forFairfax, ParishandTruro Parish, Virginia.[415]He prayed privately and read the Bible daily, and he openly encouraged people and nations to pray.[416]He may have received communion regularly before the Revolutionary War, but not after the war, as recommended by the pastor.James Abercrombie.[417]

Washington is shown presiding as Master Mason over a lodge meeting.

Washington believes in a “wise, cunning, and irresistible” Creator God at work in the universe, as opposed todivine thought.[413]He named God in Enlightenment termsstatement, thatCreator, orAlmighty, and alsoDivine AuthororThe highest.[418]He believes in a divine power that oversees the battlefields, participates in the outcome of wars, protects his life, and participates in American politics – and particularly in the founding of the United States.[419][S]Modern historianRon Chernowhas argued that Washington avoids Christianity or fire and brimstone talk with communion and anything that tends to “display its religion”. Chernow also said Washington “never used its religion as an instrument for partisan purposes or in official endeavors.”[421]Not to mentionJesusChrist enteredhis private correspondence, and such references are rare in his public writings.[422]He often quoted or paraphrased the Bible and often referred to Anglicanism.Book of Common Prayer.[423]There is debate as to whether he is best classified as a Christian or as atheistic rationalist-or both.[424]

Washington emphasizes religious tolerance in a nation with many denominations and religions. He openly attended services of various Christian denominations and banned anti-Catholic celebrations in the army.[425]He worked for the workers at Mount Vernon without regard to creed or religion. As president, he recognized major religious denominations and gave speeches on religious tolerance.[426]It is clearly rooted in the ideas, values ​​and mindset of the Enlightenment,[427]but he had no disdain for organized Christianity and its clergy, and “had no indifference himself to any form of worship”.[427]In 1793 speaking to members of theNew ChurchIn Baltimore, Washington declared: “We have many reasons to rejoice because in this country the light of truth and reason has triumphed over the forces of bigotry and superstition.”[428]

Freemasonrywas a widely accepted late 18th-century organization known for espousing moral teachings.[429]Washington was drawn to Masons’ devotion to the Enlightenment principles of rationality, rationality, and fraternity. Masonic-style motels in the US do not share the anti-clerical views ofControversial European lodges.[430]In September 1752 a Masonic lodge was founded in Fredericksburg, and Washington was founded two months later at the age of 20 as one of the first enrolled students. Within a year he had risen in the ranks to Master Mason.[431]Washington took the Masonic Order very seriously, but his personal visits to the lodges were sporadic. In 1777 a Virginia motel convention asked him to become Grand Master of the newly formed house.Grand Lodge of Virginia, but he declined because of his obligation to lead the Continental Army. After 1782 he corresponded regularly with the lodges and members of the Freemasons,[432]and he was listed as a master in Virginia’s charterAlexandria Hostel No. 221788.[433]


George Washington and SlaverySlavery in the Colonial United StatesSlavery in the United States

Washington the farmer is shown standing on his plantation talking to an overseer as children play and slaves work. Work is by Junius Stearns.

Washington as a farmer at Mount VernonJunius Brutus Stearns

In Washington’s life was slaverydeeply rootedin the economic and social fabric of Virginia.[434][435]slavery islegal in all thirteen coloniesbefore the American Revolution.[436]

Slaves of Washington

Washington owns and leasesenslaved African American, and during his lifetime more than 577 slaves lived and worked at Mount Vernon.[437][438]He received them by inheritance and gained control of 84grantslaves when he married Martha, and bought at least 71 slaves between 1752 and 1773.[439]From 1786 he rented slaves, and when he died he rented 41 slaves.[440][437]His original views on slavery were no different from Virginia’splanterfrom time.[441]Since the 1760s his attitude has slowly evolved. Initial suspicion was fueled by his conversion from tobacco to grain crops, which left him with an abundance of expensive slaves, leading him to question the economic viability of the system.[442]His growing frustration with the organization was fueled by the principles of the American Revolution and revolutionary friends like Lafayette and Hamilton.[443]Most historians agree that the revolution was central to the development of Washington’s attitude toward slavery;[444]”After 1783,” wrote Kenneth Morgan, “… [Washington] began to express his inner tensions over the slavery question more often, though he always kept a low profile…”[445]

Many contemporary accounts of the treatment of slaves at Mount Vernon are varied and contradictory.[446]Historian Kenneth Morgan (2000) argues that Washington was frugal in spending on clothing and bedding for his slaves, providing them with just enough food, and that he tightly controlled his slaves’ rules and instructed his overseers to work hard from morning . until sunset all year round.[447]However, historian Dorothy Twohig (2001) argues: “Food, clothing and shelter seem to have been at least sufficient”.[448]Washington faced mounting debt related to the cost of supporting slaves. He had a “hard sense of racial superiority” toward African Americans, but had no negative feelings for them.[449]Some slave families worked at different locations on the plantation but were allowed to visit each other on holidays.[450]Washington slaves were given a two-hour meal break during the workday and rested on Sundays and holidays.[451]

Some accounts report that Washington opposed sinking but has sometimes penalized its use, generally as a last resort, on both male and female slaves.[452]Washington used both rewards and punishments to encourage discipline and productivity in his slaves. He sought to appeal to an individual’s pride by giving blankets and better clothing to the “most deserving” and promoting his slaves with monetary rewards. He believes that “care and advice” is often a better deterrent to offenders, but will punish those who “fail to meet their obligations by fair means”. Punishments ranged from dismissal from the field, to flogging and beatings, to permanent separation from friends and family through human trafficking. Historian Ron Chernow argues that guards were required to warn slaves against flogging and to obtain Washington’s written permission before flogging, although his prolonged absence did not always allow for this.[453]Washington remained dependent on slave labor to work its farms, and negotiated the purchase of more slaves in 1786 and 1787.[454]

Runaway advertisement from the May 24, 1796, Pennsylvania Gazette, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

a judge

Washington brought some of his slaves with him to the federal capital during his presidency. When the capital was moved from New York City to Philadelphia in 1791, the President began rotating his slave household regularly between the capital and Mount Vernon. This is done on purpose to breakLaw Abolishing Slavery, partially automatically freed all slaves who moved into the state and lived there longer than six months.[455]May 1796 Martha’s personal and favorite slavea judgeescape toPortsmouth. On Martha’s orders, Washington attempted to capture Ona with a Treasury Department agent, but the attempt was unsuccessful. In February 1797 Washington’s personal slaveHerculesfled to Philadelphia and was never found.[456]

In February 1786, Washington took a census of Mount Vernon and recorded 224 slaves.[457]By 1799 the total number of slaves at Mount Vernon was 317, including 143 children.[458]Washington owned 124 slaves, rented 40 slaves, and kept 153 slaves for his wife.[459]Washington supported many slaves who were either too young or too old to work, greatly increasing Mount Vernon’s slave population and causing the plantation to operate at a loss.[460]

abolition and release

Abolitionism in the United States

Through letters, diaries, documents, and testimonies from colleagues, associates, friends, and visitors, Washington gradually developed a cautious sympathy for him.abolitionismthat finally ended with his willliberate, liberate, liberatehis military/war servantBilly Lee, and freed the rest of his personal slaves shortly after Martha’s death.[461]As president, he remained publicly silent on the issue of slavery, believing it was a national issue that could destroy unions.[462]

During the American Revolutionary War, Washington began to change its views on slavery.[436]In a letter from 1778 onwardsLand Washington, he made clear his desire to “get rid of the blacks” when discussing the exchange of slaves for land he wanted to buy.[463]The following year, Washington announced its intention not to separate slave families because of “changes of ownership.”[464]In the 1780s, Washington privately expressed support for the gradual emancipation of slaves.[465]Between 1783 and 1786 he supported a plan proposed by Lafayette to buy land and free the slaves to implement it, but refused to take part in the experiment.[448]Washington privately expressed support for the emancipation of prominent MethodistsThomas ColaandFrancis Asburyin 1785, but refused to sign her petition.[466]In personal correspondence the following year, he made clear his desire to end slavery through a phased legislative process, a view that correlates with the published mainstream anti-slavery literature in the 1780s that Washington possessed.[467]He greatly reduced his slave purchases after the war, but continued to buy in small quantities.[468]

Tobias Lear

In 1788 Washington declined an offer from a leading French abolitionistJacques Brisot, to start an abolitionist society in Virginia, said that while he supported the idea, the time was not yet right to address the issue.[469]historianHeinrich Wiencek(2003) believes so, based on a comment in his biographer’s notebookDavid Humphreysthat Washington, on the eve of his presidency in 1789, considered making a public statement by freeing his slaves.[470]historianPhilip D Morgan(2005) disagrees, believing the comment to be a “private expression of remorse” for his inability to free his slaves.[471]Other historians agree with Morgan that Washington was determined not to jeopardize national unity over an issue as divisive as slavery.[472]Washington never responded to any anti-slavery petitions it received, and the issue was not mentioned in either his final address to Congress or his farewell address.[473]

The first clear indication that Washington really intended to free his slaves came in a letter to his secretary,Tobias Lear, 1794.[474]Washington instructed Lear to find a buyer for his land in West Virginia, stating in a separate coda that he was doing so “in order to release certain types of property which I own and which are very offensive to emotion. mine”.[475]This plan, along with others contemplated by Washington in 1795 and 1796, failed because he could not find buyers for his lands, because he was unwilling to part with the rule of the slave families, and because the Custis heirs refused to prevent breakups by releasing them. slaves at the same time.[476]

On July 9, 1799, Washington made his final will; longest terms associated with slavery. All his slaves are freed after the death of his wife Martha. Washington said he did not set them free immediately because his slaves had married his wife’s slaves. He forbids the sale or transportation of them out of Virginia. His will was that young and old could be cared for indefinitely; younger children need to be taught to read and write and provided with suitable activities.[477]Washington freed more than 160 slaves, including about 25 slaves he had bought from his wife’s brother.Bartholomew Dandridgewhen paying off a debt.[478]He was one of the few major enslaved Virginians during the Revolutionary era to free their slaves.[479]

On January 1, 1801, a year after George Washington’s death, Martha Washington signed her warrant to free her slaves. Of course, many of those who had never strayed far from Mount Vernon were reluctant to try their luck elsewhere; others who refused to leave their spouse or children were still considered slaves of the dead (Custis estate)[480]and also with or near Martha. According to George Washington’s instructions in his will, the funds were used to feed and clothe young, old, and sick slaves until the early 1830s.[481]

reputation and historical heritage

George Washington’s LegacyCultural description of George WashingtonHistorical ranking of US Presidents

portrait of Washington seated facing left by Gilbert Stuart

Washington, constantGilbert Stuart

Washington’s legacy lives on as one of the most influential in American history since he served as Commander-in-Chief of the United States.Continental Army, a hero ofrevolution, and be the firstPresidents of States. Various historians claim that he was also an important factor in the founding of America,revolutionary war, andConstituent Assembly.[482] revolutionary warcomradesHarry Lee light horse his eulogy”First in war – first in peace – and first in the hearts of his countrymen”.[483]Lee’s words became the imprint on which Washington’s reputation etched itself in American memory, with some biographers seeing him as a great example of republicanism. He set many precedents for national government and especially the presidency, and was known as the “Father of the Country” as early as 1778.[484][t]

In 1879 Congress declaredWashington’s birthdayis a national holiday.[486]20th century biographerDouglas Southall Freemanconcludes: “The great thing that imprints on a man is his character.” Modern historianDavid Hackett Fischerexpanded Freeman’s assessment, defining Washington’s character as having “integrity, self-discipline, courage, absolute honesty, determination, and determination, but also patience, courtesy, and respect for others.”[487]

Washington has become an international symbol of liberation and nationalism as the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire. Thatfederalistmakes him a symbol of her party, howeverJeffersoniansdistrusted its influence for many more years and delayed constructionWashington Monument.[488]Washington was elected a member ofAmerican Academy of Arts and Scienceson January 31, 1781, before assuming his presidency.[489]He was then promoted to the rank of general in the United States ArmyUnited States Bicentennialto ensure he is never overrated; This was achieved by a joint decision of ParliamentPublic Law 94-479Adopted January 19, 1976 and entered into force July 4, 1976.[490][u]On March 13, 1978, Washington was promoted to the military rankGeneral.[493]

Pastor Weemswrote inhagiographicBiography in 1809 in honor of Washington.[494]Historian Ron Chernow argues that Weems attempted to humanize Washington, to make him appear less austere, while inspiring “patriotism and morality” and promoting “enduring myths,” such as Washington’s refusal to account for his father’s damaging of cherry trees lying.[495]Weems’ account has never been proven or disproved.[496]However, historian John Ferling maintains that Washington remains the only founder and president ever considered “divine,” pointing out that his character has come under scrutiny by most historians, past and present.[497]historianGordon S. Woodconcluded that “the greatest act of his life, which brought him the greatest fame, was his resignation as Commander-in-Chief of the American Armed Forces”.[498]Chernow argues that Washington has been “burdened by public life” and divided by “unrecognized ambition mixed with a lack of confidence.”[499]A 1993 review of presidential elections and opinion polls consistently ranked Washington 4th, 3rd, or 3rd. 2 of the Presidents.[500]A year 2018Siena College Research InstitutePoll classified him as a number 1 of the Presidents.[501]

In the 21st century, Washington’s reputation has come under scrutiny. Along with many other Founding Fathers, he was condemned for enslaving people. Although he expressed the wish that the abolition of slavery should be enshrined in law, he did not initiate or support initiatives to end it. This has prompted some activists to call for his name to be removed from public buildings and his statue from public spaces.[502][503]However, Washington still maintains its place among the highest-ranking US presidents, being listed second (behind the US).Lincoln) in 2021C SPANopinion poll.[504]


A dusk picture of the Washington Monument obelisk with flags around the base, in Washington, D.C.

Washington MonumentThe Washington PapersList of monuments to George WashingtonPresident of the United States on a US postage stamp

Jared Sparksbegan collecting and publishing documentary records from Washington in the 1830sThe Life and Writings of George Washington(12 volumes, 1834–1837).[505] Works by George Washington from the original manuscript source, 1745–1799(1931–1944) is a series of 39 volumes, edited byJohn Clemens Fitzpatrick, commissioned by the George Washington Bicentennial Commission. It contains more than 17,000 letters and documents and is available online atUniversity of Virginia.[506]

educational organization

Washington (disambiguation) Education

MuchcollegesNamed in honor of Washington as well as many universities includingGeorge Washington UniversityandWashington University in St. Ludwig.[507][508]

places and monuments

Washington (location) location

Many sites and monuments have been named in honor of Washington, most notably the capital of the United States,Washington, D.C.status ofWashingtonis the only US state named after a president.[509]

Washington appears as one of four US Presidents in a giant statueGutson BorglumAboveMount Rushmorein South Dakota.

currency and postage

President of the United States on a US postage stamp

George Washington appears on contemporary US currency, belowa dollar bill, thatPresidential one dollar coinandQuarter Dollar Cents(thatneighborhood of Washington). Washington andBenjamin Franklinwas watchingThe nation’s first postage stampin 1847. Washington has since appeared to more postal editions than any other.[510]

  • Washington No. 1862
  • Washington Franklin Number 1917
  • Washington Dollar
  • President George Washington’s one dollar coin
  • Washington on a 1928 dollar bill

See more

  • Portal of the American Revolution
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List of Articles by George Washington

  • British Army in the American War of Independence
  • Online Founder
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  • List of Continental Forces of the American Revolutionary War
  • American Revolution timeline



  1. ^
  2. On April 6, Congress counted the Electoral College votes and confirmed a President. Washington was sworn in April 30th. [1]
  3. ^ a b
  4. Contemporary records use the old Julian calendar and Annunciation to list the years and give his date of birth as February 11, 1731. The English Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 was enacted in 1752, changing the official British method of dating to the Gregorian calendar. of the year on January 1st (that is March 25th). These changes caused the date for January 1 through March 25 dates to be moved forward 11 days and a year. See Old and New Data for more explanation. [9]
  5. ^
  6. Washington received his license through the university, whose charter gives him authority to appoint surveyors for the County of Virginia. There is no evidence that he actually took classes there. [23]
  7. ^
  8. Thirty years later, Washington reflects “a man too young and inexperienced to be employed.” [30]
  9. ^
  10. Beginning in the mid-16th century, the word Native American was used to describe the indigenous peoples of the Americas. More modern terms for Native Americans are American Indian and Native American and Native American. [39]
  11. ^
  12. A second Virginia regiment was raised under Colonel William Byrd III and also assigned to the expedition. [55]
  13. ^
  14. Some descendants of West Ford, a slave of John Augustine Washington, claim (based on family oral history) that Ford was the father of George Washington, although historians dispute the grandfather’s paternity. [64] [65]
  15. ^
  16. In a letter dated September 20, 1765, Washington protested “Robert Cary
  17. ^
  18. Historian Garry Wills notes, “Before there was a nation – before there were any symbols of that country (flag, constitution, seal) – there was Washington.” [114]
  19. ^
  20. Congress initially directed the war effort in June 1776 with a committee known as the “War and Armament Board”. This was followed in July 1777 by the court martial, which eventually included members of the army. [124]
  21. ^
  22. This painting has received both acclaim and criticism; [142] see Emanuel Leutze’s article for more details.
  23. ^
  24. Thomas Jefferson commended Washington for “temperance and virtue” in handing over command. King George III praised him for this act. [226]
  25. ^
  26. The Cincinnati Society was founded by Henry Knox in May 1783 to commemorate the Revolutionary War and the founding of a fraternity of officers. The order is named after Cincinnatus, a prominent Roman military leader who resigned his post after his Roman victory at Algidus (458 BC). However, he is wary of some of the Society’s rules, including heritability requirements for membership and receiving funds from foreign interests. [228]
  27. ^
  28. From 1774, 14 men held the position of President of the Continental Congress, but had no relation to the presidency established by Article II of the Constitution. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress designates its chairman as “the President of the United States in the assembled Congress”, but this position has no national executive power. [250]
  29. ^
  30. There has been debate over whether Washington would add “God help me” at the end of the oath. [256]
  31. ^
  32. A modern term for Native Americans is Native American. [39]
  33. ^
  34. The first report of Washington’s death, written by Dr. Craik and Brown, was published in The Times of Alexandria five days after his death on December 19, 1799. 386]
  35. ^
  36. Modern experts have concluded that Washington probably died from acute bacterial epiglottitis complicated by the treatments used, including Morens and Wallenborn in 1999, [388] Cheatham in 1999, 2008, [389] and Vadakan im Year 2005. [390] These treatments include multiple doses of calomel (a bleach or bleach) and extensive blood transfusions.
  37. ^
  38. The Constitution was attacked in Pennsylvania, and Washington wrote to Richard Peters: “It appears from the public press that a minority in your state is preparing for another attack on the government record now announced; how terrible it may be, I don’t know. But Providence has hitherto scoffed at honest efforts for the benefit of a segment of the people of this country, I believe will not withdraw its support during this crisis.”[420]
  39. ^
  40. The earliest known image identifying Washington as the father of his country is on the front page of a 1779 German-language almanac, with calculations by David Rittenhouse and published by Francis Bailey in Lancaster County Pennsylvania. The Gantz New Improved North American Calendar features the Goddess of Glory holding a trumpet to her lips, coupled with an image of Washington and the words “The Country’s Father.” “). [485]
  41. ^
  42. In the portrait photo


  1. ^
  2. Ferling 2009, p. 274; Taylor 2016, pp. 395, 494.
  3. ^
  4. “Key Documents in American History”. web guide. Library of Congress. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  5. ^
  6. “The House of Citizens”. George Washington’s digital encyclopedia. Mount Vernon Ladies Association. Retrieved May 9, 2020. After an unsuccessful bid for a seat in December 1755, he won the 1758 election and represented Frederick County until 1765.
  7. ^
  8. “Appendix V: Frederick County Poll, 1758, July 24, 1758”. National Historical Publication and Records Commission (US National Archives and Records Administration). 1758. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  9. ^ a b
  10. “The House of Citizens”. George Washington’s digital encyclopedia. Mount Vernon Ladies Association. Retrieved May 9, 2020. That year he ran for office in Fairfax County and won a seat which he would hold until 1775…Dunmore did not call the House until June 1775. Adjourned June 24 and never regained a quorum. (enough members for companies).
  11. ^
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